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1.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500615

RESUMO

Juniper representatives are natural sources of plenty of bioactive metabolites and have been used since ancient times as folk remedies against tapeworms, warts, cancer, etc. The antiproliferative activities of junipers are attributed to podophyllotoxin (PPT), which is a precursor for the synthesis of efficient anticancer drugs. However, the natural sources of PPT, Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) T. S. Ying and Podophyllum peltatum L., are already endangered species because of their intensive industrial exploitation. Therefore, identification of other sources of PPT is necessary. This study is a broad comparative investigation of junipers, for which original sources have been accessed from different continents of the world. The present research is aimed at the identification of species, producing PPT and other lignans at concentrations that are sufficient for the high antiproliferative activity of the corresponding extracts. Cytotoxic juniper leaf extracts demonstrated a broad spectrum of activity on a panel of cancer cell lines. The antiproliferative properties of junipers were attributed to the combined activity of great diversity of lignans (podophyllotoxin, deoxypodophyllotoxin, ß-peltatin, yatein, matairesinol, anhydropodorhizol, etc.), detected by UHPLC-HRMS and LC-ESI-MS/MS in the corresponding extracts. Several species of the genus Juniperus L. were outlined as perspective sources of drug precursors with potential pharmaceutical applications.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Juniperus/química , Podofilotoxina/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Células HT29 , Humanos , Células K562 , Lignanas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia
2.
Phytochemistry ; 190: 112857, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365295

RESUMO

α-Pinene represents a member of the monoterpene class and is highly distributed in higher plants like conifers, Juniper ssp. and Cannabis ssp. α-Pinene has been used to treat respiratory tract infections for centuries. Furthermore, it plays a crucial role in the fragrance and flavor industry. In vitro assays have shown an enantioselective profile of (+)- and (-)-α-pinene for antibacterial and insecticidal activity, respectively. Recent research has used pre-validated biological structures to synthesize new chemical entities with pharmacological and herbicidal activities. In summary, this review focuses on recent literature covering synthetic pathways of flavor compounds and scaffold hopping based on the α-pinene core domaine, as well as the (enantioselective) activities of α-pinene. Recent approaches for authenticity control of essential oils based on their enantiomeric profile are also presented.


Assuntos
Juniperus , Óleos Voláteis , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Monoterpenos/farmacologia
3.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(7): 2514-2524, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313070

RESUMO

Juniperus przewalskii is important for water and soil conservation. It is one of the native tree species suitable for afforestation and greening in high-cold and arid areas of Qinghai Province. Predicting the potential geographic distribution of J. przewalskii in Qinghai Province under the climate change scenario will provide theoretical guidance for its management, introduction, and cultivation. In this study, the current potential distribution of J. przewalskii was simulated firstly based on 88 effective distributional records from field investigation and data collection via Maxent model and ArcGIS spatial analysis. We analyzed dominant factors affecting the potential distribution of J. przewa-lskii by Jackknife test and correlation coefficient. The distribution of J. przewalskii under three climate change scenarios (SSP126, SSP245, SSP585) with the climate model data of the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Projects (CMIP6) were predicted for 2061-2080. The results showed that the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the Maxent model was greater than 0.92, suggesting a good predictive performance. Under current climatic condition, the suitable distribution area of J. przewalskii was mainly located in the eastern part of Qinghai Province, with the suitable area accounted for 11.2% of the total. The dominant factors affecting the distribution of J. przewalskii were altitude, annual precipitation, the minimum temperature of coldest month, and slope, with a cumulative contribution rate of 85.9%. The suitable areas of J. przewalskii altered under the three future climate scenarios. The suitable areas would shrink under the SSP245 scenario and expand under the SSP126 and SSP585 scenarios. The sui-table area of J. przewalskii would have the most obvious expansion under the SSP126 climate situation, with the expanding areas being mainly located in Zeku County, the north-central part of Henan Mongolian Autonomous County, and the southeast of Qilian County. Under three climatic scenarios, the suitable area of J. przewalskii would gradually migrate to high altitudes, but without clear altitudinal and longitudinal shifts.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Juniperus , Altitude , China , Ecossistema , Previsões
4.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203980

