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1.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e079988, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV drug resistance (DR) is a growing threat to the durability of current and future HIV treatment success. DR testing (DRT) technologies are very expensive and specialised, relying on centralised laboratories in most low and middle-income countries. Modelling for laboratory network with point-of-care (POC) DRT assays to minimise turnaround time (TAT), is urgently needed to meet the growing demand. METHODS: We developed a model with user-friendly interface using integer programming and queueing theory to improve the DRT system in Kisumu County, Kenya. We estimated DRT demand based on both current and idealised scenarios and evaluated a centralised laboratory-only network and an optimised POC DRT network. A one-way sensitivity analysis of key user inputs was conducted. RESULTS: In a centralised laboratory-only network, the mean TAT ranged from 8.52 to 8.55 working days, and the system could not handle a demand proportion exceeding 1.6%. In contrast, the mean TAT for POC DRT network ranged from 1.13 to 2.11 working days, with demand proportion up to 4.8%. Sensitivity analyses showed that expanding DRT hubs reduces mean TAT substantially while increasing the processing rate at national labs had minimal effect. For instance, doubling the current service rate at national labs reduced the mean TAT by only 0.0%-1.9% in various tested scenarios, whereas doubling the current service rate at DRT hubs reduced the mean TAT by 37.5%-49.8%. In addition, faster batching modes and transportation were important factors influencing the mean TAT. CONCLUSIONS: Our model offers decision-makers an informed framework for improving the DRT system using POC in Kenya. POC DRT networks substantially reduce mean TAT and can handle a higher demand proportion than a centralised laboratory-only network, especially for children and pregnant women living with HIV, where there is an immediate push to use DRT results for patient case management.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Laboratórios , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Quênia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Engenharia , Testes Imediatos
2.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0297668, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574039

RESUMO

To address the problem of large deformations in weak surrounding rock tunnels under high ground stress, which cause damage to initial support structures, this study proposes a novel type of circumferential pressure-relief joint based on the concept of relieving deformation pressure of the surrounding rock. Key parameters of the pressure-relief joint, such as initial bearing capacity peak, constant bearing capacity, and allowable pressure-relief displacement, were obtained through numerical simulations and laboratory experiments. A comparison was made between the mechanical characteristics of rigid joints and the new type of pressure-relief joint. The applicability of the pressure-relief joint was verified through field tests, monitoring the surrounding rock pressure, internal forces in the steel frames, and the convergence displacement of the support structure. The results show that: (1) In the elastic stage, the stiffness of the new pressure-relief joint is similar to that of rigid joints. In the plastic stage, rigid joints fail directly, whereas the pressure-relief joint can control deformation and effectively release the deformation pressure of the surrounding rock while providing a constant bearing capacity. (2) The right arch foot in the experiment had poor rock quality, leading to high stress in the steel frame and significant horizontal displacement. After the deformation of the pressure-relief joint, the stress in the surrounding rock and steel frame significantly reduced, and the rate of horizontal deformation of the support structure slowed down. (3) The vertical and horizontal final displacements of the pressure-relief joint in the experiment were 61mm and 15mm, respectively, which did not exceed the allowable deformation values. The components of the support structure remained intact, ensuring safety. However, this study has limitations: the design of the new pressure-relief joint only allows for a vertical deformation of 150mm and a horizontal deformation of 50mm, limiting the range of pressure-relief deformation.


Assuntos
, Laboratórios , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Margens de Excisão , Aço
3.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0294939, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557682

RESUMO

Medical Laboratory Technologists play a significant role in delivering quality laboratory Services. The competency assessment of MLTs is a critical driver for enhancing primary healthcare performance. While several countries have developed competency frameworks for MLTs in primary care, such frameworks are lacking in the Indian context. This study aimed to create a competency assessment framework to assess the competencies of MLTs (Medical Laboratory Technologists) working in Indian public primary healthcare facilities. The research followed a five-step process, starting with a review of existing literature on MLTs' competencies in primary healthcare. Expert consultations were then conducted to establish a consensus on these competencies. Following this, assessment tools were developed based on the literature review and expert input. Another round of expert consultations was held to ensure agreement on the assessment tools. Finally, the developed tools were tested in a public primary healthcare facility. The literature review identified 86 competencies across 11 domains: safe work practices, data/ sample collection, specimen preparation equipment instruments and regiments, assessment and analysis, recording and reporting, infection control, quality management, critical thinking, communication and interaction, and professional practice. Expert consultations resulted in the consensus on ninety-five competencies in ten domains of MLTs in primary healthcare settings. Competencies for each domain were discussed and agreed upon. A competency assessment tool was finalized after unanimous agreement among experts. The competency assessment tool was later finalized after pre-testing on MLTs in a clinical laboratory part of a public primary health care facility. This study successfully developed a competency assessment framework for in-service MLTs in Indian public primary healthcare settings. The framework encompasses ninety-five competencies covering ten domains of MLT responsibilities. It provides a comprehensive tool for assessing MLT's competencies and identifying competency gaps. The framework can be used to capacitate MLTs, improve their performance in primary healthcare settings, and enhance the delivery of healthcare services in India. It bridges a critical gap in the existing literature and can aid as a valuable resource for policymakers, educators, and healthcare professionals involved in practicing medical laboratory Services in primary healthcare settings.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Pessoal de Laboratório Médico , Humanos , Laboratórios , Índia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Competência Clínica
5.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1368399, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38596685

