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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(13): 3539-3547, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35850807

RESUMO

This study established an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) method to analyze the main components in different varieties of Xihuangcao and established a UPLC-DAD method to simultaneously determine the five active components(caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, schaftoside, isoschaftoside, and oridonin).The chromatographic separation was performed on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 µm) with a gradient elution of methanol(B)-water containing 0.1% formic acid(A) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL·min~(-1).The column temperature was 30 ℃.The Q-TOF-MS discriminant analysis was performed under positive electrospray ion mode and the split ratio was 1∶1. Quantitative analysis was carried out by UPLC-DAD.The determination wavelength was set at 245 nm.Thirty-two main components of Xihuangcao were separated and identified by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, where 19 were identified in Rabdosia serra, nine in R.nervosa, 10 in R.lophanthoides, 15 in R.lophanthoides var.graciliflora, 10 in R.lophanthoides var.gerardianus, and seven in R.stracheyi.The UPLC-DVD method was developed for simultaneously determining five active components in different varieties of Xihuangcao.The standard curves for five compounds showed good linearity with correlation coefficients higher than 0.999 0.The precision, repeatability, and stability were good.The average recoveries(n=6) were between 97.01% and 102.7% with RSD<3.0%.The results of UPLC-Q-TOF-MS analysis provided a scientific basis for the use of R.stracheyi as a medicinal material of Xihuangcao and the equivalent use of R.lophanthoides var.gerardianus with R.lophanthoides var.graciliflora to some extent.The UPLC-DAD method for simultaneously determining five active components is simple, rapid, and accurate.This study can provide the basis for the quality control of different varieties of Xihuangcao.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Isodon , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
2.
Molecules ; 27(10)2022 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35630575

RESUMO

Three isopimarane diterpenes [fladins B (1), C (2), and D (3)] were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Chinese folk medicine, Isodon flavidus. The chemical structures were determined by the analysis of the comprehensive spectroscopic data, and the absolute configuration was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The structures of 1-3 were formed from isopimaranes through the rearrangement of ring A by the bond break at C-3 and C-4 to form a new δ-lactone ring system between C-3 and C-9. This structure type represents the first discovery of a natural isopimarane diterpene with an unusual lactone moiety at C-9 and C-10. In the crystal of 1, molecules are linked to each other by intermolecular O-H···O bonds, forming chains along the b axis. Compounds 1-3 were evaluated for their bioactivities against different diseases. None of these compounds displayed cytotoxic activities against HCT116 and A549 cancer cell lines, antifungal activities against Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes, or antiviral activities against HIV entry at 20 µg/mL (62.9-66.7) µM. Compounds 1 and 3 did not show antiviral activities against Ebola entry at 20 µg/mL either; only 2 was found to show an 81% inhibitory effect against Ebola entry activity at 20 µg/mL (66.7 µM). The bioactivity evidence suggested that this type of compound could be a valuable antiviral lead for further structure modification to improve the antiviral potential.


Assuntos
Diterpenos , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola , Isodon , Abietanos/análise , Abietanos/farmacologia , Antivirais/análise , Diterpenos/química , Isodon/química , Lactonas/análise , Folhas de Planta/química
3.
Bioorg Chem ; 124: 105811, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35452916

RESUMO

Twelve new diterpenoids, isoresbins A-L (1-12), together with twenty-eight known ones, were isolated from the aerial parts of Isodon oresbius. Their diverse structures included 6,7-seco-ent-kaurane, 7,20-epoxy-ent-kaurane, 6,7:8,15-diseco-ent-kaurane, and abietanes skeletons, which were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and quantum chemical calculation. Isoresbins A (1) and B (2) possessed a new rearranged 15(8 â†’ 11)-abeo-6,7-seco-ent-kaurane skeleton. 1 and 5 promoted lysosomal function, which was evaluated by LysoTracker Red staining and DQ-ovalbumin dequenching assay. 1 showed cytotoxicity against six human tumor cell lines with IC50 values in 2.07-4.04 µM range. Moreover, 1 induced damage of mitochondrial membrane potential, G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in SW480 cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano , Diterpenos , Isodon , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano/química , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano/farmacologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Isodon/química , Estrutura Molecular
4.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266546, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35385539