RESUMO

Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb and J. sabina L. contain essential oil (EO), while J. sabina also contains podophyllotoxin, which is used as a precursor for anti-cancer drugs. Two studies were conducted. The first assessed the variability in the EO profile and podophyllotoxin concentration of the two junipers, depending on the location and tree gender. The main EO constituents of J. excelsa were α-cedrol, α-limonene and α-pinene, while the constituents in J. sabina were sabinene, terpinen-4-ol, myrtenyl acetate and α-cadinol. The podophyllotoxin yield of 18 J. sabina accessions was 0.07-0.32% (w/w), but this was not found in any of the J. excelsa accessions. The second study assessed the effect of hydrodistillation (Clevenger apparatus) and steam distillation (in a semi-commercial apparatus) on the EO profile and bioactivity. The extraction type did not significantly alter the EO composition. The EO profiles of the two junipers and their accessions were different and may be of interest to the industry utilizing juniper leaf EO. Breeding and selection programs could be developed with the two junipers (protected species) in order to identify chemotypes with (1) a high EO content and desirable composition, and (2) a high concentration of podophyllotoxin in J. sabina. Such chemotypes could be established as agricultural crops for the commercial production of podophyllotoxin and EO.


Assuntos
Juniperus/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Podofilotoxina/química , Bulgária , Destilação/métodos , Juniperus/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Podofilotoxina/análise , Eslováquia
5.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 54(10): e10891, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287579

RESUMO

Juniperus communis (JCo) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal plant that has been used to treat wounds, fever, swelling, and rheumatism. However, the mechanism underlying the anticancer effect of JCo extract on colorectal cancer (CRC) has not yet been elucidated. This study investigated the anticancer effects of JCo extract in vitro and in vivo as well as the precise molecular mechanisms. Cell viability was evaluated using the MTT assay. Cell cycle distribution was examined by flow cytometry analysis, and cell apoptosis was determined by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Protein expression was analyzed using western blotting. The in vivo activity of the JCo extract was evaluated using a xenograft BALB/c mouse model. The tumors and organs were examined through hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that JCo extract exhibited higher cytotoxicity against CRC cells than against normal cells and showed synergistic effects when combined with 5-fluorouracil. JCo extract induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase via regulation of p53/p21 and CDK4/cyclin D1 and induced cell apoptosis via the extrinsic (FasL/Fas/caspase-8) and intrinsic (Bax/Bcl-2/caspase-9) apoptotic pathways. In vivo studies revealed that JCo extract suppressed tumor growth through the inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. In addition, there was no obvious change in body weight or histological morphology of normal organs after treatment. JCo extract suppressed CRC progression by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, suggesting the potential application of JCo extract in the treatment of CRC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos , Neoplasias Colorretais , Juniperus , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Ciclo Celular , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 796: 148952, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274661

RESUMO

Poor reforestation outcomes imply failure to fulfill program goals and tend to erode institutional willpower and political momentum towards reforestation efforts, affecting both public and private support. However, program improvement in real reforestation projects is challenging, due to the conjunction of many different variables that mutually interact and feed back on each other inextricably. This study develops a comprehensive assessment framework for reforestation programs, for which technical and environmental information is gathered and related to indicators of performance in both the short- and mid-term. This assessment, tested on a case study, aimed to provide reliable end-results for survival and growth, revealed pitfalls in successful plantation establishment and taught us how to improve plantation performance and what the margin for this improvement was. The selected project was carried out on harsh site conditions, with different species, cultivation treatments and contractors, and was affected by the driest year on record. Plantation mortality was high and increased progressively over time, particularly in the short-term when the rate was 53% (rising to 83% after ten years), showing high variation between sites and species (Pinus pinaster and Quercus faginea died more than 94% after ten years while Junipus phoenicea only 40%). All the hardwoods and the juniper showed lower growth rate after ten years (average stem volume < 40 cm3) than pines (stem volume > 470 cm3). Technical variables (project planning and execution) had a relatively important impact on plantation performance in the first two years (11-29%), but decreased with time, whilst environmental variables (site and meteorological) were more important ten years after planting (>50%). In the short-term, soil moisture and meteorology during the planting season were identified as key factors that triggered the effects of both technical decisions (planting date and planting technique) and other environmental variables on performance. In the design phase, some decisions related to zoning, species selection and cultural treatments were related to poor performance. The results provide practical information and guidelines about all potential drivers of plantation performance and contribute to identify those aspects more related to success of forest restoration in Mediterranean drylands.


