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1.
Recenti Prog Med ; 115(6): 290-295, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38853732

RESUMO

This monthly article provides a collection of summaries of the most relevant studies identified as POEMs (patient-oriented evidence that matters) for Italian primary care physicians. 1) The 2023 updated American college of cardiology/American heart association guideline provide new recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of atrial fibrillation. In a nutshell, screening is not recommended, and treatment decisions should be guided by risk assessment via CHA2DS2-VASC or a similar tool. For most patients, a direct oral anticoagulant (Doac) at a standard dose is recommended. 2) The use of gabapentin or pregabalin is associated with severe exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Copd). Various government agencies warn about the use of those gabapentinoids in patients with respiratory risk factors. 3) In children 3 months to 5 years of age with an uncomplicated febrile urinary tract infection, 5 days of antibiotic treatment results in similar resolution of symptoms and 30-day recurrence rates as 10 days of treatment. 4) In adults with type 2 diabetes, bariatric surgery results in superior glycemic control and weight loss compared with medical plus lifestyle management. However, no significant differences occurred in major adverse cardiovascular events or all-cause mortality. Other (non-cardiovascular) adverse events occurred significantly more often in the surgery group, so it is uncertain whether the overall quality of life, morbidity or mortality are better or worse with surgery. 5) Prescribing a specific exercise program, whether aerobic or strength training, produces clinically meaningful and statistically significant benefits in patients with major depressive disorder. The advice can't be simply to "exercise more" but should be a specific exercise prescription, just like a medication prescription, specifying the frequency, intensity, time (duration), and type of exercise.


Assuntos
Médicos de Atenção Primária , Humanos , Itália , Qualidade de Vida , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adulto
2.
Recenti Prog Med ; 115(6): 267-270, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38853728

RESUMO

Pdta Net, established and managed by Research and Health Foundation (ReS), is a database aimed at gathering and analysing the Regional Care Pathways (CPs) approved in Italy. A comprehensive search was conducted within institutional websites to retrieve all CPs approved by Italian Regions and Autonomous Provinces until December 2023, by utilizing specific keywords. Compared to the previous year, 51 new approvals were recorded. By now, Pdta Net collects 856 CPs, of which 476 are for high-impact chronic diseases and 380 for rare diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Raras , Humanos , Itália , Doenças Raras/terapia , Doença Crônica , Bases de Dados Factuais , Procedimentos Clínicos/organização & administração , Fundações , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração
4.
Ital J Pediatr ; 50(1): 115, 2024 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38872179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutrition exerts a fundamental role in the prevention of obesity (OB). The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which well recognized risk factors for early OB can be associated to overweight (OW) or OB under a standardized nutritional approach and surveillance in toddlers. METHODS: The eligible population was represented by 676 toddlers aged 24-36 months, assigned to 18 primary care pediatricians trained on nutritional issues who shared a standardized nutritional approach. Six-hundred-twenty-nine children (333 boys), mean age 27.8 ± 4.2 months were effectively included in this observational study. Parents received nutritional advice with particular emphasis to proteins and sugar composition supported by leaflets and reinforced at each visit. Body mass index was assessed at the age of 24-36 months. The following individual and family risk factors were considered: gestational age, birth weight, eutocic/caesarean delivery, milk feeding history, household smoking or antibiotics exposure, parents' weight, height and educational level. Prevalence of OW/OB was compared to a group of 742 toddlers (373 boys) under usual care. RESULTS: Under a standardized nutritional counselling, 28.1% toddlers were classified as OW/OB compared to 36.9% toddlers under usual care (p = 0.005). In unadjusted models, parental OW/OB was significantly associated to OW/OB in toddlers (p < 0.01), while high birth weight did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.07). In adjusted models, including all the explanatory variables studied, only paternal OW/OB vs. normal weight was significantly associated to OW/OB in toddlers (OR 2.035, 95% confidence interval 1.206-3.436). No protective effect of exclusive breast feeding during the first 6 months of age was demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: Toddlers under a standardized nutrition counselling focused to limit protein and simple sugars, showed lower prevalence of OW/OB compared to usual care. Healthy promotion activities should take into account the influence of paternal BMI on the offspring adiposity.