RESUMO

Introduction: The complement external quality assurance (EQA) program was first organized in 2010 by a group of researchers working in diagnostic complement laboratories. Starting in 2016, INSTAND e.V., a German, non-profit interdisciplinary scientific medical society dedicated to providing expert EQA programs for medical laboratories, started organizing the EQAs for complement diagnostic laboratories together with the same group of experienced scientists and doctors who also work as EQA experts. The aim of the current work is to provide descriptive analysis of the past seven years' complement EQA results and evaluate timeline changes in proficiency testing. Methods: Each year, in March and October, blinded samples (normal, pathological) were sent to the participating diagnostic laboratories, where complement parameters were evaluated exactly as in daily routine samples. Since no reference method/target values exist for these parameters, and participants used different units for measurement, the reported results were compared to the stable mean (Algorithm A) of the participants using the same method/measurement units. A reported result was qualified as "passed" if it fell into the 30-50% evaluation/target range around the mean of reported results (depending on the given parameter). Results: While the number of participating laboratories has increased in the past years (from around 120 to 347), the number of complement laboratories providing multiple determinations remained mostly unchanged (around 30 worldwide). C3, C4, C1-inhibitor antigen and activity determinations provided the best proficiency results, with >90% passing quotas in the past years, independent of the applied method. Determination of the functional activity of the three activation pathways was good in general, but results showed large variance, especially with the pathological samples. Complement factor C1q and regulators FH and FI are determined by only a few laboratories, with variable outcomes (in general in the 85-90% pass range). Activation products sC5b-9 and Bb were determined in 30 and 10 laboratories, respectively, with typical passing quotas in the 70-90% range, without a clear tendency over the past years. Conclusion: With these accumulated data from the past seven years, it is now possible to assess sample-, method-, and evaluation related aspects to further improve proficiency testing and protocolize diagnostic complement determinations.


Assuntos
Laboratórios , Humanos
6.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e50407, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38506899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Ministry of Health in Côte d'Ivoire and the International Training and Education Center for Health at the University of Washington, funded by the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, have been collaborating to develop and implement the Open-Source Enterprise-Level Laboratory Information System (OpenELIS). The system is designed to improve HIV-related laboratory data management and strengthen quality management and capacity at clinical laboratories across the nation. OBJECTIVE: This evaluation aimed to quantify the effects of implementing OpenELIS on data quality for laboratory tests related to HIV care and treatment. METHODS: This evaluation used a quasi-experimental design to perform an interrupted time-series analysis to estimate the changes in the level and slope of 3 data quality indicators (timeliness, completeness, and validity) after OpenELIS implementation. We collected paper and electronic records on clusters of differentiation 4 (CD4) testing for 48 weeks before OpenELIS adoption until 72 weeks after. Data collection took place at 21 laboratories in 13 health regions that started using OpenELIS between 2014 and 2020. We analyzed the data at the laboratory level. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) by comparing the observed outcomes with modeled counterfactual ones when the laboratories did not adopt OpenELIS. RESULTS: There was an immediate 5-fold increase in timeliness (OR 5.27, 95% CI 4.33-6.41; P<.001) and an immediate 3.6-fold increase in completeness (OR 3.59, 95% CI 2.40-5.37; P<.001). These immediate improvements were observed starting after OpenELIS installation and then maintained until 72 weeks after OpenELIS adoption. The weekly improvement in the postimplementation trend of completeness was significant (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.05; P<.001). The improvement in validity was not statistically significant (OR 1.34, 95% CI 0.69-2.60; P=.38), but validity did not fall below pre-OpenELIS levels. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the value of electronic laboratory information systems in improving laboratory data quality and supporting evidence-based decision-making in health care. These findings highlight the importance of OpenELIS in Côte d'Ivoire and the potential for adoption in other low- and middle-income countries with similar health systems.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação em Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Laboratórios Clínicos , Laboratórios , Côte d'Ivoire , Eletrônica
7.
BMC Res Notes ; 17(1): 62, 2024 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38433186

