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2.
Am J Disaster Med ; 19(1): 71-77, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597649

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assist governments and organizers of mass gathering events in reviewing existing preventive measures for disease outbreaks to inform the adoption of enhanced strategies for risk reduction and impacts on public health. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, quantitative, descriptive study. SETTING: This study was conducted in a mass gathering of Hajj, an annual religious event in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of 70 personnel working in government ministries of Saudi Arabia (Ministry of Health, Ministry of Hajj, and Ministry of Interior) and the Saudi Red Crescent Authority involved in health management in Hajj, including policy formulation and implementation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Perception and knowledge of health risks and outbreaks associated with Hajj. RESULTS: The majority of the respondents (60 percent) expressed concern about the potential for infection transmission during Hajj. The respondents also reported having or knowing a colleague, a friend, or a family member with a history of infection during or after Hajj. However, the respondents' knowledge of the possible modes of infection of various diseases was limited. CONCLUSIONS: Hajj is associated with various risks of outbreaks, and thus, better protection-enhancing measures are required. Training personnel involved in health management, including planners, coordinators, and healthcare providers, can help reduce the risks and prevent potential outbreaks.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Islamismo , Viagem
3.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299958, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446809

RESUMO

In around 716 AD, the city of Santarém, Portugal, was conquered by the Berber and Arab armies that swept the Iberian Peninsula and went on to rule the region until the 12th century. Archaeological excavations in 2007/08 discovered an Islamic necropolis (Avenida 5 de Outubro #2-8) that appears to contain the remains of an early Muslim population in Santarém (8th- 10th century). In this study, skeletal material from 58 adult individuals was analysed for stable carbon (δ13Ccol; δ13Cap), nitrogen (δ15N) and sulphur (δ34S) isotope ratios in bones, and stable oxygen (δ18O), carbon (δ13Cen) and radiogenic strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotopes in tooth enamel. The results of this study revealed a dietary pattern of predominantly C3-plant and domestic C3-fed herbivore consumption during adulthood (δ13Ccol and δ15N, respectively) but a higher proportion of C4-plant input during childhood (δ13Cen) for some individuals-interpreted as possible childhood consumption of millet porridge, a common practice in North Africa-in those with unorthodox burial types (Groups 1 and 2) that was not practiced in the individuals with canonical burials (Group 3). In this first mobility study of a medieval Muslim population in Portugal, δ18ODW values revealed greater heterogeneity in Groups 1 and 2, consistent with diverse origins, some in more humid regions than Santarém when compared to regional precipitation δ18O data, contrasting the more homogenous Group 3, consistent with the local precipitation δ18O range. Ancient DNA analysis conducted on three individuals revealed maternal (mtDNA) and paternal (Y-chromosome) lineages compatible with a North African origin for (at least) some of the individuals. Additionally, mobility of females in this population was higher than males, potentially resulting from a patrilocal social system, practiced in Berber and Arab communities. These results serve to offer a more detailed insight into the ancestry and cultural practices of early Muslim populations in Iberia.


Assuntos
Islamismo , Isótopos de Estrôncio , Humanos , Adulto , Feminino , Masculino , Portugal , Carbono
4.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0292755, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38457421

RESUMO

The Developing Belief Network is a consortium of researchers studying human development in diverse social-cultural settings, with a focus on the interplay between general cognitive development and culturally specific processes of socialization and cultural transmission in early and middle childhood. The current manuscript describes the study protocol for the network's first wave of data collection, which aims to explore the development and diversity of religious cognition and behavior. This work is guided by three key research questions: (1) How do children represent and reason about religious and supernatural agents? (2) How do children represent and reason about religion as an aspect of social identity? (3) How are religious and supernatural beliefs transmitted within and between generations? The protocol is designed to address these questions via a set of nine tasks for children between the ages of 4 and 10 years, a comprehensive survey completed by their parents/caregivers, and a task designed to elicit conversations between children and caregivers. This study is being conducted in 39 distinct cultural-religious groups (to date), spanning 17 countries and 13 languages. In this manuscript, we provide detailed descriptions of all elements of this study protocol, give a brief overview of the ways in which this protocol has been adapted for use in diverse religious communities, and present the final, English-language study materials for 6 of the 39 cultural-religious groups who are currently being recruited for this study: Protestant Americans, Catholic Americans, American members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Jewish Americans, Muslim Americans, and religiously unaffiliated Americans.