Assuntos
Obesidade Infantil , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Fatores de Risco , Obesidade Infantil/prevenção & controle , Obesidade Infantil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Índice de Massa Corporal , Aconselhamento , Prevalência , Itália/epidemiologia
5.
Clin Exp Med ; 24(1): 117, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833019

RESUMO

To carry out an in-depth analysis of the scientific research on autoimmunity, we performed the first bibliometric analysis focusing on publications in journals dedicated to autoimmunity (JDTA) indexed by science citation index during the period 2004-2023. Using bibliometric analysis, we quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed the country, institution, author, reference and keywords information of publications in JDTA, so as to understand the quantity, publication pattern and publication characteristics of these publications. The co-occurrence networks, clustering map and timeline map were created by CiteSpace and VOSviewer software to visualize the results. The CiteSpace was also used to analyze the strongest citation burst of keywords, which could describe the frequency, intensity and time period of high-frequency keywords, and indicate the research hotspots in the field. A total of 5 710 publications were analyzed, and their annual distribution number was basically stable from 2004 to 2023, fluctuating around 300. The United States and Italy led the way in terms of the number of publications, followed by France and China. For international cooperation, the developed countries represented by the United States cooperate more closely, but the cooperation was localized, reflecting that there was no unified model of autoimmunity among countries. UDICE-French Research Universities had the greatest number of publications. Subsequently, the number of publications decreased slowly with the ranking, and the gradient was not large. Eric Gershwin and Yehuda Shoenfeld stood out among the authors. They had an excellent academic reputation and great influence in the field of autoimmunity. The results of keyword analysis showed that JDTA publications mainly studied a variety of autoimmune diseases, especially SLE and RA. At the same time, JDTA publications also paid special attention to the research of cell function, autoantibody expression, animal experiments, disease activity, pathogenesis and treatment. This study is the first to analyze the publications in JDTA from multiple indicators by bibliometrics, thus providing new insights into the research hotspots and development trends in the field of autoimmunity.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade , Bibliometria , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Humanos , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Estados Unidos , França , China , Itália
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12783, 2024 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834616

RESUMO

The Aurignacian is the first European technocomplex assigned to Homo sapiens recognized across a wide geographic extent. Although archaeologists have identified marked chrono-cultural shifts within the Aurignacian mostly by examining the techno-typological variations of stone and osseous tools, unraveling the underlying processes driving these changes remains a significant scientific challenge. Scholars have, for instance, hypothesized that the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) super-eruption and the climatic deterioration associated with the onset of Heinrich Event 4 had a substantial impact on European foraging groups. The technological shift from the Protoaurignacian to the Early Aurignacian is regarded as an archaeological manifestation of adaptation to changing environments. However, some of the most crucial regions and stratigraphic sequences for testing these scenarios have been overlooked. In this study, we delve into the high-resolution stratigraphic sequence of Grotta di Castelcivita in southern Italy. Here, the Uluzzian is followed by three Aurignacian layers, sealed by the eruptive units of the CI. Employing a comprehensive range of quantitative methods-encompassing attribute analysis, 3D model analysis, and geometric morphometrics-we demonstrate that the key technological feature commonly associated with the Early Aurignacian developed well before the deposition of the CI tephra. Our study provides thus the first direct evidence that the volcanic super-eruption played no role in this cultural process. Furthermore, we show that local paleo-environmental proxies do not correlate with the identified patterns of cultural continuity and discontinuity. Consequently, we propose alternative research paths to explore the role of demography and regional trajectories in the development of the Upper Paleolithic.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Itália , Humanos , História Antiga , Tecnologia , Evolução Cultural
7.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 31(3): e3015, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38850261