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Data from DNA genotyping via a 96-SNP panel in a study of 25,015 clinical samples were utilized for quality control and tracking of sample identity in a clinical sequencing network. The study aimed to demonstrate the value of both the precise SNP tracking and the utility of the panel for predicting the sex-by-genotype of the participants, to identify possible sample mix-ups. RESULTS: Precise SNP tracking showed no sample swap errors within the clinical testing laboratories. In contrast, when comparing predicted sex-by-genotype to the provided sex on the test requisition, we identified 110 inconsistencies from 25,015 clinical samples (0.44%), that had occurred during sample collection or accessioning. The genetic sex predictions were confirmed using additional SNP sites in the sequencing data or high-density genotyping arrays. It was determined that discrepancies resulted from clerical errors (49.09%), samples from transgender participants (3.64%) and stem cell or bone marrow transplant patients (7.27%) along with undetermined sample mix-ups (40%) for which sample swaps occurred prior to arrival at genome centers, however the exact cause of the events at the sampling sites resulting in the mix-ups were not able to be determined.


Assuntos
Serviços de Laboratório Clínico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Genótipo , Laboratórios
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(16): 23393-23407, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451455

RESUMO

The catalytic conversion of carbon dioxide is one of the important ways to achieve the goal of carbon neutralization, which can be further divided into electrocatalysis, thermal catalysis, and photocatalysis. Although photocatalysis and electrocatalysis have the advantages of mild reaction conditions and low energy consumption, the thermal catalytic conversion of CO2 has larger processing capacity, better reduction effect, and more complete industrial foundation, which is a promising technology in the future. During the development of new technology from laboratory to industrial application, ensuring the safety of production process is essential. In this work, safety optimization design of equipment, safety performance of catalysts, accident types, and their countermeasures in the industrial applications of CO2 to methanol are reviewed and discussed in depth. Based on that, future research demands for industrial process safety of CO2 to methanol were proposed, which provide guidance for the large-scale application of CO2 thermal catalytic conversion technology.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Metanol , Catálise , Indústrias , Laboratórios
9.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 28(4): 1554-1561, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436188

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The general approach to malignant biliary obstruction (MBO) is to provide drainage in all patients with jaundice. However, the procedure is often palliative, and its contribution to survival is debated. This study aimed to investigate prognostic factors in patients undergoing percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) for MBO. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All laboratory values were divided into two groups based on median values: low and high. Chi-square analysis was performed for dichotomous data. The time from the PTBD procedure to the date of death or last follow-up was considered overall survival (OS). Univariate and multivariate analyses were calculated using the Cox regression model. RESULTS: A total of 152 patients were included in the study, of whom 84 (55.3%) were male. The median OS was 71 ± 12.6 days (95% CI: 46.3-95.7). The 1, 3, 6, and 12-month OS rates were 74.3%, 45.2%, 29.2%, and 13%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, comorbidity (p=0.029), Eastern cooperative oncology group performance status (ECOG PS) (p=0.007), pre-PTBD albumin (p=0.025), post-PTBD aspartate aminotransferase (p=0.025), chemo naive (p<0.001), and post-PTBD chemotherapy (CT) (p=0.01) were found to be independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with poor prognosis MBO, the decision for PTBD should be made multidisciplinarily, taking into consideration ECOG PS, comorbidities, albumin levels, and prior CT status.


Assuntos
Albuminas , Colestase , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Aspartato Aminotransferases , Drenagem , Laboratórios , Colestase/etiologia , Colestase/cirurgia
10.
J Vis Exp ; (204)2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436362

RESUMO

Transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy is a powerful time-resolved spectroscopic method used to track the evolution of excited-state processes through changes in the system's absorption spectrum. Early implementations of TA were confined to specialized laboratories, but the evolution of commercial turn-key systems has made the technique increasingly available to research groups across the world. Modern TA systems are capable of producing large datasets with high energetic and temporal resolution that are rich in photophysical information. However, processing, fitting, and interpreting TA spectra can be challenging due to the large number of excited-state features and instrumental artifacts. Many factors must be carefully considered when collecting, processing, and fitting TA data in order to reduce uncertainty over which model or set of fitting parameters best describes the data. The goal of data preparation and fitting is to reduce as many of these extraneous factors while preserving the data for analysis. In this method, beginners are provided with a protocol for processing and preparing TA data as well as a brief introduction to selected fitting procedures and models, specifically single wavelength fitting and global lifetime analysis. Commentary on a number of commonly encountered data preparation challenges and methods of addressing them is provided, followed by a discussion of the challenges and limitations of these simple fitting methods.


