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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(6)2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542245

RESUMO

The advent of CRISPR/Cas9 technology has revolutionized genome editing, enabling the attainment of once-unimaginable goals. CRISPR/Cas's groundbreaking attributes lie in its simplicity, versatility, universality, and independence from customized DNA-protein systems, erasing the need for specialized expertise and broadening its scope of applications. It is therefore more and more used for genome modification including the generation of mutants. Beyond such editing scopes, the recent development of novel or modified Cas-based systems has spawned an array of additional biotechnological tools, empowering both fundamental and applied research. Precisely targeting DNA or RNA sequences, the CRISPR/Cas system has been harnessed in fields as diverse as gene regulation, deepening insights into gene expression, epigenetic changes, genome spatial organization, and chromatin dynamics. Furthermore, it aids in genome imaging and sequencing, as well as effective identification and countering of viral pathogens in plants and animals. All in all, the non-editing aspect of CRISPR/Cas exhibits tremendous potential across diverse domains, including diagnostics, biotechnology, and fundamental research. This article reviews and critically evaluates the primary CRISPR/Cas-based tools developed for plants and animals, underlining their transformative impact.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Juniperus , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Plantas/genética , Genômica , DNA
2.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(2): e17149, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342970

RESUMO

Piñon-juniper (PJ) woodlands are a dominant community type across the Intermountain West, comprising over a million acres and experiencing critical effects from increasing wildfire. Large PJ mortality and regeneration failure after catastrophic wildfire have elevated concerns about the long-term viability of PJ woodlands. Thinning is increasingly used to safeguard forests from fire and in an attempt to increase climate resilience. We have only a limited understanding of how fire and thinning will affect the structure and function of PJ ecosystems. Here, we examined vegetation structure, microclimate conditions, and PJ regeneration dynamics following ~20 years post-fire and thinning treatments. We found that burned areas had undergone a state shift that did not show signs of returning to their previous state. This shift was characterized by (1) distinct plant community composition dominated by grasses; (2) a lack of PJ recruitment; (3) a decrease in the sizes of interspaces in between plants; (4) lower abundance of late successional biological soil crusts; (5) lower mean and minimum daily soil moisture values; (6) lower minimum daily vapor pressure deficit; and (7) higher photosynthetically active radiation. Thinning created distinct plant communities and served as an intermediate between intact and burned communities. More intensive thinning decreased PJ recruitment and late successional biocrust cover. Our results indicate that fire has the potential to create drier and more stressful microsite conditions, and that, in the absence of active management following fire, there may be shifts to persistent ecological states dominated by grasses. Additionally, more intensive thinning had a larger impact on community structure and recruitment than less intensive thinning, suggesting that careful consideration of goals could help avoid unintended consequences. While our results indicate the vulnerability of PJ ecosystems to fire, they also highlight management actions that could be adapted to create conditions that promote PJ re-establishment.


Assuntos
Incêndios , Juniperus , Pinus , Ecossistema , Florestas , Solo
3.
FEBS Open Bio ; 14(4): 613-625, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38409906

RESUMO

Essential oils derived from plants are major ingredients in the medical and cosmetic industry. Here, we evaluated nine types of plant essential oils to identify potential candidates with antioxidant and elasticity-enhancing properties. Seven essential oils showed at least 10% radical scavenging activity at the highest concentration. Essential oils extracted from Aster glehnii, Cinnamomum cassia, Citrus unshiu, Juniperus chinensis L., and Juniperus chinensis var. sargentii significantly enhanced fibroblast viability, and oils from Cit. unshiu, J. chinensis L., and J. chinensis var. sargentii significantly increased cell proliferation and migration. Expression of extracellular matrix proteins, including collagen 1, collagen 3, and elastin, were upregulated by J. chinensis L. and J. chinensis var. sargentii oil, which also significantly enhanced the contractile activity of skin cells in a three-dimensional gel contraction assay. The results suggest that J. chinensis L. and J. chinensis var. sargentii essential oils may be potential anti-wrinkling and anti-oxidative agents for future consideration of use in the medical and cosmetic industry.