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Telepresence may play a fundamental role in establishing authentic interactions and relationships in online psychological interventions and can be measured by the Telepresence in Videoconference Scale (TVS), which was validated only with patients to date. This post hoc study aimed to validate the Italian version of the TVS with mental health professionals. METHOD: The Italian TVS was included in an online survey, whose primary aim was to assess the experiences of Italian psychologists and psychotherapists with online interventions during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and was filled in by 296 participants (83.4% females, mean age = 42 years old). RESULTS: Exploratory factor analysis supported the original factor structure only partially because the scale 'Absorption' (i.e., the feeling of losing track of time), as it was formulated, did not measure telepresence. Correlations were also explored between the TVS scales and some survey items pertaining to intimacy and emotional closeness to patients, comfort and positive as well as negative experiences with online interventions. CONCLUSION: The TVS may be a useful tool to measure physical and social telepresence in online interventions, both in patients and in professionals.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Psicoterapeutas , Comunicação por Videoconferência , Humanos , COVID-19/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Itália , Psicoterapeutas/psicologia , Telemedicina , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Psicometria , Pandemias , Psicoterapia/métodos , Psicologia/métodos
8.
Vet Res ; 55(1): 72, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840261

RESUMO

Salmonellosis, one of the most common foodborne infections in Europe, is monitored by food safety surveillance programmes, resulting in the generation of extensive databases. By leveraging tree-based machine learning (ML) algorithms, we exploited data from food safety audits to predict spatiotemporal patterns of salmonellosis in northwestern Italy. Data on human cases confirmed in 2015-2018 (n = 1969) and food surveillance data collected in 2014-2018 were used to develop ML algorithms. We integrated the monthly municipal human incidence with 27 potential predictors, including the observed prevalence of Salmonella in food. We applied the tree regression, random forest and gradient boosting algorithms considering different scenarios and evaluated their predictivity in terms of the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and R2. Using a similar dataset from the year 2019, spatiotemporal predictions and their relative sensitivities and specificities were obtained. Random forest and gradient boosting (R2 = 0.55, MAPE = 7.5%) outperformed the tree regression algorithm (R2 = 0.42, MAPE = 8.8%). Salmonella prevalence in food; spatial features; and monitoring efforts in ready-to-eat milk, fruits and vegetables, and pig meat products contributed the most to the models' predictivity, reducing the variance by 90.5%. Conversely, the number of positive samples obtained for specific food matrices minimally influenced the predictions (2.9%). Spatiotemporal predictions for 2019 showed sensitivity and specificity levels of 46.5% (due to the lack of some infection hotspots) and 78.5%, respectively. This study demonstrates the added value of integrating data from human and veterinary health services to develop predictive models of human salmonellosis occurrence, providing early warnings useful for mitigating foodborne disease impacts on public health.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Aprendizado de Máquina , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella , Itália/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/prevenção & controle , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Animais , Salmonella/fisiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Prevalência , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/prevenção & controle
9.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304058, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843275

RESUMO

The wide diversity of Neolithic funerary practices is increasingly recognised. In Southeast Italy, recent studies have drawn attention to the co-existence of multiple ways of treating the dead within single sites and across the region. In this study, we address how such diverse deathways form a regional framework of ritual practice through histotaphonomic analysis of bone bioerosion. Samples were obtained from articulated, semi-articulated and disarticulated remains from four sites in Apulia which each presented different modes of treatment and disposal of the dead. Bone thin sections were analysed by light microscopy to characterise microstructural preservation through features including bacterial bioerosion, staining, inclusions, and Wedl tunnelling. We investigate the early post-mortem histories of individuals whose remains ended up in various states of dis/articulation and diverse depositional contexts. Disarticulated remains frequently displayed arrested or extensive bacterial bioerosion, which was also found in articulated and semi-articulated skeletons. Additionally, remains deposited in similar contexts, as well as articulated and disarticulated remains deposited together in the same context, often showed different histotaphonomic characteristics, suggesting diverse early post-mortem trajectories. As a result, we argue that Neolithic deathways in southeastern Italy incorporated a high level of diversity in the early post-mortem treatment of the body. A framework for funerary practices emerges, whereby disarticulated remains probably originated from bodies which had been buried previously and subjected to varying extents of shelter, exposure to invertebrates, and duration of burial. However, we acknowledge the ongoing research into the origins of bacterial bioerosion and the problem of equifinality, which leaves open the possibility for further scenarios of early post-mortem treatment.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos , Itália , Humanos , Arqueologia , História Antiga , Restos Mortais
10.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 25(7): 511-518, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829938

