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1.
Malar J ; 23(1): 196, 2024 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38918779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria risk maps are crucial for controlling and eliminating malaria by identifying areas of varying transmission risk. In the Greater Mekong Subregion, these maps guide interventions and resource allocation. This article focuses on analysing changes in malaria transmission and developing fine-scale risk maps using five years of routine surveillance data in Laos (2017-2021). The study employed data from 1160 geolocated health facilities in Laos, along with high-resolution environmental data. METHODS: A Bayesian geostatistical framework incorporating population data and treatment-seeking propensity was developed. The models incorporated static and dynamic factors and accounted for spatial heterogeneity. RESULTS: Results showed a significant decline in malaria cases in Laos over the five-year period and a shift in transmission patterns. While the north became malaria-free, the south experienced ongoing transmission with sporadic outbreaks. CONCLUSION: The risk maps provided insights into changing transmission patterns and supported risk stratification. These risk maps are valuable tools for malaria control in Laos, aiding resource allocation, identifying intervention gaps, and raising public awareness. The study enhances understanding of malaria transmission dynamics and facilitates evidence-based decision-making for targeted interventions in high-risk areas.


Assuntos
Malária , Laos/epidemiologia , Incidência , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/transmissão , Medição de Risco , Teorema de Bayes
2.
BMJ Glob Health ; 9(6)2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843896

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The global COVID-19 vaccine rollout has been impacted by socioeconomic disparities and vaccine hesitancy, but few studies examine reasons for changed attitudes. In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), a nationwide government-led initiative was developed in response to COVID-19, focused on community health ownership and trust in primary healthcare. The intervention team including health and governance sectors conducted capacity-building workshops with local staff and community representatives and visited villages for vaccination outreach. This study investigates the impact of this intervention on COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in rural communities. METHODS: Conducted in Xiengkhuang province, Lao PDR, from December 2022 to February 2023, the study employed a sequential mixed-methods research design. Data on vaccinated individuals from 25 villages were collected from 11 primary healthcare units; pre-post analysis was applied. Qualitative data, gathered through interviews and focus group discussions with villagers, village authorities, health staff and local government (n=102) in six villages, underwent inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: First-dose vaccine uptake after the intervention increased significantly (6.9 times). Qualitative analysis identified key reasons for vaccination hesitancy: (1) mistrust due to rumours and past experiences; (2) poor communication and inconsistent messaging and (3) challenges in access for priority groups. Influencing factors during the intervention included (1) effective local-context communication; (2) leveraging existing community structures and influential individuals in a multisectoral approach and (3) increased community motivation through improved satisfaction, ownership and relationships. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the impact and methods of building trust with unreached populations in health interventions, emphasising locally led solutions. Successful reversal of vaccine hesitancy was achieved by addressing root causes and fostering ownership at community and local government levels through a 'positive approach'. This diverges from conventional supplemental immunisation activities and holds potential for systematically building trust between unreached populations and health systems. Further research could explore the impacts of routine vaccination for sustained improvements in health equity.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , População Rural , Confiança , Hesitação Vacinal , Humanos , Laos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem , Vacinação , Adolescente , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Grupos Focais
3.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0293197, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A maternal mortality ratio is a sensitive indicator when comparing the overall maternal health between countries and its very high figure indicates the failure of maternal healthcare efforts. Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, and Vietnam-CLMV countries are the low-income countries of the South-East Asia region where their maternal mortality ratios are disproportionately high. This systematic review aimed to summarize all possible factors influencing maternal mortality in CLMV countries. METHODS: This systematic review applied "The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Checklist (2020)", Three key phrases: "Maternal Mortality and Health Outcome", "Maternal Healthcare Interventions" and "CLMV Countries" were used for the literature search. 75 full-text papers were systematically selected from three databases (PubMed, Google Scholar and Hinari). Two stages of data analysis were descriptive analysis of the general information of the included papers and qualitative analysis of key findings. RESULTS: Poor family income, illiteracy, low education levels, living in poor households, and agricultural and unskilled manual job types of mothers contributed to insufficient antenatal care. Maternal factors like non-marital status and sex-associated work were highly associated with induced abortions while being rural women, ethnic minorities, poor maternal knowledge and attitudes, certain social and cultural beliefs and husbands' influences directly contributed to the limitations of maternal healthcare services. Maternal factors that made more contributions to poor maternal healthcare outcomes included lower quintiles of wealth index, maternal smoking and drinking behaviours, early and elderly age at marriage, over 35 years pregnancies, unfavourable birth history, gender-based violence experiences, multigravida and higher parity. Higher unmet needs and lower demands for maternal healthcare services occurred among women living far from healthcare facilities. Regarding the maternal healthcare workforce, the quality and number of healthcare providers, the development of healthcare infrastructures and human resource management policy appeared to be arguable. Concerning maternal healthcare service use, the provisions of mobile and outreach maternal healthcare services were inconvenient and limited. CONCLUSION: Low utilization rates were due to several supply-side constraints. The results will advance knowledge about maternal healthcare and mortality and provide a valuable summary to policymakers for developing policies and strategies promoting high-quality maternal healthcare.