RESUMO

Isodon rubescens (Hemsley) H. Hara (Lamiaceae) is a traditional Chinese medicine plant that has been used to treat various human diseases and conditions such as inflammation, respiratory and gastrointestinal bacterial infections, and malignant tumors. However, the contents of the main active components of I. rubescens from different origins differ significantly, which greatly affected its quality. Therefore, a molecular method to identify and classify I. rubescens is needed. Here, we report the DNA sequence of the chloroplast genome of I. rubescens collected from Lushan, Henan province. The genome is 152,642 bp in length and has a conserved structure that includes a pair of IR regions (25,726 bp), a LSC region (83,527 bp) and a SSC region (17,663 bp). The chloroplast genome contains 113 unique genes, four rRNA genes, 30 tRNA genes, and 79 protein-coding genes, 23 of which contain introns. The protein-coding genes account for a total of 24,412 codons, and most of them are A/T biased usage. We identified 32 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 48 long repeats. Furthermore, we developed valuable chloroplast molecular resources by comparing chloroplast genomes from three Isodon species, and both mVISTA and DnaSP analyses showed that rps16-trnQ, trnS-trnG, and ndhC-trnM are candidate regions that will allow the identification of intraspecific differences within I. rubescens. Also 14 candidate fragments can be used to identify interspecific differences between species in Isodon. A phylogenetic analysis of the complete chloroplast genomes of 24 species in subfamily Nepetoideae was performed using the maximum likelihood method, and shows that I. rubescens clustered closer to I. serra than I. lophanthoides. Interestingly, our analysis showed that I. rubescens (MW018469.1) from Xianyang, Shaanxi Province (IR-X), is closer to I. serra than to the other two I. rubescens accessions. These results strongly indicate that intraspecific diversity is present in I. rubescens. Therefore, our results provide further insight into the phylogenetic relationships and interspecific diversity of species in the genus Isodon.


Assuntos
Genoma de Cloroplastos , Isodon , Plantas Medicinais , Humanos , Isodon/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Filogenia , Plantas Medicinais/genética
5.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 6324292, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35251480

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer is one of the fatal gynecological cancers around the world. Cisplatin is the first-line chemotherapy drug for the clinical treatment of ovarian cancer. However, many patients with ovarian cancer are still suffering from resistance to cisplatin. Therefore, the new drug combinations or treatment strategies for ovarian cancer are urgently needed. Glaucocalyxin B (GLB), a diterpenoid isolated from the aerial parts of Rabdosia japonica, has shown antitumor activity in some tumors. However, the mechanisms by which GLB inhibits ovarian cancer remain unclear. In the present study, we showed that GLB potently inhibits ovarian cancer cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that GLB has a notably synergistic antitumor effect with cisplatin. Mechanistically, we found that GLB enhances the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin via increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and DNA damage. Interestingly, a synergistic inhibitory effect of GLB with cisplatin was also observed in the cells which were resistance to cisplatin. Together, these data suggest that GLB can sensitize ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin by increasing ROS levels.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Isodon/química , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
6.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35164121

RESUMO

Due to the remarkable anti-tumor activities of oridonin (Ori), research on Rabdosia rubescens has attracted more and more attention in the pharmaceutical field. The purpose of this study was to extract Ori from R. rubescens by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and prepare Ori liposomes as a novel delivery system to improve the bioavailability and biocompatibility. Response surface methodology (RSM), namely Box-Behnken design (BBD), was applied to optimize extraction conditions, formulation, and preparation process. The results demonstrated that the optimal extraction conditions were an ethanol concentration of 75.9%, an extraction time of 35.7 min, and a solid/liquid ratio of 1:32.6. Under these optimal conditions, the extraction yield of Ori was 4.23 mg/g, which was well matched with the predicted value (4.28 mg/g). The optimal preparation conditions of Ori liposomes by RSM, with an ultrasonic time of 41.1 min, a soybean phospholipids/drug ratio of 9.6 g/g, and a water bath temperature of 53.4 °C, had higher encapsulation efficiency (84.1%). The characterization studies indicated that Ori liposomes had well-dispersible spherical shapes and uniform sizes with a particle size of 137.7 nm, a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.216, and zeta potential of -24.0 mV. In addition, Ori liposomes presented better activity than free Ori. Therefore, the results indicated that Ori liposomes could enhance the bioactivity of Ori, being proposed as a promising vehicle for drug delivery.