RESUMO

AIMS: The identification of patients at greater mortality risk of death at admission into an intensive cardiovascular care unit (ICCU) has relevant consequences for clinical decision-making. We described patient characteristics at admission into an ICCU by predicted mortality risk assessed with noncardiac intensive care unit (ICU) and evaluated their performance in predicting patient outcomes. METHODS: A total of 202 consecutive patients (130 men, 75 ±â€Š12 years) were admitted into our tertiary-care ICCU in a 20-week period. We evaluated, on the first 24 h data, in-hospital mortality risk according to Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 (SAPS 3); Sepsis related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) Score and the Mayo Cardiac intensive care unit Admission Risk Score (M-CARS) were also calculated. RESULTS: Predicted mortality was significantly lower than observed (5% during ICCU and 7% at discharge) for APACHE II and SAPS 3 (17% for both scores). Mortality risk was associated with older age, more frequent comorbidities, severe clinical presentation and complications. The APACHE II, SAPS 3, SOFA and M-CARS had good discriminative ability in distinguishing deaths and survivors with poor calibration of risk scores predicting mortality. CONCLUSION: In a recent contemporary cohort of patients admitted into the ICCU for a variety of acute and critical cardiovascular conditions, scoring systems used in general ICU had good discrimination for patients' clinical severity and mortality. Available scores preserve powerful discrimination but the overestimation of mortality suggests the importance of specific tailored scores to improve risk assessment of patients admitted into ICCUs.


Assuntos
APACHE , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Feminino , Itália/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Escore Fisiológico Agudo Simplificado , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Prognóstico , Unidades de Cuidados Coronarianos/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 25(7): 473-487, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829936

RESUMO

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and computed tomography (CCT) are advanced imaging modalities that recently revolutionized the conventional diagnostic approach to congenital heart diseases (CHD), supporting echocardiography and often replacing cardiac catheterization. This is the second of two complementary documents, endorsed by experts from the Working Group of the Italian Society of Pediatric Cardiology and the Italian College of Cardiac Radiology of the Italian Society of Medical and Interventional Radiology, aimed at giving updated indications on the appropriate use of CMR and CCT in different clinical CHD settings, in both pediatrics and adults. In this article, support is also given to radiologists, pediatricians, cardiologists, and cardiac surgeons for indications and appropriateness criteria for CMR and CCT in the most referred CHD, following the proposed new criteria presented and discussed in the first document. This second document also examines the impact of devices and prostheses for CMR and CCT in CHD and additionally presents some indications for CMR and CCT exams when sedation or narcosis is needed.


Assuntos
Consenso , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Humanos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias Congênitas/terapia , Itália , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/normas , Cardiologia/normas , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/normas , Criança , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Adulto , Sociedades Médicas/normas
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12813, 2024 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834719

RESUMO

Deep-sea coral assemblages are marine biodiversity hot spots. Because of their life history traits, deep-sea corals are highly vulnerable to the impacts of human activities such as fishing. The critically endangered "bamboo coral" Isidella elongata is a key structuring species of deep muddy bottoms that is susceptible to habitat destruction, particularly from trawling. A shallow population of this species was recently discovered by a multibeam and ROV survey offshore of the Asinara Island marine protected area (MPA) (northwestern Sardinia, NW Mediterranean Sea). This vulnerable marine assemblage has been found under healthy conditions at depths ranging from 110 to 298 m. Isidella elongata occurs on a muddy seafloor locally characterised by boulders associated with black coral species (Parantipathes larix and Antipathes dichotoma). The lush colonies of I. elongata seem to be related to natural protection from bottom trawling activity; nevertheless, the presence of lost fishing artisanal nets has been observed in the study area. These structuring species are indicators of vulnerable marine ecosystems, and their conservation is essential for preserving marine biodiversity. Therefore, enlarging the perimeter of the Asinara Island MPA into its deeper western waters is suggested to ensure the protection of these valuable and vulnerable marine ecosystems.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ilhas , Animais , Mar Mediterrâneo , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Itália , Ecossistema , Pesqueiros
13.
Ren Fail ; 46(1): 2338484, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38832469