Assuntos
Morte Materna , Mortalidade Materna , Humanos , Feminino , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Camboja/epidemiologia , Laos/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Morte Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0300388, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women migrant workers are vulnerable to discrimination and violence, which are significant public health problems. These situations may have been intensified during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to investigate discrimination against women migrant workers in Thailand during the COVID-19 pandemic and its intersection with their experiences of violence and associated factors. METHODS: A mixed-methods study design was employed to collect data from 572 women migrant workers from Myanmar, Lao People's Democratic Republic, and Cambodia. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 494 participants using a structured questionnaire for quantitative data, whereas qualitative data was collected through 24 in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 54 migrant women. Simple and multiple logistic regression and content analysis were employed. RESULTS: This study found that about one in five women migrant workers experienced discrimination during the COVID-19 pandemic. Among those who experienced discrimination, 63.2% had experienced intimate partner violence and 76.4% had experienced non-intimate partner violence in their lifetime. The multivariable analysis revealed that women migrant workers who had experienced any violence (AOR = 2.76, 95% CI = 1.49, 5.12), lost their jobs or income during the pandemic (AOR = 3.99, 95% CI = 2.09, 7.62), and were from Myanmar (AOR = 4.68, 95% CI = 1.79, 12.21) were more likely to have experienced discrimination. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the intersection of discrimination and violence against women migrant workers in Thailand demands special interest to understand and address the problem. It is recommended that policymakers provide interventions and programs that are inclusive and responsive to the unique needs of women migrants depending on their country of origin and job profile.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Migrantes , Humanos , Feminino , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes/psicologia , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Adulto Jovem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Laos/epidemiologia , Camboja/epidemiologia
5.
Acta Trop ; 256: 107229, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768698

RESUMO

Laos is a hyperendemic country of all 4 dengue serotypes. Various factors contribute to the spread of the disease including viral itself, vectors, and environment. This study aims to analyze dengue data and its incidence in nine districts of Vientiane Capital, Laos spanning from 2019 to 2021 by data collected from Mittaphab Hospital. The Maximum Entropy algorithm (MaxEnt) was applied to assess spatial distribution and identify high-probability locations for dengue occurrence by analyzing crucial environmental and climatic conditions. Dengue cases were more prominent in female (54.88 %) and highest case number was found in worker group (29.02 %) followed by student (28.47 %) and officer (16.92 %). In this study, the age group 21-30 years old had the highest infection rate (42.23 %), followed by 10-20 years old (24.21 %). Most of dengue cases was primary infection (91.61 %). Dengue serotype 2 predominated in 2019 and 2020 and substitute by serotype 1 in 2021. Across the nine districts of Vientiane Capital, the highest incidence of dengue was found in Xaythany district population in 2019, shifting to Chanthabouly district in 2020 and 2021. The MaxEnt revealed potentially most suitable areas for dengue were widely distributed central south part of Vientiane, Laos. Additionally, the best predictive variable for dengue occurrence was normalized difference vegetation index. Understanding of case characteristics and spatial distribution features of dengue will be helpful in effective surveillance and disease control in the future.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Sorogrupo , Análise Espacial , Laos/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Criança , Adulto , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vírus da Dengue/classificação , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Lactente , Idoso , Recém-Nascido
6.
BMJ Glob Health ; 9(5)2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38754897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global health foregrounds trust as a key requirement for the achievement of international health initiatives, but it remains an elusive concept that is often mobilised without consideration of its dimensions, drivers and downstream behavioural consequences. This paper aims to contribute to the conceptual development and measurement of 'patient trust in primary healthcare' from the lower middle-income country perspective of rural Lao PDR. METHODS: A two-phase mixed-method research design was implemented between January 2021 and April 2023. Phase 1 involved exploratory qualitative research to understand the local expressions and dimensions of patient trust in primary healthcare, with 25 semistructured interviews and 17 focus group discussions (120 participants) in eight villages in Bokeo Province. Phase 2 involved explanatory research to assess patterns of trust systematically at scale in 14 villages across four provinces, wherein 26 cognitive interviews, 17 expert interviews and non-participant community observations informed a community census survey with 1838 participants. We analysed qualitative data through content-oriented thematic analysis and developed an 8-item trust scale on that basis. Quantitative data analysis used descriptive statistical and regression analysis. RESULTS: We found that trust in primary healthcare is readily understood and intrinsically valuable in rural Lao PDR. Key dimensions included communication, respectful care, relationship, fairness, integrity, reputation, assurance of treatment and competence. The survey highlighted that reputation, competence, integrity and respectful care had the lowest trust scores. Health centre operations predicted the local expressions of trust. The behavioural consequences of trust were limited to a positive statistical association with antenatal care uptake among pregnant women but outweighed by alternative measures that also captured the availability of healthcare facilities. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the development of our quantitative trust scale offers a process model for future researchers. We conclude that interpersonal, institutional and service-related trust require more explicit recognition in health system development and integration into health policy.