Assuntos
Artefatos , Laboratórios , Incerteza
11.
J Vis Exp ; (204)2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436378

RESUMO

Microphysiological systems are miniaturized cell culture platforms used to mimic the structure and function of human tissues in a laboratory setting. However, these platforms have not gained widespread adoption in bioscience laboratories where open-well, membrane-based approaches serve as the gold standard for mimicking tissue barriers, despite lacking fluid flow capabilities. This issue can be primarily attributed to the incompatibility of existing microphysiological systems with standard protocols and tools developed for open-well systems. Here, we present a protocol for creating a reconfigurable membrane-based platform with an open-well structure, flow enhancement capability, and compatibility with conventional protocols. This system utilizes a magnetic assembly approach that enables reversible switching between open-well and microfluidic modes. With this approach, users have the flexibility to begin an experiment in the open-well format using standard protocols and add or remove flow capabilities as needed. To demonstrate the practical usage of this system and its compatibility with standard techniques, an endothelial cell monolayer was established in an open-well format. The system was reconfigured to introduce fluid flow and then switched to the open-well format to conduct immunostaining and RNA extraction. Due to its compatibility with conventional open-well protocols and flow enhancement capability, this reconfigurable design is expected to be adopted by both engineering and bioscience laboratories.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Sistemas Microfisiológicos , Humanos , Células Endoteliais , Laboratórios , Microfluídica
12.
WMJ ; 123(1): 48-50, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436640

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Advanced liver disease can present with severe thrombocytopenia that can be difficult to delineate and manage. Here we describe a unique entity of accelerated intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis (AICF) in a patient with decompensated liver disease. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old male with a history of alcoholic cirrhosis was admitted for weakness, nausea, metabolic derangement, and acute kidney injury determined to be secondary to decompensated liver disease. During admission, his platelet count declined to <10 000/µL requiring 8 total platelet transfusions. Laboratory and clinical evaluation supported a diagnosis of AICF, and the patient gradually improved with supportive management. DISCUSSION: AICF can present similarly to disseminated intravascular coagulation, and careful evaluation of specific laboratory values is required for accurate diagnosis. Appropriate management minimizes the associated increased risk of bleeding and prevents delay in procedural intervention. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the importance of early clinical and laboratory correlation, multidisciplinary care, and supportive treatment in the management of AICF.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias , Trombocitopenia , Masculino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibrinólise , Hospitalização , Laboratórios , Trombocitopenia/terapia
13.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 48(1): 45-50, 2024 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38449367

RESUMO

Objective: Scabies infestation is a major parasitic disease affecting both human and animal health worldwide. This study aimed to determine the distribution of scabies infestation in stray dogs in Bursa province. Methods: The study material was obtained from stray dogs suspected of mange kept in a municipal shelter in Bursa between June 2020 and February 2022. Samples from stray dogs were examined in a laboratory, and dogs with scabies were determined. Results: During the study, samples were collected from 205 (115 males, 90 females) scabies-suspected stray dogs, 58 (28.29%) of which had scabies. Demodex spp. were detected in 35 of the positive dogs (60.34%) (D. canis, D. injae), 19 (32.76%) Sarcoptes scabiei canis, 2 (3.44%) mixed infestation (Sarcoptes and Demodex), and 2 (3.44%) Otodectes cynotis agents. It was determined that 32 (55.17%) of 58 scabies-positive dogs were male and 26 (44.83%) were female. The association of infestations with age, season, and sex has not been found to be statistically meaningful. Conclusion: This study identified scabies agents and their prevalence rate in stray dogs of Bursa province, Türkiye.


Assuntos
Escabiose , Humanos , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Escabiose/epidemiologia , Escabiose/veterinária , Sarcoptes scabiei , Laboratórios , Estações do Ano
14.
Virologie (Montrouge) ; 28(1): 39-43, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38450667

RESUMO

The International Symposium of the World Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians (ISWAVLD) is the unmissable biannual meeting of all diagnostic veterinary laboratories including biologists, veterinarians and other scientists involved in laboratory diagnostics. It took place at the Lyon Convention Centre (29 June-1 July 2023). It was a pleasant and enriching moment, which allowed participants to discover and/or discuss new diagnostic methods and the epidemiology of animal diseases, around all themes involving veterinarians (animal health, but also environmental and human health, and food safety).