RESUMO

Critically ill COVID-19 patients may exhibit various clinical symptoms of renal dysfunction including severe Acute Kidney Injury (AKI). Currently, there is a lack of bibliometric analyses on COVID-19-related AKI. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the current research status and hot topics regarding COVID-19 AKI. The literature was retrieved from the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) database. Subsequently, we utilized Microsoft Excel, VOSviewer, Citespace, and Pajek software to revealed the current research status, emerging topics, and developmental trends pertaining to COVID-19 AKI. This study encompassed a total of 1507 studies on COVID-19 AKI. The United States, China, and Italy emerged as the leading three countries in terms of publication numbers, contributing 498 (33.05%), 229 (15.20%), and 140 (9.29%) studies, respectively. The three most active and influential institutions include Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan University and Harvard Medical School. Ronco C from Italy, holds the record for the highest number of publications, with a total of 15 papers authored. Cheng YC's work from China has garnered the highest number of citations, totaling 470 citations. The co-occurrence analysis of author keywords reveals that 'mortality', 'intensive care units', 'chronic kidney disease', 'nephrology', 'renal transplantation', 'acute respiratory distress syndrome', and 'risk factors' emerge as the primary areas of focus within the realm of COVID-19 AKI. In summary, this study analyzes the research trends in the field of COVID-19 AKI, providing a reference for further exploration and research on COVID-19 AKI mechanisms and treatment.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Bibliometria , COVID-19 , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Itália/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Saúde Global
14.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 35(6): e14169, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the leading cause of hospitalization in infants. RSV bronchiolitis is associated with an increased risk of subsequent wheezing. We aimed to document the parents' perception of the link between RSV infection and subsequent wheezing, wheezing-related healthcare and family resources use, and its impact on family daily life. METHODS: This cross-sectional online survey enrolled 1200 parents with at least one child ≤6y living in the United States, United Kingdom, Spain, and Italy. Children diagnosed with RSV bronchiolitis before age of 2 years were included in the RSV group, and those never diagnosed with RSV bronchiolitis in the Reference group. RESULTS: The odds of wheezing were 4.5-fold (95%CI 3.5-5.9) higher in the RSV than in the Reference group. The odds increased to 7.7-fold (95%CI 5.4-11.1) among children who were hospitalized, and 9-fold (95%CI 5.1-16.6) among those admitted to pediatric intensive care with RSV bronchiolitis. Similar trends were observed across all countries. In total, 57% of parents reported their child's wheezing to have moderate to severe impact on their emotional well-being, and 53% on their daily life activities and/or social life. 64% of parents reported moderate-severe impact of wheezing on child's quality of sleep and 49% and 46% reported a moderate-severe impact on their children's emotional well-being and physical activities. CONCLUSIONS: This survey suggests an association between RSV infection and subsequent wheezing in children across different countries. Wheezing, especially in association with RSV infection, was associated with increased healthcare utilization and costs, and significantly impacted parents' and children daily life.


Assuntos
Pais , Sons Respiratórios , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Pais/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Itália/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Espanha/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Adulto , Criança , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença
15.
Food Microbiol ; 122: 104558, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839222