Assuntos
Pais , Religião e Psicologia , Humanos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Islamismo/psicologia , Cognição , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0300257, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although there have been consistent improvements in maternal mortality, it remains high in developing countries due to unequal access to healthcare services during pregnancy and childbirth. Thus, this study aimed to further analyze the variations in the number of antenatal care utilizations and associated factors among pregnant women in urban and rural Ethiopia. METHODS: A total of 3962 pregnant women were included in the analysis of 2019 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey data. A negative binomial Poisson regression statistical model was used to analyze the data using STATA version 14.0. An incident rate ratio with a 95% confidence interval was used to show the significantly associated variables. RESULTS: Of the 3962 (weighted 3916.67) pregnant women, about 155 (15.21%) lived in urban and 848 (29.29%) rural residences and did not use antenatal care services in 2019. Women age group 20-24 (IRR = 1.30, 95%CI:1.05-1.61), 25-29 (IRR = 1.56, 95%CI:1.27-1.92), 30-34 (IRR = 1.65, 95%CI:1.33-2.05), and 35-39 years old (IRR = 1.55, 95%CI:1.18-2.03), attending primary, secondary, and higher education (IRR = 1.18, 95%CI:1.07-1.30), (IRR = 1.26, 95%CI:1.13-1.42) and (IRR = 1.25, 95%CI:1.11-1.41) respectively, reside in middle household wealth (IRR = 1.31, 95%CI:1.13-1.52), richer (IRR = 1.45, 95%CI:1.26-1.66) and richest (IRR = 1.68, 95%CI:1.46-1.93) increases the number of antenatal care utilization among urban residences. While attending primary (IRR = 1.34, 95%CI:1.24-1.45), secondary (IRR = 1.54, 95%CI:1.34-1.76) and higher education (IRR = 1.58, 95%CI:1.28-1.95), following Protestant (IRR = 0.76, 95%CI:0.69-0.83), Muslim (IRR = 0.79, 95%CI:0.73-0.85) and Others (IRR = 0.56, 95%CI:0.43-0.71) religions, reside in poorer, middle, richer, and richest household wealth (IRR = 1.51, 95%CI:1.37-1.67), (IRR = 1.66, 95%CI:1.50-1.83), (IRR = 1.71, 95%CI:1.55-1.91) and (IRR = 1.89, 95%CI:1.72-2.09) respectively, being married and widowed/separated (IRR = 1.85, 95%CI:1.19-2.86), and (IRR = 1.95, 95%CI:1.24-3.07) respectively were significantly associated with the number of antenatal care utilization among rural residences. CONCLUSION: The utilization of antenatal care is low among rural residents than among urban residents. To increase the frequency of antenatal care utilization, health extension workers and supporting actors should give special attention to pregnant women with low socioeconomic and educational levels through a safety-net lens.