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Laboratórios , Animais , Humanos , Doenças dos Animais/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Emoções , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Pessoal de Saúde
15.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 24(1): 62, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38438861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variation in laboratory healthcare data due to seasonal changes is a widely accepted phenomenon. Seasonal variation is generally not systematically accounted for in healthcare settings. This study applies a newly developed adjustment method for seasonal variation to analyze the effect seasonality has on machine learning model classification of diagnoses. METHODS: Machine learning methods were trained and tested on ~ 22 million unique records from ~ 575,000 unique patients admitted to Danish hospitals. Four machine learning models (adaBoost, decision tree, neural net, and random forest) classifying 35 diseases of the circulatory system (ICD-10 diagnosis codes, chapter IX) were run before and after seasonal adjustment of 23 laboratory reference intervals (RIs). The effect of the adjustment was benchmarked via its contribution to machine learning models trained using hyperparameter optimization and assessed quantitatively using performance metrics (AUROC and AUPRC). RESULTS: Seasonally adjusted RIs significantly improved cardiovascular disease classification in 24 of the 35 tested cases when using neural net models. Features with the highest average feature importance (via SHAP explainability) across all disease models were sex, C- reactive protein, and estimated glomerular filtration. Classification of diseases of the vessels, such as thrombotic diseases and other atherosclerotic diseases consistently improved after seasonal adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: As data volumes increase and data-driven methods are becoming more advanced, it is essential to improve data quality at the pre-processing level. This study presents a method that makes it feasible to introduce seasonally adjusted RIs into the clinical research space in any disease domain. Seasonally adjusted RIs generally improve diagnoses classification and thus, ought to be considered and adjusted for in clinical decision support methods.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Laboratórios , Instalações de Saúde , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Aprendizado de Máquina
16.
Clin Chem ; 70(4): 642-652, 2024 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improved monitoring of Mycobacterium tuberculosis response to treatment is urgently required. We previously developed the molecular bacterial load assay (MBLA), but it is challenging to integrate into the clinical diagnostic laboratory due to a labor-intensive protocol required at biosafety level 3 (BSL-3). A modified assay was needed. METHODS: The rapid enumeration and diagnostic for tuberculosis (READ-TB) assay was developed. Acetic acid was tested and compared to 4 M guanidine thiocyanate to be simultaneously bactericidal and preserve mycobacterial RNA. The extraction was based on silica column technology and incorporated low-cost reagents: 3 M sodium acetate and ethanol for the RNA extraction to replace phenol-chloroform. READ-TB was fully validated and compared directly to the MBLA using sputa collected from individuals with tuberculosis. RESULTS: Acetic acid was bactericidal to M. tuberculosis with no significant loss in 16S rRNA or an unprotected mRNA fragment when sputum was stored in acetic acid at 25°C for 2 weeks or -20°C for 1 year. This novel use of acetic acid allows processing of sputum for READ-TB at biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) on sample receipt. READ-TB is semiautomated and rapid. READ-TB correlated with the MBLA when 85 human sputum samples were directly compared (R2 = 0.74). CONCLUSIONS: READ-TB is an improved version of the MBLA and is available to be adopted by clinical microbiology laboratories as a tool for tuberculosis treatment monitoring. READ-TB will have a particular impact in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) for laboratories with no BSL-3 laboratory and for clinical trials testing new combinations of anti-tuberculosis drugs.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Ácido Acético , Escarro , Laboratórios , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/microbiologia
17.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 35(3): 115-123, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38477834