Assuntos
Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano , Isodon/química , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano/química , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano/farmacocinética , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano/farmacologia , Humanos , Lipossomos , Células MCF-7 , Tamanho da Partícula
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(2): 433-436, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35178986

RESUMO

The genus Rabdosia is famous for the abundance of diverse and novel ent-kaurane diterpenoids. However, only a few ent-kauranoids have been discovered from R. flexicaulis since the investigation on its chemical constituents is not systematic. To find novel bioactive diterpenoids, the ethyl acetate extract of the above ground part of R. flexicaulis in Daofu County, Sichuan Province was obtained by column chromatography. One new compound and five known ones were identified as flexicaulin E(1), forrestin B(2), inf-lexarabdonin D(3), 7α-hydroxydehydroabietic acid(4), 15-hydroxydehydroabietic acid(5), and pomiferin F(6) by spectral techniques. Compounds 1-3 were the ent-kaurane diterpenoids isolated from this species for the first time. Compounds 4-6, aromatic abie-tanoids, were isolated from the genus Rabdosia for the first time.


Assuntos
Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano , Diterpenos , Isodon , Isodon/química , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química
8.
Fitoterapia ; 158: 105160, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35182695

RESUMO

Isogeopyxins A-C (1-3), three new diterpenoids with ent-kaurane, ent-pimarane, and ent-abietane scaffolds, respectively, along with six known ent-kauranoids, were isolated from the fermentation culture of Geopyxis sp. XY93 inhabiting the leaves of Isodon parvifolia. Their structures were elucidated by interpretation of spectroscopic data, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. It marks the first time that ent-kauranoids, characteristic metabolites of Isodon species, have been isolated from an associated endophytic fungus.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos , Ascomicetos , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano , Diterpenos , Isodon , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Isodon/química , Estrutura Molecular
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 290: 115100, 2022 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35151835

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The natural extract glaucocalyxin A (GLA), purified from the aboveground sections of the Chinese traditional medicinal herb Rabdosia japonica (Burm. f.) Hara var. glaucocalyx (Maxim.) Hara, has various pharmacological benefits, such as anti-bacterial, anti-coagulative, anti-neoplastic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Although GLA has shown anti-tumor activity against various cancers, the therapeutic potential and biological mechanisms of GLA remain to be further explored in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to elucidate the therapeutic potential and regulatory mechanisms of GLA in OSCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cell proliferation and apoptosis effects of GLA were analyzed by CCK-8, clone formation, Annexin V/PI staining, and apoptotic protein expression in vitro. An OSCC xenograft model was applied to confirm the anti-neoplastic effect in vivo. Furthermore, the changes of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined by DCFH-DA probe and GSH/GSSG assay, and inhibited by the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD(OMe)-FMK and the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC). The modulation of GLA on mitochondria and ER-dependent apoptosis pathways was analyzed by JC-1 probe, quantitative real-time PCR, and Western blot. Finally, public databases, clinical samples, and transfection cells were analyzed to explore the importance of GLA's indirect targeting molecule CHAC1 in OSCC. RESULTS: GLA significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. GLA perturbed the redox homeostasis, and cell apoptosis was totally rescued by Z-VAD(OMe)-FMK and NAC. Furthermore, GLA activated the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Simultaneously, the overexpression and knockdown of CHAC1 dramatically affected GLA-mediated apoptosis. The endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated ATF4/CHOP signal was identified to participate in GLA-upregulated CHAC1 expression. Finally, we found that CHAC1 expression was lower in OSCC compared with normal tissues and positively correlated with 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) level. High CHAC1 expression also indicated better overall survival. Moreover, CHAC1 selectively regulated the viability of oral cancer cells. CONCLUSION: GLA is a promising therapeutic agent that activates the ROS-mediated ATF4/CHOP/CHAC1 axis in OSCC patients.