Assuntos
Juniperus , Pinus , Ecossistema , Florestas , Solo , Árvores
7.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 108: 106506, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273551

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Caregivers of individuals with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) often experience debilitating caregiver burden and emotional distress. To address these negative emotional consequences of caregiving, we will test and refine a strategy training intervention - Problem-Solving Training (PST) - that promotes self-efficacy and reduces caregiver burden and depressive symptoms. Previous research supports efficacy of PST; however, we do not know exactly how many PST sessions are needed or if post-training "boosters" are required to maintain PST benefits. Additionally, we translated and culturally-adapted PST into "Descubriendo Soluciones Juntos" (DSJ), our novel intervention for Spanish-speaking caregivers. METHOD: In this 2 × 2 factorial design randomized controlled trial, we will test remotely-delivered PST/DSJ sessions for both English- and Spanish-speaking caregivers of persons with ADRD to determine the optimal number of PST/DSJ sessions and ongoing "booster" sessions needed to best help caregivers navigate their current and future needs. AIMS: 1) Compare the efficacy of three vs. six PST/DSJ sessions each with and without booster sessions for decreasing caregiver burden and depression and enhancing caregiver problem-solving; 2) Identify key factors associated with efficacy of PST/DSJ, including age, gender, primary language, relationship to care recipient, and uptake of the PST/DSJ strategy. RESULTS: These results will establish guidelines needed for an evidence-based, culturally-adapted, and implementable problem-solving intervention to reduce caregiver stress and burden and improve caregiver health and well-being. CONCLUSION: This work promotes inclusion of diverse and underserved populations and advances therapeutic behavioral interventions that improve the lives of caregivers of individuals with chronic conditions.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Juniperus , Adulto , Cuidadores , Humanos , Resolução de Problemas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa
8.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063887

RESUMO

The present work describes the use of Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC) for the bio-guided isolation of repellent active volatile compounds from essential oils. Five essential oils (EOs) obtained from three Pinus and two Juniperus species were initially analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and evaluated for their repellent properties against Aedes albopictus. The essential oil from needles of P. pinea (PPI) presented the higher activity, showing 82.4% repellency at a dose of 0.2 µL/cm2. The above EO, together with the EO from the fruits of J. oxycedrus subsp. deltoides (JOX), were further analyzed by CPC using the biphasic system n-Heptane/ACN/BuOH in ratio 1.6/1.6/0.2 (v/v/v). The analysis of PPI essential oil resulted in the recovery of (-)-limonene, guaiol and simple mixtures of (-)-limonene/ß-pheladrene, while the fractionation of JOX EO led to the recovery of ß-myrcene, germacrene-D, and mixtures of α-pinene/ß-pinene (ratio 70/30) and α-pinene/germacrene D (ratio 65/45). All isolated compounds and recovered mixtures were tested for their repellent activity. From them, (-)-limonene, guaiol, germacrene-D as well the mixtures of (-)-limonene/ß-pheladrene presented significant repellent activity (>97% repellency) against Ae. albopictus. The present methodology could be a valuable tool in the effort to develop potent mosquito repellents which are environmentally friendly.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia/métodos , Repelentes de Insetos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bioensaio , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Repelentes de Insetos/administração & dosagem , Repelentes de Insetos/farmacologia , Juniperus/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Pinus/química , Volatilização
9.
Ecology ; 102(8): e03425, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091890

RESUMO

Climate change is expected to alter the distribution and abundance of tree species, impacting ecosystem structure and function. Yet, anticipating where this will occur is often hampered by a lack of understanding of how demographic rates, most notably recruitment, vary in response to climate and competition across a species range. Using large-scale monitoring data on two dry woodland tree species (Pinus edulis and Juniperus osteosperma), we develop an approach to infer recruitment, survival, and growth of both species across their range. In doing so, we account for ecological and statistical dependencies inherent in large-scale monitoring data. We find that drying and warming conditions generally lead to declines in recruitment and survival, but the strength of responses varied between species. These climate conditions point to geographic regions of high vulnerability for particular species, such as Pinus edulis in northern Arizona, where both survival and recruitment are low. Our approach provides a path forward for leveraging emerging large-scale monitoring and remotely sensed data to anticipate the impacts of global change on species distributions.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Juniperus , Demografia , Florestas , Árvores
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12755, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140532