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Platelet secretion disorders (PSDs) are a subgroup of platelet function disorders (PFDs) caused by defects in the content or release of platelet granules. These patients have a variable degree of mucocutaneous bleeding tendency. The diagnostic facilities of PSDs are imitated in Iran, even in specialized coagulation laboratories. The present study aims to estimate the frequency of PSDs among patients referred to the Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization (IBTO). METHODS: The research population includes all patients referred to the specialized coagulation laboratory of IBTO and requested platelet function and von Willebrand testing by their physicians. They were recruited between May 2022 and October 2022 if they were not diagnosed as having procoagulant defects, von Willebrand disease (VWD), Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT), Bernard-Soulier syndrome (BSS), and platelet count <100 × 10 9 (except in the syndromic forms). Patients with a defect in response to at least two agonists in Light transmission aggregometry (LTA), one agonist in the ATP-secretion study, and/or impairment in the expression of CD62P are considered PSDs. RESULTS: Among 121 cases referred to our center over 6 months, 40 patients fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Ten patients were diagnosed with PSDs. Six were classified as δ-platelet secretion disorders (δ-PSD), two α-platelet secretion disorders (α-PSD), and two αδ-platelet secretion disorders (αδ-PSD). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of PSDs in our population study was 25% (10/40), which seems highly prevalent. Therefore, expanding laboratory approaches to platelet function defects is necessary as a routine in our country.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea , Transtornos Plaquetários , Trombastenia , Doenças de von Willebrand , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Laboratórios , Transtornos Plaquetários/diagnóstico , Transtornos Plaquetários/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/diagnóstico , Doenças de von Willebrand/metabolismo , Transfusão de Sangue , Plaquetas/metabolismo
18.
Tumour Biol ; 46(s1): S9-S14, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38517828

RESUMO

 Clinical laboratories are responsible for performing lung cancer tumor marker testing as part of routine clinical care. It is their responsibility to guarantee that the reported tumor marker results are reliable and meet the necessary quality standards for proper clinical use. During the different laboratory phases, pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical, specific steps and processes can introduce errors and generate incorrect clinical interpretation. This editorial briefly outlines critical laboratory issues related to lung cancer tumor markers, specific for each of these three laboratory phases.


Assuntos
Laboratórios Clínicos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Laboratórios , Biomarcadores Tumorais
19.
Methods ; 224: 79-92, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430967

RESUMO

The identification of drug-target interactions (DTI) is a valuable step in the drug discovery and repositioning process. However, traditional laboratory experiments are time-consuming and expensive. Computational methods have streamlined research to determine DTIs. The application of deep learning methods has significantly improved the prediction performance for DTIs. Modern deep learning methods can leverage multiple sources of information, including sequence data that contains biological structural information, and interaction data. While useful, these methods cannot be effectively applied to each type of information individually (e.g., chemical structure and interaction network) and do not take into account the specificity of DTI data such as low- or zero-interaction biological entities. To overcome these limitations, we propose a method called MFA-DTI (Multi-feature Fusion Adopted framework for DTI). MFA-DTI consists of three modules: an interaction graph learning module that processes the interaction network to generate interaction vectors, a chemical structure learning module that extracts features from the chemical structure, and a fusion module that combines these features for the final prediction. To validate the performance of MFA-DTI, we conducted experiments on six public datasets under different settings. The results indicate that the proposed method is highly effective in various settings and outperforms state-of-the-art methods.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas , Laboratórios , Interações Medicamentosas
20.
J Infect Public Health ; 17(4): 681-686, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about how the COVID-19 pandemic altered laboratory testing efficiency in the State of Qatar. The aim of this study was to assess laboratory testing efficiency with respect to the total number and proportion of C-reactive protein (CRP), complete blood count (CBC), and comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) tests completed on time in 2019-2021 in several ordinary and COVID-converted Primary Health Care Corporation (PHCC) health centers across Qatar. METHODS: Secondary data from 2019 to 2021 were accessed from the PHCC-Clinical Information System center. Six randomly selected centers from three regions of Qatar (Northern, Central, and Western), two of which were COVID-converted, were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 404,316 laboratory tests were analyzed. There were decreasing, U-shaped, and inverted-U-shaped patterns in the numbers of tests conducted in different regions between 2019 and 2021 according to test type. The proportion of urgent (STAT) CBC and CMP tests increased from 2019 to 2021, and the proportion of tests completed by COVID-converted health centers increased for CRP and CBC and decreased for CMP between 2019 and 2021. Northern and Western regions in Qatar showed higher efficiency than the Central region with respect to the proportion of STAT tests completed on time in 2019-2021. COVID-converted centers completed fewer STAT CBC tests on time than ordinary centers. CONCLUSION: Pandemics such as COVID-19 shift the allocation of resources from routine tests to urgent tests, as exemplified by the increase in STAT test proportions in 2019 to 2021. High population densities, as noted in the Central region of Qatar, may require additional resources during pandemics to complete urgent tests more efficiently. The conversion of centers to COVID-converted centers may not necessarily translate into higher urgent test efficiency, as exemplified by the STAT CBC test results.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Catar/epidemiologia , Laboratórios , Proteína C-Reativa , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Teste para COVID-19
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