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the microbiota of 72 Italian ham samples collected after 12 months of seasoning. The hams were elaborated from pigs fed different rearing methods, including the traditional restricted medium protein diet chosen as control (C group); restrictive low protein diet (LP group); two ad libitum high-protein diet groups (HP9M group: slaughter at 9 months of age; HP170 group: slaughter at 170 kg). A multi-amplicon 16S metabarcoding approach was used, and a total of 2845 Amplicon Sequence Variants were obtained from the 72 ham samples. Main phyla included: Firmicutes (90.8%), Actinobacteria (6.2%), Proteobacteria (2.7%), and Bacteroidota (0.12%). The most common genera were Staphylococcus, Tetragenococcus, and Brevibacterium. Shannon index for α-diversity was found statistically significant, notably for the HP9M group, indicating higher diversity compared to C. PERMANOVA test on ß-diversity showed significant differences in rearing methods between HP170 and C, HP170 and LP, and HP9M vs. C. All three rearing methods revealed associations with characteristic communities: the HP9M group had the highest number of associations, many of which were due to spoilage bacteria, whereas the LP group had the highest number of seasoning-favourable genera.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Microbiota , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Animais , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Suínos , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Produtos da Carne/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Itália
16.
Minerva Pediatr (Torino) ; 76(3): 308-320, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38842378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the personal values system of an Italian adolescent sample and examine the interrelations of their values with some variables characterizing their lifestyles. METHODS: A representative sample of 365 adolescents (56.2% females), 15-16 years old from the randomly selected second classes of public/private upper secondary schools of an Italian model region was investigated. The lifestyle of adolescents was explored through a 37-items structured, self-administered questionnaire. Ponderal status was evaluated from measured weight and height. The adherence to the Mediterranean Diet of the sample was determined by the KIDMED Test. The adolescents completed the 21-item Portrait Values Questionnaire, which assesses respondents' endorsement of the ten basic human values. RESULTS: The results suggest that variables related to their eating habits may be associated with their basic values. Some not healthy eating habits, such as eating while "watching TV"/using PC"/ "studying," were negatively related to tradition, conformity, and security values. The adolescents with both moderate and strong alcohol use, and with smoking habits also showed the highest percentage of low adherence to the Mediterranean Diet. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings might provide some useful information to support the development of more effective and targeted health promotion interventions approaches tailored for this age group.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Humanos , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Itália , Inquéritos e Questionários , Valores Sociais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia
17.
Minerva Pediatr (Torino) ; 76(3): 372-380, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38842381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nowadays children live in a digital world, exposed to relevant risks for their health and safety. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of multimedia devices in a sample of children and adolescents. METHODS: The study was performed between November 2018 and June 2019 in a third-level University Hospital, recruiting children and adolescents during general or specialistic follow-up visits. Anonymous, age-specific, questionnaires were distributed to 500 children and adolescents and 370 parents. RESULTS: Among children, 25 (17.1%) had their own mobile device, of which 84% Italian. The 54.1% of them uses multimedia devices half an hour/an hour per day and many of them (37.5% of Italian and 40% of foreign) use it without their parents' control. Most of adolescents had a mobile phone since the age of 10-12 years old. WhatsApp (Meta Inc., Cambridge, MA, USA) is the most used social network, followed by Instagram and Facebook. The use of multimedia devices was widespread between teenagers during classroom hours, meals and before sleeping and they are an important mean for cyberbullying. In addition, in the 29.9% of cases there is no correspondence between information given by parents and respective sons/daughters. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows more risks than advantages derived from the use of multimedia devices in children and adolescents. Therefore, it is essential to educate them about their correct and responsible use.


Assuntos
Multimídia , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Itália , Feminino , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telefone Celular/estatística & dados numéricos , Pais/educação , Cyberbullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais , Hospitais Universitários
18.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 20(1): 2358565, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38825984

RESUMO

To investigate the dynamic evolution of vaccine hesitancy toward both COVID-19 and influenza in a context characterized by the compresence of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and seasonal flu epidemics, a two times repeated cross-sectional exploratory design was performed at Udine Hospital (Italy) following a cohort of 479 adult patients with a previous history of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 2020. Vaccine attitude was assessed through standardized telephone interviews performed at 12 and 18 months after the acute illness. The first interview reported the success of the 2020/21 seasonal influenza immunization with 46.8% (224/479) of the participants showing a positive attitude, especially the elderly and people with comorbidities (p < .001), but the investigation conducted at 18 months showed a drastic drop in flu shot acceptance (30/166, 18.1%). On the other hand, a great increase in vaccinations against SARS-CoV-2 occurred after the introduction of Green Pass (26.7% vs 72.9%). The major drivers of flu vaccine skepticism were represented by the feeling of protection regardless of prevention and by concerns regarding vaccines safety and efficacy; conversely compulsory strategies seemed to play a secondary role, since only a minority of the participants identified in the restrictions induced by the certification the major incentive to get immunized against SARS-CoV-2. The focus on this peculiar historical period helps to take a step forward in the comprehension of the complexity and dynamicity of the vaccine hesitancy phenomenon. Future vaccination campaigns will need to consider the role of personal opinions and emotions, interpreted according to the social and political context.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Hesitação Vacinal , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Idoso , Itália , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Hesitação Vacinal/psicologia , Hesitação Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
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