RESUMO

Pollen storage belongs among the most important activities associated with pollen handling. It overcomes the differences in pollen shedding and ovule receptivity during controlled pollination experiments. It is especially important for species like common juniper (Juniperus communis L.) with an extremely low quality of seeds due to pollination failure. Additionally, it is a substantial part of germplasm preservation programmes in pollen banks. In the present paper, the effect of short-term storage of pollen was studied using pollen samples from five shrubs in an in vitro germination test. Two temperature regimes were tested. The pollen viability of freshly collected pollen varied considerably between individual shrubs, exhibiting 67.3-88.6% germination rate and 248.0-367.3 µm of pollen tubes. Storage at + 4 °C for four months was accompanied by a profound decline in pollen viability. The germination percentage was reduced to 49.2-75.2% and the pollen tube length to 32.5-69.0%, depending on individual shrubs. The corresponding decline in pollen viability characteristics during storage at - 20 °C was only negligible in two of the tested shrubs. In the remaining three shrub samples, an increase in germination percentage was observed. Pollen tube growth responded more sensitively to freezing, but, on average, the decrease in length was lower than that at + 4 °C. The rate of reduction in pollen tube length varied between 11.5 and 45.4%. Cytological events accompanying in vitro germination of freezer-stored pollen exhibited some delay in releasing the exine from pollen grains during the early stages of germination as compared with freshly collected pollen. In conclusion, short-term storage of the common juniper pollen in a freezer is better for the preservation of its viability than storage at + 4 °C.


Assuntos
Germinação , Juniperus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Congelamento , Polinização , Temperatura
11.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(10): 4255-4268, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988734

RESUMO

The present study aimed to elucidate the effect of subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of juniper essential oil (EO), α-pinene, and sabinene on the quorum-sensing (QS)-mediated proteolytic and lipolytic properties of Pseudomonas fluorescens KM24. These activities were verified under in situ conditions, in which sub-MICs of the agents altered the morphology of KM24 cells. RNA-Seq studies revealed key coding sequences (CDSs)/genes related to QS and the proteolytic/lipolytic activities of pseudomonads. In this work, all the examined agents decreased autoinducer synthesis and influenced the mRNA expression of the encoding acyltransferase genes lptA, lptD, and plsB. The highest reduction on the 3rd and 5th days of cultivation was observed for the genes lptD (-5.5 and -5.61, respectively) and lptA (-3.5 and -4.0, respectively) following treatment with EO. Inhibition of the lptA, lptD, and plsB genes by singular constituents of EO was on average, from -0.4 to -0.7. At 5 days of cultivation the profile of AHLs of the reference P. fluorescens KM24 strain consisted of 3-oxo-C14-HSL, 3-oxo-C6-HSL, C4-HSL, and N-[(RS)-3-hydroxybutyryl]-HSL, the concentrations of which were 0.570, 0.018, 3.744, and 0.554 µg ml-1, respectively. Independent of the incubation time, EO, α-pinene, and sabinene also suppressed the protease genes prlC (-1.5, -0.5, and -0.5, respectively) and ctpB (-1.5, -0.7, and -0.4, respectively). Lipolysis and transcription of the lipA/lipB genes were downregulated by the agents on average from -0.3 to -0.6. α-Pinene- and sabinene-rich juniper EO acts as an anti-quorum-sensing agent and can repress the spoilage phenotype of pseudomonads. KEY POINTS: Juniper EO, α-pinene, sabinene exhibited anti-QS potential toward KM24. RNA-Seq revealed key CDSs/genes related to QS/proteolytic/lipolytic activities of KM24. Agents at sub-MIC levels influenced the mRNA expression of QS/lipase/protease genes.


Assuntos
Juniperus , Óleos Voláteis , Pseudomonas fluorescens , Biofilmes , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Pseudomonas fluorescens/genética , Percepção de Quorum
12.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1948): 20202906, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849312

RESUMO

Noise pollution can affect species' behaviours and distributions and may hold significant consequences for natural communities. While several studies have researched short-term effects of noise, no long-term research has examined whether observed patterns persist or if community recovery can occur. We used a long-term study system in New Mexico to examine the effects of continuous natural gas well noise exposure on seedling recruitment of foundational tree species (Pinus edulis, Juniperus osteosperma) and vegetation diversity. First, we examined seedling recruitment and vegetation diversity at plots where current noise levels have persisted for greater than 15 years. We then examined recruitment and diversity on plots where noise sources were recently removed or added. We found support for long-term negative effects of noise on tree seedling recruitment, evenness of woody plants and increasingly dissimilar vegetation communities with differences in noise levels. Furthermore, seedling recruitment and plant community composition did not recover following noise removal, possibly due in part to a lag in recovery among animals that disperse and pollinate plants. Our results add to the limited evidence that noise has cascading ecological effects. Moreover, these effects may be long lasting and noise removal may not lead to immediate recovery.