Assuntos
Juniperus , Óleos Voláteis , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Óleos de Plantas , Colágeno
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3706, 2024 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355950

RESUMO

Pollen viability, dispersion ability and longevity during deep-freezer storage were studied in three Juniperus taxa distributed in Slovakia. All these characteristics of pollen are closely related to the pollination and/or fertilization success of the junipers in nature. Pollen viability varied considerably between the three populations of J. communis and one population of each, J. sibirica and J. communis var. intermedia. Pollen germination rate ranged between 40.75% and 75.06%, and pollen tube length between 30.32 and 40.41 µm. A clear tendency indicates a higher germination rate of J. communis pollen from lower altitudes and reduced germination of J. sibirica and J. communis var. intermedia pollen from higher altitudes. The dispersion potential of the J. communis pollen during its shedding seems relatively low. In 2021, pollen cloud density was diluted at 68.1% at the 4 m distance from the test shrub, in 2022 of 52.1% at the 17 m distance from the pollen source. A deep-freezer storage of juniper pollen in a double-walled polyethylene bag with silica gel was not efficient enough, as indicated by the drop of pollen germination rate of 31.2% in J. communis and of 79.4% in J. sibirica during a 1-year storage period at - 81 °C.


Assuntos
Juniperus , Eslováquia , Longevidade , Pólen , Polinização
5.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0294126, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330006

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to (1) establish the intrapopulation and seasonal variation of Juniperus excelsа essential oil (EO); (2) compare the J. excelsa concrete and resinoid composition with its EO composition; and (3) investigate the potential herbicidal activity of J. excelsa EO against seeds of Papaver rhoeas L., Consolida orientalis (J.Gay) Schrödinger, Anthemis arvensis L., Avena fatua L., and Agrostemma githago L. Four independent studies were performed to meet these objectives. Twenty-eight individual trees were analyzed from two populations to establish intrapopulation and interpopulation variability of EOs yield and composition. In the seasonal dynamic study of leaf EO, samples from the same three trees and in the same population were collected in January, March, May, July, October, and December and their EO yield and composition determined. The EOs (intrapopulation and seasonal) were extracted by hydrodistillation, while the EO for the herbicidal test was obtained by steam distillation in a semi-commercial (SCom) apparatus. Overall, the EO yield varied significantly from 0.93% to 2.57%. α-Pinene (8.85-35.94%), limonene (11.81-50.08%), and cedrol (3.41-34.29%) were the predominant EO compounds in all samples (intrapopulation variability); however, trans-2,4-decadienol and ß-caryophyllene were predominant in some individual trees. Four chemical groups were identified in the samples collected from two natural populations (intrapopulation). This is the first report on the compositions of J. excelsa concrete and resinoid. Cedrol (15.39%), 7-hydroxy-4-methyl-coumarin (17.63%), 1-octacosanol (36.85%), tritriacontane (16.08%), and tiacontanoic acid were the main compounds in the concrete and resinoid. Juniperus excelsa EO suppressed seed germination and seedling growth of P. rhoeas, C. orientalis, A. arvensis, A. fatua, and A. githago, demonstrating its potential to be used for the development of new biopesticides. The highest EO yield with high content of limonene and cedrol was obtained from samples harvested during the winter months (December, January, and March).


Assuntos
Juniperus , Óleos Voláteis , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Limoneno , Árvores , Sementes
6.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 107, 2024 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38267854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Junipers (Juniperus spp.) are woody native, invasive plants that have caused encroachment problems in the U.S. western rangelands, decreasing forage productivity and biodiversity. A potential solution to this issue is using goats in targeted grazing programs. However, junipers, which grow in dry and harsh environmental conditions, use chemical defense mechanisms to deter herbivores. Therefore, genetically selecting goats for increased juniper consumption is of great interest for regenerative rangeland management. In this context, the primary objectives of this study were to: 1) estimate variance components and genetic parameters for predicted juniper consumption in divergently selected Angora (ANG) and composite Boer x Spanish (BS) goat populations grazing on Western U.S. rangelands; and 2) to identify genomic regions, candidate genes, and biological pathways associated with juniper consumption in these goat populations. RESULTS: The average juniper consumption was 22.4% (± 18.7%) and 7.01% (± 12.1%) in the BS and ANG populations, respectively. The heritability estimates (realized heritability within parenthesis) for juniper consumption were 0.43 ± 0.02 (0.34 ± 0.06) and 0.19 ± 0.03 (0.13 ± 0.03) in BS and ANG, respectively, indicating that juniper consumption can be increased through genetic selection. The repeatability values of predicted juniper consumption were 0.45 for BS and 0.28 for ANG. A total of 571 significant SNP located within or close to 231 genes in BS, and 116 SNP related to 183 genes in ANG were identified based on the genome-wide association analyses. These genes are primarily associated with biological pathways and gene ontology terms related to olfactory receptors, intestinal absorption, and immunity response. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that juniper consumption is a heritable trait of polygenic inheritance influenced by multiple genes of small effects. The genetic parameters calculated indicate that juniper consumption can be genetically improved in both goat populations.