Assuntos
Cuidado Pré-Natal , População Rural , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , População Urbana , Parto , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Islamismo , Demografia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde
6.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0293339, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inequalities exist in uptake of bowel cancer screening in England with low uptake in areas with high deprivation and amongst certain ethnic and religious groups. Individuals from these groups are more likely to receive a late diagnosis of bowel cancer. Uptake in Muslim communities, for example, has been shown to be lower than in the general population. Culturally adapted interventions are needed to address these inequalities. This feasibility study aims to assess the acceptability and accessibility of an educational faith-placed bowel cancer screening intervention in the East of England, alongside its impact on bowel screening uptake. It was developed by the British Islamic Medical Association in partnership with community stakeholders and professionals. METHODS: Ethical approval was granted on the 27 October 2021, REC reference number 21/EE/0231. A two-group non-randomised feasibility mixed methods study will be conducted, using surveys, focus groups and semi-structured interviews. Participants eligible for bowel screening will be recruited through local mosques and community venues. We aim to recruit 100 participants to the intervention group and 150 to the comparison group (not receiving the intervention). Intervention group participants will complete a survey at baseline, post-intervention and at six-month follow up. Comparison group participants will complete a survey at baseline and at six-month follow up. Outcomes will include: intention to take up screening; actual screening uptake; knowledge, attitudes, barriers and facilitators towards screening. Regional screening hub records will be used to ascertain actual screening uptake at six-month follow-up. Quantitative survey data will be summarised using descriptive statistics (e.g., proportion), and exploratory univariate analysis will be undertaken (e.g., chi-squared test). Two focus group interviews will be conducted with intervention group participants (with up to 16 participants). Semi-structured interviews will be conducted with 10 clinicians delivering the intervention to explore the acceptability of the intervention, training, and delivery. All qualitative data will be subject to a general inductive analysis. DISCUSSION: The findings will inform how faith-placed interventions can be implemented to increase uptake of bowel cancer screening, and potentially other health promotion programmes, to address health inequalities in ethnically diverse communities in England.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Islamismo , Humanos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Promoção da Saúde , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico
7.
BMC Palliat Care ; 23(1): 63, 2024 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the last decade, there has been a growing concern to make palliative care more culturally sensitive and contextually appropriate. This concern is also relevant in Indonesia, where the progress of palliative care, particularly in home-based care, has been slow. Like elsewhere in the world, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of shifting from a curative orientation towards a palliative one, especially in cases where further medical treatment is futile. In this paper we argue that the development of palliative care practices would benefit greatly from learning about the values that are important for patients, families, and health professionals. It is important to understand these values to support forms of care that aim to enhance quality of life. To demonstrate this, we analyse the care values people in rural Java evoke in their home palliative care practices. METHODS: We conducted an eight-month ethnographic study involving forty-nine patients, families, and health professionals. RESULTS: We identified three specific Javanese Islamic values: making an effort (ikhtiar), being sincere (ikhlas), and being in a state of surrender (pasrah). These values influenced the participants' activities in a palliative care setting. Based on our findings, we suggest three strategies to incorporate these values into palliative care practices and to better facilitate palliative care's integration into Javanese Muslim communities. The first strategy is to include efforts to reduce suffering and improve the quality of life using the concept of ikhtiar. The second strategy is to foster sincerity (ikhlas) to help patients and families accept the realities of their condition and provide care for patients at home. The last strategy is to clarify that palliative care is not synonymous with 'giving up' but can be seen as an act of pious surrender. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified three Islamic-Javanese values that can be incorporated to strategies aiming at enhancing palliative care practices, resulting in care focused on improving quality of life rather than futile attempts at a cure.


Assuntos
Camelus , Cuidados Paliativos , Humanos , Animais , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Indonésia , Islamismo , Qualidade de Vida
8.
J Genet Psychol ; 185(3): 162-166, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38487856

RESUMO

Drawing on the framework of interpersonal acceptance-rejection theory (IPARTheory), this special issue edited by Ronald P. Rohner, Sumbleen Ali, and Jennifer E. Lansford explores forgiveness and vengeance within the context of the Muslim world. Examination of the precursors of forgiveness and vengeance holds significance because vengeance typically correlates with adverse physical and psychological health outcomes. We suggest ways to advance research outlined in the special issue, such as assessing cross-cultural invariance and using diverse research designs. Moreover, increasing the diversity of socioeconomic status in studies conducted in the Muslim world and exploring hypotheses in high-income countries are necessary for contextually nuanced research. Overall, this special issue offers valuable insights into the dynamics of forgiveness and vengeance and highlights the role of culture and gender on psychological well-being across diverse contexts.