Assuntos
Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano/farmacologia , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Fator de Transcrição CHOP/efeitos dos fármacos , gama-Glutamilciclotransferase/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Isodon , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
10.
Phytochem Anal ; 33(4): 517-532, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35144310

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The diterpenoids are the most important active constituents that contribute to the pharmacological efficacy of Isodon serra (Maxim.) Hara. Clinical studies have revealed that diterpenoids possess multiple features, e.g. antitumour, antitubercular and anti-ischemic activities. Therefore, the identification and detection of diterpenoids may be equally important for understanding the pharmacological basis of diterpenoids and enhancing the product quality control of I. serra. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to develop a practical analysis approach of rapid characterisation using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) for the structure characterisation of the ent-kaurane diterpenoids from I. serra. METHODOLOGY: The analytical strategy was as follows: first, ent-kaurane diterpenoids were detected by a novel on-line data acquisition approach, i.e. sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH). Second, the MS of eight ent-kaurane diterpenoids was explored, and their mass spectrum cleavage pathways were summarised and determined. Finally, the methanol extract of I. serra was studied using SWATH and identified by extracted ion chromatography (XIC). RESULTS: Compared to the traditional information-dependent acquisition (IDA) method, SWATH significantly improved the hit rate of ent-kaurane diterpenoids. With support from UHPLC separation and specific detection by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), 48 ent-kaurane diterpenoids were successfully characterised and classified as ent-kaurane diterpenoids from a complex matrix. CONCLUSIONS: These combined qualitative methods were used to provide a potential approach for the characterisation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and its preparations. Meanwhile, the SWATH provided a novel and reliable method for the structural characterisation of ent-kaurane diterpenoids from other complicated TCMs.


Assuntos
Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano , Diterpenos , Isodon , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Diterpenos/análise , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano/análise , Isodon/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
11.
Nat Prod Res ; 36(8): 2021-2027, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131334

RESUMO

Two new compounds (1 and 2), belonging to C-20 oxygenated ent-kauranes-type diterpenoids, were identified from the aerial parts of Isodon serra. Their structures were elucidated by extensive analysis of HRESI-MS and NMR spectroscopic data. Both these two compounds possess a common 7,20-epoxy-ent-kauranes skeleton with a hydroxyl group rarely occurring at C-13. Compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against Hela-60 and HepG2 as well as the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano , Diterpenos , Isodon , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Diterpenos/análise , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano/química , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Isodon/química , Estrutura Molecular , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química
12.
Pharmacol Rep ; 74(1): 248-256, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Doxorubicin is the chemotherapeutic drug of choice in osteosarcoma treatment, but its cumulative administration causes dilated cardiomyopathy. Combination therapy represents a potential strategy to reduce the therapeutic dosage of the chemotherapeutic agent and minimize its side effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of oridonin, a natural product from the medicinal herb Rabdosia rubescens, to act in combination with doxorubicin for osteosarcoma treatment. To date, there are no reports of the simultaneous administration of both drugs in osteosarcoma therapy. METHODS: The combined administration of different doses of oridonin and doxorubicin, as compared with the drugs alone, were tested in an in vitro model of osteosarcoma. The synergistic effect of the drugs on cell death was assessed by alamarBlue™ and by CompuSyn software. Early and late apoptosis markers (JC-1 fluorescence and Annexin V immunofluorescence), as well as the production of reactive oxygen species, were evaluated by flow cytometry. Western blot was used to assess the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. RESULTS: Oridonin and doxorubicin presented a synergistic cytotoxic effect in osteosarcoma cells. In the presence of sub-cytotoxic concentrations of the natural product, there was an increased accumulation of intracellular doxorubicin, increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), alteration of mitochondria membrane potential and a higher rate of apoptosis. CONCLUSION: The combined use of oridonin and doxorubicin could help to reduce the clinical dosage of doxorubicin and its dangerous side effects.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano/farmacologia , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Isodon , Osteossarcoma , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/induzido quimicamente , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/prevenção & controle , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Osteossarcoma/metabolismo , Osteossarcoma/patologia
13.
Phytomedicine ; 91: 153683, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rabdosia Serra, the dried aerial parts of Rabdosia serra (Maxim.) Hara (RS) from the Labiatae family, is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine called Xihuangcao. Although RS has been found to exert a therapeutic effect on cholestasis, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. PURPOSE: This study was designed to investigate the pharmacological effect and mechanism of RS on cholestatic rats using metabolomics platform. METHODS: Histopathology and biochemical evaluations were performed to determine the therapeutic effect of RS and developed a rapid metabolite detection technology method based on UPLC-MS/MS to perform metabolomics research. Further, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to study the effect of RS on the bile acid metabolism pathway at the transcriptional level. RESULTS: RS significantly reduced the bile flow rates in cholestatic rats and decreased the levels of ALT, AST, TBA, T-BIL, and LDH, which were increased in the model group. Histological analysis showed that RS alleviated the liver injury induced by ANIT. Serum metabolomics results revealed 33 of the 37 biomarkers were found to be significantly altered by ANIT, and 26 were considerably changed following treatment with RS. Metabolic pathway analysis revealed four pathways such as primary bile acid biosynthesis, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, and arachidonic acid and tryptophan metabolism. The bile acid secretion process and the inflammation and oxidative stress processes are the major biochemical reactions following treatment with ANIT and RS. Bile acid-targeted metabolomics study showed that TCA, GCA, GCDCA, and GDCA might be sensitive biomarkers that induced liver injury. we found that treatment with RS regulated the levels of bile acid in the serum and liver and restored the proportion of bile acids, especially CA and conjugated bile acids, such as TCA and GCA, in the bile duct. RS increased the mRNA expression levels of FXR, SHP, BSEP, and MRP2 in livers, and IBABP, OST-α, and OST-ß in the ileum. CONCLUSION: In this study, RS was found to protect the liver by regulating multiple metabolic pathways and promoting the excretion of bile acids. Simultaneously, RS played an essential role in reversing the imbalance of bile acids and protected against cholestasis by regulating the expression of transporters associated with bile acids. We demonstrated the correlation between molecular mechanisms and metabolites, provide a reference for the fabrication of extracts that can be used to treat cholestasis.