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Confiança , Humanos , Laos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Focais , Adulto Jovem , População Rural , Adolescente , População do Sudeste Asiático
7.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 108: 104460, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705363

RESUMO

Leachates from municipal landfills introduce toxic heavy metals into water, causing bioaccumulation. This study assesses metal levels and potential human health risks associated with consuming Anabas testudineus and Channa striata. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detected Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn in both fish species. Leachate metal concentrations meet international discharge standards, Cd, Cr, and Pb in the fish exceed the international accepted values. Gastrointestinal tract+liver samples show significant variation between species, particularly in Cd and Pb. EDI, THQ/HI, and TR for the both species fall below TDIs, lower than the limit of 1, and within the acceptable range of the US-EPA permissible limit, respectively. Fish consumption appears safe regarding carcinogenic risk, but exceeding metal limits could impact heavy metals accumulation in the local food chain. Raising public awareness is crucial, and governmental agencies and environmental organizations should enhance waste treatment technologies and enact relevant health legislation.


Assuntos
Peixes , Metais Pesados , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Animais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Humanos , Laos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise
8.
BMJ Open ; 14(5): e081536, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740503

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: More than 170 countries have implemented disability-targeted social protection programmes, although few have been rigorously evaluated. Consequently, a non-randomised controlled trial is being conducted of a pilot 'cash-plus' programme implemented by UNICEF Laos and the Laos government for children with disabilities in the Xiengkhouang Province in Laos. The intervention combines a regular cash transfer with provision of assistive devices and access for caregivers to a family support programme. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The non-randomised controlled trial will involve 350 children with disabilities across 3 districts identified by programme implementers as eligible for the programme (intervention arm). Implementers have also identified approximately 180 children with disabilities in neighbouring districts, who would otherwise meet eligibility criteria but do not live in the project areas (control arm). The trial will assess the impact of the programme on child well-being (primary outcome), as well as household poverty, caregiver quality of life and time use (secondary outcomes). Baseline data are being collected May-October 2023, with endline 24 months later. Analysis will be intention to treat. A complementary process evaluation will explore the implementation, acceptability of the programme, challenges and enablers to its delivery and mechanisms of impact. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has received ethical approval from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and the National Ethics Committee for Health Research in Laos. Informed consent and assent will be taken by trained data collectors. Data will be collected and stored on a secure, encrypted server and its use will follow a detailed data management plan. Findings will be disseminated in academic journals and in short briefs for policy and programmatic actors, and in online and in-person events. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN80603476.