Assuntos
Perdão , Humanos , Islamismo , Pais , Pesquisa Empírica , Relações Interpessoais
9.
J Relig Health ; 63(2): 968-984, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38421564

RESUMO

Suicide is a growing global health concern with complex socioeconomic implications. Understanding psychosocial resiliency factors may facilitate suicide prevention. Religious moral objections to suicide, including those inspired by the Islamic faith, appear to promote resilience to suicide. However, few English-language resources provide an overview of Islam's moral and ethical position on suicide, potentially hindering treatment of, and research on, suicide risk among Muslims. In the current paper, Islam's unanimous prohibition of suicide is explored and contextualized within the religion's foundational principles regarding the sanctity of life, the role and necessity of hardships, and one's responsibility to care for their body and to maintain their rights to their community. The role of harsh deterrents to suicide are contrasted with the impetus to show compassion to the deceased and the bereaved. Given the increasing focus on suicide-related topics such as euthanasia/ medical assistance in dying (MAID) and suicide contagion, Islam's ethical and legal position on suicide is discussed in the context of these contemporary moral issues.


Assuntos
Eutanásia , Suicídio , Humanos , Islamismo , Princípios Morais
10.
Theor Med Bioeth ; 45(2): 133-149, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324110

RESUMO

Although Western biomedical ethics emphasizes respect for autonomy, the medical decision-making of Muslim patients interacting with Western healthcare systems is more likely to be motivated by relational ethical and religious commitments that reflect the ideals of equity, reciprocity, and justice. Based on an in-depth cross-cultural comparison of Islamic and Western systems of biomedical ethics and an assessment of conceptual alignments and differences, we argue that, when working with Muslim patients, an ethics of respect extends to facilitating decision-making grounded in the patient's justice-related customs, beliefs, and obligations. We offer an overview of the philosophical contestations of autonomy-enhancing practices from the Islamic tradition of biomedical ethics, and examples that demonstrate a recommended shift of emphasis from an autonomy-centered to a justice-focused approach to culturally competent agency-promotion.


Assuntos
Competência Cultural , Islamismo , Humanos , Atenção à Saúde , Autonomia Pessoal , Justiça Social
11.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 209: 111567, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341039

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate safety and effectiveness of iGlarLixi in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) observing fast during Ramadan from Gulf countries. METHODS: This planned subgroup analysis of the SoliRam - a multinational, prospective, non-interventional, real-world, observational study - focused on participants from Gulf countries. Primary endpoint was proportion of participants experiencing ≥1 episode of severe and/or symptomatic documented (<70 mg/dL [<3.9 mmol/L]) hypoglycemia. RESULTS: A total of 241 individuals with T2DM (mean age: 58.1 years; male: 54.4%; mean duration of diabetes: 13.3 years) were included. All 234 eligible participants followed during Ramadan were able to fast for ≥25 days and no participants broke fast due to hypoglycemia. Primary endpoint was reported in one participant (0.5%) during fasting hours during Ramadan. Improvements (mean ± SD change) in HbA1c (-1.0 ± 1.0% [-11 ± 10 mmol/mol]), FPG (-22.5 ± 29.7 mg/dL), and body weight (-1.5 ± 2.0 kg) were observed from pre-Ramadan to post-Ramadan. Three participants (1.2 %) reported an adverse event (AE) of any cause and one (0.4%) reported a gastrointestinal AE. CONCLUSIONS: iGlarLixi is an effective and well-tolerated treatment in people with T2DM from Gulf countries, including during Ramadan fasting, and is associated with low risk of hypoglycemia.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipoglicemia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Jejum/efeitos adversos , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Islamismo , Glicemia
12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 119(4): 1007-1014, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The dramatic change in lifestyle associated with Ramadan fasting raises questions about its effect on metabolism and health. Metabolites, as the end product of metabolism, are excellent candidates to be studied in this regard. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the effect of Ramadan fasting on the metabolic profile and risk of chronic diseases. METHODS: The London Ramadan study (LORANS) is an observational study in which 2 blood samples were collected from 72 participants a few days before and after the fasting month of Ramadan. We conducted metabolomic profiling using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess the change in individual metabolites from before to after Ramadan. Also, we generated metabolic scores (scaled from 0 to 100) for 7 chronic diseases in the UK Biobank and assessed the association of Ramadan fasting with these scores in LORANS. RESULTS: Of the 72 participants, 35 were male (48.6%); the mean (± standard deviation) age was 45.7 (±16) y. Ramadan fasting was associated with changes in 14 metabolites (1 inflammation marker, 1 amino acid, 2 glycolysis-related metabolites, 2 ketone bodies, 2 triglyceride, and 6 lipoprotein subclasses), independent of changes in body composition. Using data from 117,981 participants in the UK Biobank, we generated metabolic scores for diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, renal failure, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and lung cancer. The metabolic scores for lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and breast cancer were lower after Ramadan in LORANS (-4.74, 9.6%, 95% confidence interval -6.56, -2.91, P < 0.001), (-1.09, -2.4%, -1.69, -0. 50, P < 0.001), and (-0.48, -1.1%, -0. 81, -0.15, P = 0.006), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Ramadan fasting is associated with short-term favorable changes in the metabolic profile concerning risk of some chronic diseases. These findings should be further investigated in future, larger studies of longer follow-up with clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Diabetes Mellitus , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Islamismo , Jejum , Doença Crônica
13.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 66(1): e1-e6, 2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299530