Assuntos
Juniperus , Animais , Juniperus/genética , Cabras/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Patrimônio Genético
7.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0295550, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38271463

RESUMO

Juniperus species are shrubs or trees in the family Cupressaceae that play an important role in forest ecosystems. In this study, we report the complete sequences of the plastid (pt) genomes of five Juniperus species collected in Kazakhstan (J. communis, J. sibirica, J. pseudosabina, J. semiglobosa, and J. davurica). The sequences of the pt genomes of the five species were annotated in addition to two full pt genome sequences from J. sabina and J. seravschanica, which we have previously reported. The pt genome sequences of these seven species were compared to the pt genomes of Juniperus species available in the public NCBI database. The total length of the pt genomes of Juniperus species, including previously published pt genome data, ranged from 127,469 bp (J. semiglobosa) to 128,097 bp (J. communis). Each Juniperus plastome consisted of 119 genes, including 82 protein-coding genes, 33 transfer RNA and 4 ribosomal RNA genes. Among the identified genes, 16 contained one or two introns, and 2 tRNA genes were duplicated. A comparative assessment of pt genome sequences suggested the identification of 1145 simple sequence repeat markers. A phylogenetic tree of 26 Juniperus species based on the 82 protein-coding genes separated the Juniperus samples into two major clades, corresponding to the Juniperus and Sabina sections. The analysis of pt genome sequences indicated that accD and ycf2 were the two most polymorphic genes. The phylogenetic evaluation of 26 Juniperus species using these two genes confirmed that they can be efficiently used as DNA barcodes for phylogenetic analyses in the genus. The sequenced plastomes of these Juniperus species have provided a large amount of genetic data that will be valuable for future genomic studies of this genus.


Assuntos
Genoma de Cloroplastos , Juniperus , Genoma de Cloroplastos/genética , Juniperus/genética , Filogenia , Cazaquistão , Ecossistema , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética
8.
Microsc Res Tech ; 87(4): 790-799, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38071733

RESUMO

Juniper species contain abundant compounds that are used in the medicine, cosmetic, and wood industry. Furthermore, these components protect the genus against herbivores, pathogens and detrimental abiotic conditions. Stains and specific reagents can be used individually or simultaneously to mark cell shape, arrangement and the material they are made from. Microchemical analyses using specific reagents and stains under light microscopy are helpful for the characterization of chemical compounds present in plant tissues. The autofluorescence of endogenous fluorophores is used to enable their localization in plant cells and tissues. This paper aims to investigate the cytochemical and histochemical traits of the shoots (leaves and stems) and female cones (berries) of Juniperus seravschanica. Light and florescent microscopy techniques were used to analyze the cytology and localization of different compounds for the first time. Microscopy-based histochemical analyses revealed various products in terms of composition and distribution among the shoots and female cones. These specific compounds contained lignin, tannins, polysaccharides, starch, phenolic compounds, chlorophyll, terpenoids, neutral lipids, and proteins. However, the anatomical position of each metabolite and its concentration was different among leaf, stem, and female cone. Phenolic cells of young cones were differentiated into sclereid cells during development. The density of phenolic cells, sclereid cells, and resin glans was higher in female cones than leaves and stems. The high levels of various components can be related to high resistance of the species against biotic and abiotic stresses, confirm its industrial, pharmaceutical and agricultural applications and is useful for identification of diagnostic taxonomic traits. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS: Microscopical and histochemical analyses showed various compounds in J. seravschanica The phenolic cells differentiated to sclereid cells during development High levels of idioblasts and various compounds show its high resistance and medicinal role.


Assuntos
Cupressaceae , Juniperus , Juniperus/química , Terpenos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polissacarídeos
9.
Chem Biodivers ; 21(2): e202301433, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38156744

RESUMO

The cuticle is important in the interaction between the plant and its environment, especially in the dry areas. Four species of junipers from the section Sabina wild growing in the Balkans were selected to study leaf wax composition using GC/MS and GC-FID and its surface morphology under SEM to understand the correlation between the distribution and/or habitat of these species and their cuticles. SEM micrographs showed continuous, smooth epicuticular layers with crusts in all species but with a species-specific distribution of different 3D crystalloid types and different cuticle thickness. n-C33 alkane was the most abundant compound, followed by n-C29, n-C31, and n-C35, depending on the species and the site. The average chain length (N) was the lowest in J. phoenicea, but with the greatest dispersion around it. At the same time, the two most continental species (J. foetidissima and J. excelsa) show the N with the lowest dispersion around it. The statistical analyses confirmed the significance of climate on the evolution of the specific epicuticular wax composition in studied junipers.