Assuntos
Colestase , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Isodon , Metabolômica , 1-Naftilisotiocianato , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Colestase/induzido quimicamente , Colestase/tratamento farmacológico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Isodon/química , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
14.
Phytother Res ; 35(10): 5720-5733, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411362

RESUMO

Tumor resistance is the main cause of treatment failure and is associated with many tumor factors. Jaridon 6, a new diterpene extracted from Rabdosia rubescens (Hemsl.) Hara, which has been previously extracted by our research team, has been tested having more obvious advantages in resistant tumor cells. However, its mechanism is unclear. In this study, we studied the effect and the specific mechanism of Jaridon 6 in resistant gastric cancer cells. Cytotoxicity test, colony test, western blotting, and nude test verified the anti-drug resistance ability of Jaridon 6 in the MGC803/PTX and MGC803/5-Fu cells. Jaridon 6 has shown obvious inhibitory effects in the sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) enzyme test. Transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence tests further proved the autophagic action of Jaridon 6. Jaridon 6 could inhibit the proliferation of the resistant gastric cancer cell in vivo and in vitro. Jaridon 6 inhibited SIRT1 enzyme and induced autophagy by inhibiting the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) pathway. Thus, it may be considered for treating gastric cancer resistance by individual or combined administration, as an SIRT1 inhibitor and autophagy inducer.


Assuntos
Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano , Isodon , Neoplasias Gástricas , Apoptose , Autofagia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Sirtuína 1 , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202760

RESUMO

A phytochemical investigation of the leaves of the medicinal plant Isodon rubescens led to the isolation of the two new degraded abietane lactone diterpenoids rubesanolides F (1) and G (2). Their structures were elucidated based on the analyses of the HRESIMS and 1D/2D NMR spectral data, and their absolute configurations were determined by ECD spectrum calculations and X-ray single crystal diffraction methods. Compounds 1 and 2, with a unique γ-lactone subgroup between C-8 and C-20, were found to form a carbonyl carbon at C-13 by removal of the isopropyl group in an abietane diterpene skeleton. Rubesanolide G (2) is a rare case of abietane that possesses a cis-fused configuration between rings B and C. The two isolates were evaluated for their biological activities against two cancer cell lines (A549 and HL60), three fungal strains (Candida alba, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus nigricans) and three bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis).