Assuntos
Juniperus , Plântula , Animais , Ecossistema , New Mexico , Ruído , Árvores
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 782: 146924, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848864

RESUMO

Recent warming over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is approximately twice the global-mean surface temperature increase and poses a threat to the healthy growth of forests. Although many studies have focused on whether recent climate warming has caused forest growth decline on the TP, it remains unclear how asymmetric warming, that is faster increasing nighttime temperature than daytime, impacts forest growth decline. We explored this question by using a ring-width index series from 1489 juniper trees (Juniperus prezwalskii and J. tibetica) at 50 sites on the TP. We calculated the percentage of trees with growth decline (PTD) to reconstruct historical forest growth decline and employed a piecewise structural equation meta-model (pSEM) and linear mixed model (LMM) to explore influencing factors. We found that the PTD has decreased since the late 19th century, with an abrupt decreasing trend since the 1980s. Results of the pSEM show that winter minimum temperature has a stronger indirect negative effect on the variation in PTD (ß = -0.24, p < 0.05) compared to that of the weak indirect positive effect of summer maximum temperature (ß = 0.16, p < 0.05). The results of LMM show that the variation in PTD is directly negatively (p < 0.001) affected by both winter minimum temperature and summer total precipitation, but the former has a greater independent contribution than the latter (with 17.7% vs 2.5% of variances independently explained, respectively). These results suggest that increased winter minimum temperature substantially mitigates the growth decline in juniper forests on the TP. As the minimum temperature generally occurs at night, we conclude that the asymmetric increase in nighttime temperature has decreased the incidence of juniper forest growth decline on the TP under climate warming. This alleviating effect of nighttime warming is likely due to reduced low-temperature constraints and reduced damage to tree growth.


Assuntos
Juniperus , Mudança Climática , Florestas , Incidência , Temperatura , Tibet , Árvores
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 192, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Juniperus procera Hoechst. ex Endl. is a medicinal tree in Saudi Arabia, primarily in the Enemas region, but it is locally threatened due to die-back disease and difficulties regarding seed reproduction (seed dormancy and underdeveloped embryonic anatomy, and germination rate < 40%). Hence, the alternative methods for reproduction of Juniperus procera are really needed for conservation and getting mass propagation for pharmaceutical uses. RESULTS: In this manuscript, we articulated the successful in vitro shoot multiplication and callus induction of J. procera by using young seedling as explants and detected an important antibacterial and antitumor product. Explants were grown on different types of media with the supplement of different combinations of Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs) at different concentrations. The best media for shoot multiplication was Woody Plant Media (WPM) supplemented with PGRs (0.5 µM of IAA and 0.5 µM BAP or 0.5 µM IBA and 0.5 µM BAP). Whereas for callus induction and formation Woody Plant Media (WPM) with the addition of PGRs (0.5 µM 2,4-D and 0.5 µM BAP) was better than the Chu Basal Salt Mixture (N6), Gamborg's B-5 Basal Medium (B5), and Murashige and Skoog media. The possibility of multiplication of J. procera in vitro creates significant advantages to overcome the difficulties of seeds dormancy for the reproduction of plants, conservation of trees, and getting mass propagation material for pharmaceutical studies. The shoot and callus extract of J. procera was detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and revealed more than 20 compounds related to secondary metabolites, which contained antibacterial and antitumor agents, such as ferruginol, Retinol, and Quinolone as well as confirmed by Direct Analysis in Real Time, Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (DART-ToF-MS). Podophyllotoxin (PTOX) was detected in callus material by HPLC with sigma standard and confirmed by DART-ToF-MS and UV spectra. CONCLUSION: We successfully conducted in vitro shoot multiplication and callus induction from J. procera seedlings using WPM and a different combination of PGRs and, detected an important antibacterial and antitumor product such as ferruginol and podophyllotoxin. According to our findings, J. procera has become a new natural source of novel bioactive compounds.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Juniperus/química , Juniperus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Horticultura , Extratos Vegetais/química , Brotos de Planta/química , Arábia Saudita , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Oncol Rep ; 45(6)2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907849