RESUMO

Muslims constitute approximately 20% of the world's population. In South Africa, Muslims constitute just under 2% of the total population. Fasting is one of the mandatory activities of adherents of the Islamic faith, where all healthy adult Muslims abstain from food, drink, and sexual activities between dawn and dusk during the month of Ramadhan. Medical doctors are frequently required to provide advice to their Muslim patients about the safety or other health impacts of this type of fasting. This narrative review provides an overview of research conducted on Muslim populations during the fasting period, with special reference to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) that are prevalent in the Muslim community. In the absence of evidence-based clinical guidelines, this article summarises the latest published research on this topic, providing a resource for clinicians and researchers. This paper provides an evidence summary to clinicians when engaging with their patients who may be engaging in Ramadhan fasting, while also identifying gaps in the body of evidence that could inform future research.


Assuntos
Jejum , Islamismo , Adulto , Humanos , Doença Crônica , África do Sul/epidemiologia
14.
BMJ Open ; 14(2): e077955, 2024 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326243

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sexually diverse Muslim men are seen to be at a higher risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections due to their limited access to sexual healthcare services. We outline a protocol to conduct a scoping review of research on the barriers that may impede these men's access to sexual healthcare. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: To conduct this scoping review, we will follow the methodological framework developed by Arksey and O'Malley and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses' extension for scoping reviews. To classify the barriers to sexual healthcare, we will employ Bronfenbrenner's socioecological model as a conceptual framework. We will conduct a literature search via Medline, Embase and Global Health (OVID); Scopus; CINAHL on EBSCOhost along with several other EBSCOhost databases (Academic Search Complete, Canadian Reference Centre, Alternative Press Index, Family & Society Studies Worldwide, Social Work Abstracts) and Google Scholar, published until November 2023. Journal articles, published in the English language, describing quantitative and qualitative research on sexual healthcare access barriers for sexually diverse Muslim men will be included in the review. Commentaries and correspondences, along with grey literature including research reports and conference abstracts, as well as studies that do not include men with the Muslim faith, will be considered ineligible. Following screening of titles and abstracts, we will conduct a full-text screening to determine the final number of studies to be included in the review. A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet will be used to extract study characteristics, and information on sexual healthcare access barriers will be classified according to the socioecological model's core concepts. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Our review does not require ethics approval. We will disseminate the review findings through peer-reviewed academic journals, seminars and conference presentations.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Islamismo , Humanos , Masculino , Canadá , Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4189, 2024 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38378810