Assuntos
Abietanos , Anti-Infecciosos , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Isodon/química , Lactonas , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Folhas de Planta/química , Células A549 , Abietanos/química , Abietanos/isolamento & purificação , Abietanos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Lactonas/química , Lactonas/isolamento & purificação , Lactonas/farmacologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia
16.
Anal Biochem ; 629: 114297, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217704

RESUMO

Genuine regional drugs have played a vital role in clinical use for a long time. There are differences in traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) from different regions based on their chemical composition. Differences in chemical composition may lead to deviations in therapeutic effects. To our knowledge, to date, there are no effective methods for distinguishing genuine regional drugs based on the differences in their chemical composition. Therefore, establishing an analytical platform for distinguishing the compounds used in TCM from various geographical locations is essential. In this work, an integrated platform based on UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS combined with plant metabolomics approach was established for comprehensively distinguishing genuine regional drugs. Isodon rubescens (Hemsl.) Hara, a widely used herbal medicine of China, was chosen for this study and 24 samples from four geographical locations in China were collected. A total of 60 ent-kaurane diterpenoids were tentatively identified, and then the samples from four geographical origins were distinguished using PCA (principal component analysis) and PLS-DA (partial least squares discrimination analysis). Different compounds were identified among the samples collected from the four geographical locations, and 12 of them were regarded as marker compounds responsible for the distinction. Our study highlights the essence and predictive ability of metabolomics in detecting minute differences in the same varieties of TCM samples based on the levels and compositions of their metabolites. These results showed that the analysis using UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS combined with metabolomics could be applied to distinguish the geographical origins and varieties of TCM.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Diterpenos/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Isodon/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Metabolômica , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
Org Lett ; 23(15): 5647-5651, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170713

RESUMO

Scospirosins A (1) and B (2), two unprecedented spiro ent-clerodane dimers with 6/6/10/6 and 6/6/6/6/6 ring systems, respectively, were isolated from Isodon scoparius. Their structures were unambiguously established by spectroscopic, X-ray crystallographic, and chemical approaches. A bioinspired protecting-group-free strategy for their synthesis was achieved on a gram scale and featured the application of green methods, including neat reaction, sensitized photooxygenation, and electrochemical oxidation. 2 exhibited selective immunosuppressive activity against the proliferation of T lymphocytes (IC50 = 1.42 µM).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Diterpenos Clerodânicos/síntese química , Diterpenos Clerodânicos/farmacologia , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Isodon/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Biomimética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Diterpenos Clerodânicos/análise , Imunossupressores/química , Imunossupressores/isolamento & purificação , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Estrutura Molecular , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 62(9): 1423-1435, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133748

RESUMO

Isodon lophanthoides var. gerardiana (Lamiaceae), also named xihuangcao, is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb that exhibits a broad range of pharmacological activities. Abietane-type diterpenoids are the characteristic constituents of I. lophanthoides, yet their biosynthesis has not been elucidated. Although the aerial parts are the most commonly used organs of I. lophanthoides, metabolite profiling by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed the underground parts also contain large amounts of labdane diterpenoids including abietatriene, miltiradiene and ferruginol, which are distinct from the 13-hydroxy-8(14)-abietene detected in the aerial parts. Comparative transcriptome analysis of root and leaf samples identified a diverse diterpene synthase family including 6 copalyl diphosphate synthase (IlCPS1-6) and 5 kaurene synthase-like (IlKSL1-5). Here we report the functional characterization of six of these enzymes using yeast heterologous expression system. Both IlCPS1 and IlCPS3 synthesized (+)-copalyl diphosphate (CPP), in combination with IlKSL1 resulted in miltiradiene, precursor of abietane-type diterpenoids, while coupling with IlKSL5 led to the formation of hydroxylated diterpene scaffold nezukol. Expression profiling and phylogenetic analysis further support the distinct evolutionary relationship and spatial distribution of IlCPS1 and IlCPS3. IlCPS2 converted GGPP into labda-7,13E-dien-15-ol diphosphate. IlCPS6 was identified as ent-CPS, indicating a role in gibberellin metabolism. We further identified a single residue that determined the water addition of nezukol synthase IlKSL5. Substitution of alanine 513 with isoleucine completely altered the product outcome from hydroxylated nezukol to isopimara-7,15-diene. Together, these findings elucidated the early steps of bioactive abietane-type diterpenoid biosynthesis in I. lophanthoides and the catalytic mechanism of nezukol synthase.