Assuntos
Juniperus , Juniperus/química , Ceras/química , Península Balcânica , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Alcanos/química , Folhas de Planta/química
10.
Molecules ; 28(22)2023 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38005268

RESUMO

In this study, the anti-cancer, anti-tyrosinase, and antioxidant activities of essential oils (EOs) of berries and leaves of Juniperus phoenicea grown wild in North of Tunisia were investigated. The EO yields from leaves and berries were 1.69% and 0.45%, respectively. GC-MS analysis revealed that α-pinene is the predominant component in both EOs (44.17 and 83.56%, respectively). Leaves essential oil presented high levels of ß-phellandrene (18%) and camphene (15%). The EOs displayed cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 breast cancer cell, HT-29 colon cancer, and the normal cells H9C2 cardiomyoblasts. Leaves oil strongly inhibited colon cell line proliferation (IC50 of 38 µg/mL), while berries essential oil was more potent against breast cancerous cells MCF-7 (IC50 of 60 µg/mL). Interestingly, berries essential oil exhibited high ability to inhibit melanin synthesis by inhibiting enzyme mono and diphenolase activities. Overall, the results suggested that the two oils are significant sources of healthy natural chemicals.


Assuntos
Juniperus , Óleos Voláteis , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(20)2023 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37894884

RESUMO

The essential oils of Juniperus are highly beneficial medicinally. The present study aimed to assess the chemodiversity and bioactivity of Juniperus formosana, Juniperus przewalskii, Juniperus convallium, Juniperus tibetica, Juniperus komarovii, and Juniperus sabina essential oils from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The results revealed 92 components in six essential oils: α-pinene (2.71-17.31%), sabinene (4.91-19.83%), and sylvestrene (1.84-8.58%) were the main components. Twelve components were firstly reported in Juniperus oils, indicating that the geographical location and climatic conditions of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau produced the unique characteristics of Juniperus essential oils. The chemodiversity of Juniperus essential oils varied greatly, with J. sabina having the most recognized components (64) and the highest chemodiversity (Shannon-Wiener index of 3.07, Simpson's diversity index of 0.91, and Pielou evenness of 0.74). According to the chemodiversity of essential oils, the six plants were decided into the α-pinene chemotype (J. formosana), hedycaryol chemotype (J. przewalskii, J. komarovii, J. convallium, J. tibetica), and sabinene chemotype (J. sabina). PCA, HCA and OPLS-DA showed that J. formosana and J. sabina were distantly related to other plants, which provides a chemical basis for the classification of Juniperus plants. Furthermore, bioactivity tests exhibited certain antioxidant and antibacterial effects in six Juniperus oils. And the bioactivities of J. convallium, J. tibetica, and J. komarovvii were measured for the first time, broadening the range of applications of Juniperus. Correlation analysis of components and bioactivities showed that δ-amorphene, ß-udesmol, α-muurolol, and 2-nonanone performed well in the determination of antioxidant activity, and α-pinene, camphene, ß-myrcene, as well as (E)-thujone, had strong inhibitory effects on pathogenic bacteria, providing a theoretical basis for further research on these components.


Assuntos
Juniperus , Óleos Voláteis , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Antibacterianos
12.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 17228, 2023 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37821469