RESUMO

Hindus and Muslims represent the two largest religions in India, and also differ in nutritional status, health-related habits and standard of living associated with economic disparities. In this context, the present study considered estimated secular changes in body size, proportions, and weight status among Hindu and Muslim Indian men. The data are from anthropological surveys in the 1970s which included measurements of height, weight and sitting height of 43,950 males 18-84 years (birth years 1891-1957). Leg length was estimated; the BMI and sitting height/height ratio were calculated. Heights of men 35 + years were adjusted for estimated height loss with age. Weight status was also classified relative to WHO criteria for the BMI. Anthropometric characteristics of the two groups were compared with MANCOVA with age and geographic region as covariates. Linear regression of height on year of birth was also used to estimate secular change in each group. Heights, weights, and BMIs tended to be, on average, greater among Muslim than Hindu men at most ages, while distributions by weight status between groups were negligible. Sitting height was greater among Muslim men but estimated leg length did not differ between groups; the sitting height/height ratio thus suggested proportionally shorter legs among Muslim men. Results of the regression analyses indicated negligible differences in secular change between groups across the total span of birth years but indicated a decline in adjusted heights of men in both groups born between 1891 through 1930s and little secular change among those born in the 1930s through 1957. The variation in heights, weights and BMIs between Muslim and Hindu men at most ages suggested variation in socio-economic status and dietary habits between the groups, whereas the negligible estimated secular changes in height between groups likely reflected economic, social, and nutritional conditions during the interval of British rule and the transition to independence.


Assuntos
Islamismo , Classe Social , Masculino , Humanos , Tamanho Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estado Nutricional , Estatura , Peso Corporal
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(8): e2317704121, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346203

RESUMO

While modern family-related ideas and behaviors have become more widely accepted in contemporary China, Chinese Muslim minorities continue to hold on to traditional religious practices. Surprisingly, data from our survey conducted in Gansu province in China's northwestern borderlands reveal that Muslims of the Hui and Dongxiang ethnicities reported much higher rates of cohabitation experience than the secular majority Han. Based on follow-up qualitative interviews, we found the answer to lie in the interplay between the highly interventionist Chinese state and the robust cultural resilience of local Islamic communities. While the state maintains a high minimum legal age of marriage, the early marriage norm remains strong in Chinese Muslim communities, where religion constitutes an alternative and often more powerful source of legitimacy-at least in the private sphere of life. Using the 2000 census data, we further show that women in almost all 10 Muslim ethnic groups have higher percentages of underage births and premarital births than Han women, both nationally and in the northwest where most Chinese Muslims live. As the once-outlawed behavior of cohabitation became more socially acceptable during the reform and opening-up era, young Muslim Chinese often found themselves in "arranged cohabitations" as de facto marriages formed at younger-than-legal ages. In doing so, Chinese Muslim communities have reinvented the meaning of cohabitation. Rather than liberal intimate relationship based on individual autonomy, cohabitation has served as a coping strategy by which Islamic patriarchs circumvent the Chinese state's aggressive regulations aimed at "modernizing" the Muslim family.


Assuntos
Povo Asiático , Cultura , Islamismo , Casamento , Feminino , Humanos , Povo Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Etnicidade , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Casamento/etnologia , Casamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 67(4): e299-e312, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38218412

RESUMO

CONTEXT: As Muslim populations in non-Muslim majority nations grow and age, they will increasingly require culturally appropriate healthcare. Delivering such care requires understanding their experiences with, as well as preferences regarding, end-of-life healthcare. OBJECTIVES: To examine the experiences, needs, and challenges of Muslim patients and caregivers with end-of-life, hospice, and palliative care. METHODS: A systematic literature review using five databases (MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane Library) and key terms related to Islam and end-of-life healthcare. Papers were limited to English-language empirical studies of adults in non-Muslim majority nations. After removing duplicates, titles, abstracts, and articles were screened for quality and reviewed by a multidisciplinary team. RESULTS: From an initial list of 1867 articles, 29 articles met all inclusion criteria. Most studies focused on end-of-life healthcare not related to palliative or hospice services and examined Muslim patient and caregiver experiences rather than their needs or challenges. Content analysis revealed three themes: (1) the role of family in caregiving as a moral duty and as surrogate communicators; (2) gaps in knowledge among providers related to Muslim needs and gaps in patient/family knowledge about advance care planning; and (3) the influence of Islam on Muslim physicians' perspectives and practices. CONCLUSION: There is scant research on Muslim patients' and caregivers' engagement with end-of-life healthcare in non-Muslim majority nations. Existing research documents knowledge gaps impeding both Muslim patient engagement with end-of-life care and the delivery of culturally appropriate healthcare.