Assuntos
Alquil e Aril Transferases/genética , Diterpenos/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas , Isodon/genética , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Alquil e Aril Transferases/química , Alquil e Aril Transferases/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Isodon/química , Isodon/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
19.
Steroids ; 172: 108857, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945799

RESUMO

Natural product is a well-known source of bioactive compounds. Herein, a steroidal compound stigmasta-7,22-diene-3-one (stigmastadienone) has been isolated from Isodon rugosus. The potency of isolated compound has been tested for several in-vitro targets. The acetyl and butyrylcholinesterase assays were performed using Ellman's procedure. For the in-vitro antidiabetic potential, α-glucosidase inhibitory assay was performed. Similarly, the cyclo and lipoxygenase pathways were studied to find its potential role in the management of inflammation and analgesia. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) assays were performed for the antioxidant potentials. Docking studies were performed against acetylcholinesterase, cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase targets. In anticholinesterase assays, stigmastadienone exhibited half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 13.52 and 11.53 µg/ml for acetyl and butyrylcholinesterase respectively. The observed IC50 values for that of galantamine were 6.07 and 4.42 µg/ml for acety and butyrylcholinesterase respectively. In inhibiting α-glucosidase enzyme, the compound showed mediocre IC50 of 109.40 µg/ml compared to the standard acarbose (7.60 µg/ml). The stigmastadienone proved to be an excellent inhibitor of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) attaining IC50 values of 4.72 and 3.36 µg/ml respectively. The standard drugs IC50 values for COX-2 (celecoxib) and 5-LOX (montelukast) were 3.81 and 2.74 µg/ml respectively. The enzymatic activities of stigmastadienone were also supplemented with antioxidant results, specifically it was more dominant against DPPH and ABTS free radicals. Docking studies showed that only the carbonyl oxygen is able to form hydrogen bond interaction with the residues. In conclusions, the stigmastadienone has been isolated from Isodon rugosus for the first time. Moreover, the compound has been evaluated for several biochemical pathways which suggest its pharmacological role on the explored targets.


Assuntos
Colestenonas/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/farmacologia , Isodon/química , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , alfa-Glucosidases/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase/química , Butirilcolinesterase/química , Humanos , Lipoxigenase/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/química
20.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 69(3): 246-252, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33642472

RESUMO

The terrestrial plants, Isodon japonicus (Burm. f.) H. Hara and Isodon trichocarpus (Maxim.) Kudô (Labiatae), are native to Japan. Different parts of these plants have been used as a traditional bitter stomachic, under the name Isodon herb (Enmei-so). Ent-kaurane diterpenoids are the major constituents of Isodon herb that contribute to the herb's medicinal properties. However, large variability with respect to the composition of these diterpenoids limits the suitability of Isodon herb as a pharmaceutical ingredient. Thus, an investigation of the factors that affect its chemical composition is required. In this study, the DNA-barcoding method, using internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA, was applied to cultivated and commercial samples of Isodon herb. Further, each such sample was separated into leaves, stems, and flowers and analyzed for diterpenoid content by HPLC. Moreover, the diterpenoid content in coarsely cut and powdered samples was evaluated. Results confirmed that the source species of these samples was I. japonicus or I. trichocarpus. The three major diterpenoids in Isodon herb were enmein, oridonin, and ponicidin. The diterpenoid content was affected by milling process. Moreover, the diterpenoid content was greatly affected by the ratio between leaves and stems in each sample. Thus, to accurately quantify the diterpenoids in Isodon herb, the use specific conditions such as drying using mild temperature conditions and avoiding milling of the samples might be necessary. This may help in regulating variations in the herb's composition, in turn, providing better quality and a safe herbal product for pharmaceutical use.


Assuntos
Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano/química , Flores/química , Isodon/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano/farmacologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Solventes/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Temperatura
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