RESUMO

One of the main goals of ecological studies is to disentangle the dynamics that underlie the spatiotemporal distribution of biodiversity and further functions of the ecosystem. However, due to many ecological and geopolitical reasons, many remote areas with high plant species diversity have not been assessed using newly based analytical approaches for vegetation characterization. Here, we classified and characterized different vegetation types (i.e., major plant communities) based on indicator species and on the influence of different environmental gradients in the Himalayan mixed coniferous forest, Pakistan. For that, we addressed the following questions: Does the vegetation composition of the Himalayan mixed coniferous forest correlate with climatic, topographic, geographic, and edaphic variables? Is it possible to identify plant communities through indicator species in relation to environmental gradients using multivariate approaches? Can this multivariate be helpful for conservation planning? During four consecutive years we assessed the vegetation composition and environmental variables (21 variables divided in geographic, climatic, topographic, and edaphic groups) of 156 50 m-trasects between an elevation of 2000-4000 m. Using newly based analytical approaches for community characterization, we found a total of 218 plant species clustered into four plant communities with the influence of environmental gradients. The highest index of similarity was recorded between Pinus-Cedrus-Viburnum (PCV) and Viburnum-Pinus-Abies (VPA) communities, and the highest index of dissimilarity was recorded between PCV and Abies-Juniperus-Picea (AJP) communities. Among these four communities, highest number of plant species (156 species) was recorded in PCV, maximum alpha diversity (H' = 3.68) was reported in VPA, highest Simpson index (0.961) and Pielou's evenness (0.862) were reported in VPA and AJP. The edaphic gradients (i.e., organic matter, phosphorous, pH and soil texture) and climatic factors (temperature, humidity) were the strongest environmental gradients that were responsible for structuring and hosting the diverse plant communities in mixed coniferous forest. Finally, the Himalayan mixed coniferous structure is more influenced by the spatial turnover beta-diversity process (ßsim) than by the species loss (nestedness-resultant, ßsne). Our analysis of the vegetation structure along the environmental gradient in the Himalayan mixed coniferous forest supported by sophisticated analytical approaches reveled indicator species groups, which are associated to specific microclimatic zones (i.e., vegetation communities). Within this focus, we side with the view that these results can support conservation planning and management for similar and different areas providing mitigating and preventive measures to reduce potential negative impacts, such as anthropic and climatic.


Assuntos
Abies , Juniperus , Picea , Pinus , Traqueófitas , Ecossistema , Florestas , Biodiversidade , Plantas , Solo/química
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 902: 165911, 2023 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37549708

RESUMO

Increasing mean global temperatures in conjunction with increases in the frequency and severity of drought events affect plant growth and physiology, particularly in more arid and mountainous ecosystems. Thus, it is imperative to understand the response of plant growth to climatic oscillations in these regions. This study used dendrochronological and wood anatomical traits of two shrub species growing over 1500 m.a.s.l. in the Serra da Estrela (Portugal), Juniperus communis and Cytisus oromediterraneus, to analyze their response to temperature and water availability parameters. Results showed an increase in shrub growth related to the increase over time of the mean minimum and maximum monthly temperature in Serra da Estrela. Warming seems to promote shrub growth because it lengthens the growing season, although J. communis responds mainly to spring maximum temperature while C. oromediterraneus is influenced by fall maximum temperature. Hydraulic traits of J. communis and C. oromediterraneus were negatively influenced by winter drought. Additionally, there were species-specific differences in response to changes in water availability. J. communis radial growth was significantly affected by spring drought conditions, while C. oromediterraneus radial growth was significantly affected by spring precipitation. C. oromediterraneus hydraulic traits were also significantly affected by drought conditions from the previous spring and fall. This study shed light on specific differences in the response to climate between two co-occurring shrub species in the top of an understudied Mediterranean mountain, which could have implications in the future distribution of woody species within this region.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Juniperus , Temperatura , Estações do Ano , Secas , Água , Mudança Climática
14.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 13340, 2023 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37587172

RESUMO

Disturbances in the sleep-wake cycle are a debilitating, yet rather common condition not only in humans, but also in family dogs. While there is an emerging need for easy-to-use tools to document sleep alterations (in order to ultimately treat and/or prevent them), the veterinary tools which yield objective data (e.g. polysomnography, activity monitors) are both labor intensive and expensive. In this study, we developed a modified version of a previously used sleep questionnaire (SNoRE) and determined criterion validity in companion dogs against polysomnography and physical activity monitors (PAMs). Since a negative correlation between sleep time and cognitive performance in senior dogs has been demonstrated, we evaluated the correlation between the SNoRE scores and the Canine Dementia Scale (CADES, which includes a factor concerning sleep). There was a significant correlation between SNoRE 3.0 questionnaire scores and polysomnography data (latency to NREM sleep, ρ = 0.507, p < 0.001) as well as PAMs' data (activity between 1:00 and 3:00 AM, p < 0.05). There was a moderate positive correlation between the SNoRE 3.0 scores and the CADES scores (ρ = 0.625, p < 0.001). Additionally, the questionnaire structure was validated by a confirmatory factor analysis, and it also showed an adequate test-retest reliability. In conclusion the present paper describes a valid and reliable questionnaire tool, that can be used as a cost-effective way to monitor dog sleep in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Juniperus , Sono de Ondas Lentas , Humanos , Animais , Cães , Animais de Estimação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sono , Polissonografia , Ronco
15.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286478, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37267264