RESUMO

Mitotic catastrophe, a cell death mechanism characterized by abnormal mitosis, has been regarded as a therapeutic approach for the development of anti­cancer drug candidates. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effect of the ethanolic extract of Juniperus squamata (EEJS) on the occurrence of mitotic catastrophe in human oral cancer cell lines. The effect of EEJS on the occurrence of mitotic catastrophe was evaluated by measuring cytotoxicity, observing phase­contrast or transmission electron microscope findings, evaluating the appearance of microtubule or chromosome abnormalities, and detecting the phosphorylation of histone H3 (Ser10). The apoptotic effect of EEJS was assessed by detecting cleaved PARP, analyzing the sub­G1 population, Annexin V­FITC/PI double staining, western blot analysis, and the transient transfection of myeloid cell leukemia­1 (Mcl­1) overexpression vectors. EEJS treatment was effective in inhibiting cell proliferation in human oral cancer cell lines. EEJS resulted in the enrichment of enlarged multinucleated cells, the disturbance of microtubule formation, and increased phosphorylation of histone H3 (Ser10), which demonstrates the occurrence of mitotic catastrophe. Additionally, the multinucleated cells underwent apoptotic cell death in a cell context­dependent manner, which was associated with the reduction of Mcl­1 protein levels. Findings of the present study indicate that EEJS could be effective for treating human oral cancer by promoting mitotic catastrophe linked to apoptotic cell death.


Assuntos
Juniperus/química , Mitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Bucais/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Etanol/química , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
16.
Phytochemistry ; 186: 112737, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740576

RESUMO

Junipers (Juniperus spp.) are important pharmaceutical plants, and they are commonly grown in the northern hemisphere because of the various medicinal properties attributed to the Juniperus genus. However, despite their pharmaceutical and also industrial importance, and despite plant diversity being a common topic of research among professional breeding programs, there is a relatively small body of work which focuses on diversity in juniper, and this is especially true of juniper species that are native to Iran. Thus, the present study set out to investigate juniper diversity via identifying any morphological, phytochemical, and genetic differences among and within three important species of Iranian junipers. The data revealed the terpenoid profiles of the investigated species to be distinct from one another, with α-pinene, ß-pinene, myrcene, sabinene, and limonene being the predominant terpenoids detected. Intriguingly, high levels of myrtenyl acetate were detected in the J. sabina tissue collected from the Ramsar site, and this terpenoid was not found in either of the other studied species, nor has it been noted in any other studies that focus on juniper. The genetic variation of Juniperus was analyzed using five ISSR markers and the molecular variance was computed using the GenAlEx software. The results revealed there to be a high degree of genetic diversity both among and within the studied populations. A dendrogram of the genetic data using the UPGMA method with the Dice coefficient divided the genotypes into two main groups. J. communis and J. excelsa were grouped together, while J. sabina was separated into its own group. In general, morphologically speaking, the leaf and cone types were found to be chiefly influential vis-à-vis separating the populations into their respective groups. Ultimately, it is our hope that the biochemical, genetic, and morphological diversity data collected from these species will contribute to the success of future juniper breeding and restoration programs.


Assuntos
Juniperus , Óleos Voláteis , Irã (Geográfico) , Juniperus/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Terpenos/análise
17.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670315

RESUMO

Arabian flora is a rich source of bioactive compounds. In this study, we investigated three aromatic plant species with the aim of finding valuable sources of antimicrobial agents against common pathogenic microorganisms. We focused especially on microorganisms, which cause outbreaks of infectious disease during mass gatherings and pilgrimages season in Saudi Arabia. The essential oils of three aromatic plant species were hydrodistilled from flowering aerial parts of Lavandula pubescens Decne. and Pulicaria incisa subsp. candolleana E.Gamal-Eldin, and from leaves, stems, ripe and unripe fruits of Juniperus procera Hochst. Ex Endl. They were subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituents of L. pubescens were found to be carvacrol (55.7%), methyl carvacrol (13.4%), and ß-bisabolene (9.1%). P. incisa subsp. Candolleana essential oil was rich in linalool (33.0%), chrysanthenone (10.3%), eugenol (8.9%), and cis-chrysanthenol (8.0%); the major components of J. procera essential oil were α-pinene (31.3-62.5%) and δ-3-carene (7.3-30.3%). These essential oils were tested against thirteen American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using the agar diffusion assay. The only effective essential oil was that of L. pubescens and the most sensitive strains were Acinetobacter baumannii, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella sonnei, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Carvacrol, the major constituent of L. pubescens, was tested on these strains and was compared with vancomycin, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) assays of L. pubescens essential oil and carvacrol revealed that Gram-negative strains were more susceptible than the Gram-positive ones.