Assuntos
Islamismo , Assistência Terminal , Adulto , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos , Atenção à Saúde , Morte
18.
J Relig Health ; 63(2): 954-967, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38198108

RESUMO

For over 70 years, studies have reported lower rates of completed suicide in Muslim-majority countries and individuals who identify as Muslim. To this point, the mechanisms underlying the relationship between Islam and lower risk of suicide remain understudied. In an effort to advance our understanding, we convened a bilingual international interdisciplinary panel of experts for a discussion of the current state and future directions of the field. In this paper, we present an exploratory qualitative analysis of the core themes that emerged from the group interviews. We also derive a general theoretical model of the association between Islam and suicide risk.


Assuntos
Islamismo , Suicídio , Humanos
19.
J Relig Health ; 63(2): 985-1001, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38245908

RESUMO

Suicide is a critical public health issue in the United States, recognized as the tenth leading cause of death across all age groups (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020). Despite the Islamic prohibition on suicide, suicidal ideation and suicide mortality persist among Muslim populations. Recent data suggest that U.S. Muslim adults are particularly vulnerable, with a higher attempt history compared to respondents from other faith traditions. While the underlying reasons for this vulnerability are unclear, it is evident that culturally and religiously congruent mental health services can be utilized to steer suicide prevention, intervention, and postvention in Muslim communities across the United States. However, the development of Suicide Response toolkits specific to Muslim populations is currently limited. As a result, Muslim communities lack a detailed framework to appropriately respond in the event of a suicide tragedy. This paper aims to fill this gap in the literature by providing structured guidelines for the formation of a Crisis Response Team (CRT) through an Islamic lens. The CRT comprises of a group of individuals who are strategically positioned to respond to a suicide tragedy. Ideally, the team will include religious leaders, mental health professionals, healthcare providers, social workers, and community leaders. The proposed guidelines are designed to be culturally and religiously congruent and take into account the unique cultural and religious factors that influence Muslim communities' responses to suicide. By equipping key personnel in Muslim communities with the resources to intervene in an emergent situation, provide support to those affected, and mobilize community members to assist in prevention efforts, this model can help save lives and prevent future suicide tragedies in Muslim communities across the United States.


Assuntos
Islamismo , Suicídio , Adulto , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Islamismo/psicologia , Suicídio/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Prevenção ao Suicídio , Saúde Pública
20.
J Relig Health ; 63(2): 1642-1660, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38253751

RESUMO

Apeiroanxiety is a fear of infinity. Some people may experience anxiety or discomfort when contemplating the vastness or endless nature of certain concepts, such as time or space. Addressing any form of anxiety is important as it can impact an individual's daily functioning, wellbeing, and quality of life. The current study is aimed at developing a reliable and valid measure of apeiroanxiety in the context of the afterlife for the Pakistani Muslim population. The research had three studies: Query Study I generated an item pool of 18 items based on a literature review, semi-structured interviews, and expert opinion. This item pool was administered to a convenient sample of Pakistani Muslim participants (n = 1277). As a result of exploratory factor analysis, a uni-dimensional factor solution with five items was yielded (α = 0.90). Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the obtained uni-dimensional factor solution in study II of the research with an excellent model fit. In study III, the convergent and discriminant validity of the scale was established on a separate independent sample (n = 485). Results yielded evidence of convergent validity as negative afterlife belief and rumination had a positive correlation with apeiroanxiety. The discriminant validity was established by a non-significant relationship between positive afterlife belief and apeiroanxiety. Moreover, the limitations, suggestions, and implications of the study are discussed.


Assuntos
Islamismo , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Paquistão , Psicometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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