RESUMO

Shrublands globally have undergone structural changes due to plant invasions, including the expansion of native trees. Removal of native conifer trees, especially juniper (Juniperus spp.), is occurring across the Great Basin of the western U.S. to support declining sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitats and associated wildlife species, such as greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). One justification for conifer removal is that it may improve survival of sagebrush-associated wildlife by reducing the abundance of avian predators. However, the relationship between conifer expansion and predator distributions has not been explicitly evaluated. Further, although structural characteristics of habitat are important for generalist predators, overall prey abundance may also affect habitat use by predators. We examined habitat use of common ravens (Corvus corax) and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), two generalist predators whose populations are increasing in western North America, to variation in structural characteristics and prey distributions in sagebrush habitat that has experienced conifer expansion. Structural characteristics of habitat were important predictors of habitat use for both ravens and red-tailed hawks, whereas measures of prey abundance were unimportant for both species likely because generalist predators can use a wide variety of food resources. Ravens, but not red-tailed hawks, responded positively to increasing cover of juniper and the probability of habitat use was highest (> 0.95) where juniper cover within 100 m was > 20%. Habitat use by red-tailed hawks, but not ravens, was greater near cliffs but was not associated with juniper cover. Our study suggests that the removal of conifer in similar environments may lower the probability of habitat use for ravens, a common predator with significant impacts on many prey species. Therefore, we suggest conifer removal may improve sage-grouse reproductive success and survival depending on responses to conifer removal from other predators. Our results may be reflective of similar changes in rangeland ecosystems around the world undergoing expansion of conifer and other woody vegetation. Though species identities differ from sagebrush habitats, generalist avian predators in other habitats may have similar relationships with structural resources.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Galliformes , Juniperus , Traqueófitas , Animais , Ecossistema , Galliformes/fisiologia , Animais Selvagens , América do Norte , Codorniz
17.
J Anim Sci ; 1012023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37328163

RESUMO

A sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep time study was conducted on 15 adult intact male Boer × Spanish goats selected for high (J+, n = 7) or low (J-, n = 8) juniper consumption (estimated breeding values of 13.1 ± 1.0 and -14.3 ± 0.8, respectively; mean ± standard deviation). Pentobarbital sleep time is an in vivo assay of Phase I hepatic metabolism that can be induced by exposure to barbiturates and monoterpenes. Monoterpenes and pentobarbital are initially oxidized by this pathway; thus, we hypothesized that J+ goats would have shorter sleep times than J- goats. Time to the righting reflex after pentobarbital-induced sleep was measured in all goats following a minimum period of 21 d on three different diets: 1) grazing juniper-infested rangeland (JIR), 2) forage diet with no monoterpenes (M0), and 3) forage diet with 8 g/kg added monoterpenes from camphor, sabinene, and α-pinene in a w/w ratio of 5:4:1 (M+). Fecal samples from the JIR diet were analyzed with near-infrared spectroscopy for the percentage of juniper in the diet. Fecal samples from the JIR and M+ diets were analyzed for camphor and sabinene concentrations. The percentage of juniper in the diet of J+ goats grazing rangelands was greater (P = 0.001) than J- goats (31.1% and 18.6%, respectively). Sleep time did not differ between selection lines (P = 0.36). However, the sleep time of the goats fed M+ diet was 26 min shorter (P < 0.001) than JIR or M0 diets, which were equal. The concentration of camphor and sabinene in the feces was higher (P < 0.001) for goats on the M+ diet than on the JIR diet. There were no differences between selection lines in the serum enzymes indicative of liver disease (aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and glutamate dehydrogenase; P > 0.12), and all treatment means were within the reference interval. Selecting goats for juniper consumption did not affect the Phase I detoxification system, and several alternative hypotheses for differences in juniper consumption between J+ and J- goats are discussed.


Juniper is an encroaching woody plant with high levels of essential oils and condensed tannins that can limit its consumption by herbivores. Goats were divergently selected for 15 yr to increase or decrease their juniper consumption. This study was conducted to determine if a physiological pathway for metabolism of essential oils differed between high and low juniper-consuming goat lines. The metabolic pathway for the elimination of essential oils is similar to that of the barbiturate pentobarbital. A pentobarbital-induced sleep time was used to detect differences in detoxification rates between the divergent goat lines selectively bred for either a high or low percentage of juniper in their diet. We hypothesized that high juniper-consuming goats would have shorter sleep times, indicating their detoxification pathway was more active. However, there was no difference between these lines. Additionally, there were no differences between the selection lines in blood metabolites that indicate liver tissue damage or liver weights. Therefore, higher dietary juniper preference may be associated with other detoxification mechanisms, may not be limited by essential oils, or may be a socially facilitated learned behavior.