Assuntos
Juniperus/química , Lavandula/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Pulicaria/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cimenos/química , Cimenos/farmacologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Arábia Saudita , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 23(6): 1097-1108, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756015

RESUMO

Savin juniper is an excellent species for desertification control in arid and semi-arid areas, where it typically establishes under the protection of nurse plants. Ultimately, established plants emerge into full light as they grow, and this transition is accompanied by an increase in the preponderance of scale-like versus needle-like leaf forms. To test how age and variable light environments affect shade tolerance in savin juniper, we established a pot study under field conditions, with two age cohorts (1- and 4-year-old rooted scions) and three light regimes (10%, 50% and 100% light transmittance). We measured growth, leaf parameters, photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and foliar pigments on a monthly basis (seven growing months per year, from 2015 to 2017). Overall, there was little interaction among all variables, and both cohort and light regime had significant effects. Leaf form and spacing varied continuously, tending towards shorter, more closely spaced and more appressed scale leaves with higher dry leaf mass per area in older plants or under higher light. There were no clear age-related patterns in carotenoids but both cohort and light had significant effects on gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence variables. We conclude that savin juniper shows an intermediate tolerance to shade that changes with growth in that younger plants were less tolerant of full sun than older plants, consistent with its reliance on nurse plants for ultimate establishment in the open.


Assuntos
Juniperus , Clorofila , Luz , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta
19.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(1): 157-168, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390784

RESUMO

Juniperus indica Bertol. is an herbal plant that belongs to the genus Juniperus, which is commonly used in traditional medicine to refresh the mind and for diuretic use. However, few studies have reported the function of J. indica Bertol. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the anti-tumor and synergistic potential of J. indica Bertol. extract (JIB extract) for melanoma cells. Our results indicated the anti-melanoma activity of JIB extract. JIB extract induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase and decreased cyclin and cdk protein expressions. In addition, AKT/mTOR signaling and MAPK signaling were inhibited by JIB extract to suppress melanoma cell growth and proliferation. Additionally, JIB extract induced B16/F10 cell apoptosis via the caspase cascade. According to the JIB extract's anti-melanoma capacity, to assess the synergistic effects of cisplatin and JIB extract. The results demonstrated that JIB extract combined with cisplatin enhanced the inhibition of cell growth, proliferation, and survival through the obstruction of cell cycle progression and AKT/mTOR and MAPK signaling as well as the induction of cell apoptosis. Collectively, our results indicate that JIB extract showed anti-tumor effects and synergized with cisplatin against B16/F10 cells, indicating the possibility of JIB extract to be developed as adjuvant therapy for melanoma.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Juniperus/química , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Cães , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
20.
Life Sci ; 267: 118981, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385409

RESUMO

AIM: 15-Hydroxy-8(17),13(E)-labdadiene-19-carboxylic acid (HLCA) isolated from Juniperus foetidissima, has been recently identified as an antiproliferative agent; however, the molecular basis of antiproliferative effects of HLCA remains unknown. To investigate it, the current study has emphasized the hypothesis that HLCA induced cell death is a consequence of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production followed by cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. MAIN METHODS: Human ovarian OVCAR-3 and Caov-4 cells were treated with various concentrations of HLCA (48 h) and the measurement of intracellular ROS was considered. Then, the potential of HLCA in promoting apoptosis was investigated via flow cytometry, western blot, and caspase activity assay. Also, the inhibitory effect of HLCA on the cell cycle was evaluated using flow cytometry and western blot analysis. KEY FINDINGS: We found intracellular (ROS) accumulation in HLCA-treated cells. Subsequent observation of the increment in pro-apoptotic Bax as well as the decrement in antiapoptotic Bcl2 revealed that the HLCA-induced cytotoxicity may be triggered by the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Our subsequent experiments suggested that caspase-9 and -3 were activated and led the cells to apoptosis during the process. Cell cycle disruption at the G1 phase via down-regulation of cyclin D1 and Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) was another proved mechanism by which HLCA exerts its antiproliferative effects on the ovarian cell lines, OVCAR-3 and Caov-4, especially at relatively lower concentrations. SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study that reveals the apoptotic effects of HLCA, suggesting its therapeutic potential as an effective anti-tumor agent. However, further in vivo studies are required to confirm these effects.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Juniperus/química , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
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