Assuntos
Juniperus , Animais , Masculino , Juniperus/química , Cabras , Cânfora , Desentoxicação Metabólica Fase I , Pentobarbital , Melhoramento Vegetal , Dieta/veterinária , Monoterpenos , Fígado
18.
Int J Cosmet Sci ; 45(5): 655-671, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37317028

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Skin brightness and spot have a significant impact on youthful and beautiful appearance. One important factor influencing skin brightness is the amount of internal reflected light from the skin. Observers recognize the total surface-reflected light and internal reflected light as skin brightness. The more internal reflected light from the skin, the more attractive and brighter the skin appears. This study aims to identify a new natural cosmetic ingredient that increases the skin's internal reflected light, decreases spot and provides a youthful and beautiful skin appearance. METHODS: Lipofuscin in epidermal keratinocytes, the aggregating complex of denatured proteins and peroxidized lipids, is one factor that decreases skin brightness and causes of spot. Aggregates block light transmission, and peroxidized lipids lead to skin yellowness, dullness and age spot. Lipofuscin is known to accumulate intracellularly with ageing. Rapid removal of intracellular denatured proteins prevents lipofuscin formation and accumulation in cells. We focused a proteasome system that efficiently removes intracellular denatured proteins. To identify natural ingredients that increase proteasome activity, we screened 380 extracts derived from natural products. The extract with the desired activity was fractionated and purified to identify active compounds that lead to proteasome activation. Finally, the efficacy of the proteasome-activating extract was evaluated in a human clinical study. RESULTS: We discovered that Juniperus communis fruits (Juniper berry) extract (JBE) increases proteasome activity and suppresses lipofuscin accumulation in human epidermal keratinocytes. We found Anthricin and Yatein, which belong to the lignan family, to be major active compounds responsible for the proteasome-activating effect of JBE. In a human clinical study, an emulsion containing 1% JBE was applied to half of the face twice daily for 4 weeks, resulting in increased internal reflected light, brightness improvement (L-value) and reduction in yellowness (b-value) and spot in the cheek area. CONCLUSION: This is the first report demonstrating that JBE containing Anthricin and Yatein decreases lipofuscin accumulation in human epidermal keratinocytes through proteasome activation, increases brightness and decreases surface spots in human skin. JBE would be an ideal natural cosmetic ingredient for creating a more youthful and beautiful skin appearance with greater brightness and less spot.


OBJECTIF: La luminosité et les taches de peau ont un impact significatif sur la jeunesse et la beauté de l'apparence. L'un des facteurs importants influençant la luminosité de la peau est la quantité de lumière interne réfléchie par la peau. Pour les observateurs, la luminosité de la peau correspond à la somme de la lumière réfléchie par la surface et de la lumière réfléchie par l'intérieur de la peau. Plus la quantité de lumière interne réfléchie par la peau est importante, plus la peau semble attrayante et lumineuse. Cette étude vise à identifier un nouvel ingrédient cosmétique naturel qui augmente la lumière interne réfléchie par la peau, diminue les taches et donne à la peau une apparence jeune et belle. MÉTHODES: La lipofuscine dans les kératinocytes de l'épiderme, le complexe agrégé de protéines dénaturées et de lipides peroxydés, est un facteur qui diminue l'éclat de la peau et qui est à l'origine des taches. Les agrégats bloquent la transmission de la lumière et les lipides peroxydés entraînent une coloration jaune de la peau, un aspect terne et des taches de vieillesse. On sait que la lipofuscine s'accumule au niveau intracellulaire avec le vieillissement. L'élimination rapide des protéines dénaturées intracellulaires empêche la formation et l'accumulation de lipofuscine dans les cellules. Nous avons mis l'accent sur un système de protéasome qui élimine efficacement les protéines dénaturées intracellulaires. Pour identifier les ingrédients naturels qui augmentent l'activité du protéasome, nous avons passé au crible 380 extraits dérivés de produits naturels. L'extrait présentant l'activité souhaitée a été fractionné et purifié afin d'identifier les composés actifs qui conduisent à l'activation du protéasome. Enfin, l'efficacité de l'extrait activant le protéasome a été évaluée dans une étude clinique humaine. RÉSULTATS: Nous avons découvert que l'extrait de Juniperus communis fruits (baie de genièvre) augmente l'activité du protéasome et supprime l'accumulation de lipofuscine dans les kératinocytes épidermiques humains. Nous avons découvert que l'anthricine et la yateine, qui appartiennent à la famille des lignanes, sont les principaux composés actifs responsables de l'effet activateur du protéasome de l'extrait de baies de genévrier. Dans une étude clinique humaine, une émulsion contenant 1 % de JBE a été appliquée sur la moitié du visage deux fois par jour pendant 4 semaines, ce qui a entraîné une augmentation de la lumière interne réfléchie, une amélioration de la luminosité (valeur L) et une réduction de la jaunisse (valeur b) et des taches dans la zone des joues. CONCLUSION: Il s'agit du premier rapport démontrant que l'EBJ contenant de l'anthricine et de la yateine diminue l'accumulation de lipofuscine dans les kératinocytes épidermiques humains par l'activation du protéasome, augmente la luminosité et diminue les taches superficielles de la peau humaine. Le JBE serait un ingrédient cosmétique naturel idéal pour créer une peau plus jeune et plus belle, plus lumineuse et moins tachetée.


Assuntos
Juniperus , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma , Humanos , Lipofuscina/metabolismo , Juniperus/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Proteínas
19.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 9818, 2023 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37330618

RESUMO

The benefits of early detection of biological invasions are widely recognized, especially for protected areas (PAs). However, research on incipient invasive plant species is scarce compared to species with a recognized history of invasion. Here, we characterized the invasion status of the non-native conifer Juniperus communis in PAs and interface areas of Andean Patagonia, Argentina. We mapped its distribution and described both the invasion and the environments this species inhabits through field studies, a literature review, and a citizen science initiative. We also modeled the species' potential distribution by comparing the climatic characteristics of its native range with those of the introduced ranges studied. The results show that J. communis is now widely distributed in the region, occurring naturally in diverse habitats, and frequently within and close to PAs. This species can be considered an incipient invader with a high potential for expansion in its regional distribution range, largely due to its high reproductive potential and the high habitat suitability of this environment. Early detection of a plant invasion affords a valuable opportunity to inform citizens of the potential risks to high conservation value ecosystems before the invader is perceived as a natural component of the landscape.


Assuntos
Juniperus , Traqueófitas , Ecossistema , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Espécies Introduzidas , Plantas
20.
Molecules ; 28(11)2023 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37298924

RESUMO

Essential oils (EOs) obtained from Juniperus communis L. are frequently used in the production of bioproducts. However, there are no studies regarding industrial crops' production, allowing for better control of the quality and production of juniper EOs. To select the plant material for developing future crops of this species in northern Spain, four locations where this shrub species grows in the wild were selected and samples of both genera were collected. The EOs were obtained by steam distillation, and their chemical composition and bioactivity were evaluated. The results showed that the yield of EOs from male and female samples were within the usual reported ranges, varying between 0.24 and 0.58% (dry basis, d.b.). However, limonene content in three locations varied between 15 and 25%, which is between 100% and 200% higher than the values usually reported for other European countries. The antibacterial activity was determined by broth microdilution and showed that gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to the tested EOs since, in general, lower MIC values were obtained compared to gram-negatives. The EOs from location 1 (L1F) and 2 (L2M) inhibited the growth of six out of the eight clinical strains tested. Samples from location 1 were particularly effective, exhibiting MBC against two gram-negative (E. coli and P. mirabilis) and one gram-positive bacteria (E. faecalis). Moreover, the majority of the EOs tested showed anti-inflammatory activity. Cytotoxic effect has been demonstrated in tumor cell lines, with the best results observed against gastric carcinoma (AGS) cells (GI50 between 7 to 77 µg/mL). Although generally presenting higher GI50, most samples also inhibited the growth of non-tumoral cells, particularly hepatocytes (PLP2 cells). Therefore, its use for their anti-proliferative activity should consider specific conditions to avoid damaging normal cells. Finally, the results and conclusions obtained led to the selection of the female shrubs from location 1 (L1F) as the plant material to be propagated in order to produce plants for a future juniper crop.


Assuntos
Juniperus , Óleos Voláteis , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Juniperus/química , Escherichia coli , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Bactérias Gram-Positivas
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