Assuntos
Crianças com Deficiência , Humanos , Laos , Criança , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Cuidadores , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Pré-Escolar , Pobreza
9.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 13(1): 35, 2024 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38783374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lao PDR has made significant progress in malaria control. The National Strategic Plans outline ambitious targets, aiming for the elimination of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria from all northern provinces by 2025 and national elimination by 2030. This article presents an overview of malaria epidemiology, surveillance, and response systems in Lao PDR, emphasizing experiences and achievements in transmission reduction. METHODS: Data on surveillance, monitoring and evaluation systems, human resources, infrastructure, and community malaria knowledge during 2010-2020 were systematically gathered from the national program and relevant documents. The collected information was synthesized, and discussions on challenges and future prospects were provided. RESULTS: Malaria control and elimination activities in Lao PDR were implemented at various levels, with a focus on health facility catchment areas. There has been significant progress in reducing malaria transmission throughout the country. Targeted interventions, such as case management, vector control, and community engagement, using stratification of control interventions by catchment areas have contributed to the decline in malaria cases. In elimination areas, active surveillance strategies, including case and foci investigation, are implemented to identify and stop transmission. The surveillance system has facilitated timely detection and response to malaria cases, enabling these targeted interventions in higher-risk areas. CONCLUSIONS: The malaria surveillance and response system in Lao PDR has played a crucial role in reducing transmission and advancing the country towards elimination. Challenges such as importation, drug resistance, and sustaining support require ongoing efforts. Further strengthening surveillance, improving access to services, and addressing transmission determinants are key areas of focus to achieve malaria elimination and enhance population health in Lao PDR.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Laos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malária/transmissão , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle
10.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 13: e54768, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) receive suboptimal nutrition because of low breastfeeding rates, undermining their developmental potential. While major public health campaigns have attempted to increase breastfeeding rates, they have been largely unsuccessful. One explanation for these unsuccessful interventions is the economic and financial constraints faced by mothers. A potential solution for alleviating these pressures is providing social transfers to support breastfeeding; defined as a cash or in-kind transfer. Capitalizing on key strategies used in previous social transfer programs, we will assess the effectiveness of social transfer intervention for increasing exclusive breastfeeding rates in Vientiane, Lao PDR. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to conduct a randomized controlled trial (RCT) designed to assess whether social transfers can increase exclusive breastfeeding rates in Vientiane Capital, Lao PDR. METHODS: A prospective, parallel cluster-RCT was conducted among 300 mothers who recently gave birth and initiated breastfeeding. Enrolling 100 participants for each intervention arm provided us with 80% power to detect an increase in exclusive breastfeeding from the anticipated 21% in the control arm to 40% in either of the 2 intervention arms. Mother-infant dyads were enrolled at approximately 1 month post partum. Follow-up visits will occur at 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years post partum; with the ambition to extend the follow-up period. Mother-infant dyads were enrolled between August 2022 and April 2023 with follow-up until 3 years post partum (2026). A local study team comprised of 2 nurses and 2 laboratory technicians is responsible for enrollment and follow-up of participants. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups during the baseline, 1-month visit: (1) control group, no social transfer; (2) intervention group 1, an unconditional social transfer at 6 months post partum; and (3) intervention group 2, a social transfer at 6 months post partum conditional upon mothers exclusively breastfeeding. All groups received educational materials supporting mothers to exclusively breastfeed. The primary end point will be exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months post partum. Secondary end points will include exclusive and complementary breastfeeding duration, childhood wasting and stunting, child growth, maternal and infant stress, predictors of early breastfeeding cessation, intestinal inflammation, anemia, maternal weight loss, maternal blood pressure, maternal anxiety, and GRIT personality score. Questionnaires and physical examinations were used to collect information. RESULTS: As of November 2023, the study has enrolled 300 participants. Study participation is ongoing until December 2026 at minimum. Over the study lifetime, 93% have completed all visits. CONCLUSIONS: We see potential for a long-term program that may be implemented in other low- or lower-middle-income countries with only minor modifications. The RCT will be used as a basis for observational studies and to investigate the impact of human milk on child fecal microbiota and growth. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05665049; https://clinicaltrials.gov/study/NCT05665049. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/54768.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , População do Sudeste Asiático , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Laos , Mães/psicologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Apoio Social , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(5): 166, 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758410

RESUMO

African Swine Fever (ASF) disease transmission parameters are crucial for making response and control decisions when faced with an outbreak, yet they are poorly quantified for smallholder and village contexts within Southeast Asia. Whilst disease-specific factors - such as latent and infectious periods - should remain reasonably consistent, host, environmental and management factors are likely to affect the rate of disease spread. These differences are investigated using Approximate Bayesian Computation with Sequential Monte-Carlo methods to provide disease parameter estimates in four naïve pig populations in villages of Lao People's Democratic Republic. The villages represent smallholder pig farmers of the Northern province of Oudomxay and the Southern province of Savannakhet, and the model utilised field mortality data to validate the transmission parameter estimates over the course of multiple model generations. The basic reproductive number between-pigs was estimated to range from 3.08 to 7.80, whilst the latent and infectious periods were consistent with those published in the literature for similar genotypes in the region (4.72 to 6.19 days and 2.63 to 5.50 days, respectively). These findings demonstrate that smallholder village pigs interact similarly to commercial pigs, however the spread of disease may occur slightly slower than in commercial study groups. Furthermore, the findings demonstrated that despite diversity across the study groups, the disease behaved in a consistent manner. This data can be used in disease control programs or for future modelling of ASF in smallholder contexts.


Assuntos
Febre Suína Africana , Teorema de Bayes , Animais , Febre Suína Africana/transmissão , Febre Suína Africana/epidemiologia , Suínos , Laos/epidemiologia , Número Básico de Reprodução , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Método de Monte Carlo , Sus scrofa , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/fisiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária
12.
Geospat Health ; 19(1)2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38619397

RESUMO

Anthrax, a widespread zoonosis in low and middle-income countries with low disease awareness and insufficient livestock vaccination coverage, has been known in Lao Cai Province in northern Vietnam for years before its apparent absence in 2009, which requires investigation as this infection is frequently reported from neighbouring provinces and countries. We aimed to describe the seasonal patterns of anthrax (1991-2008), compare livestock anthrax vaccine coverage to disease occurrence (1991- 2022), and delineate the high-risk areas to inform local disease surveillance in the province. We illustrated the seasonal pattern of anthrax and provided a comparison between livestock vaccine coverage and disease occurrence by purely spatial SaTScan (Poisson model, 25% population at risk) to detect spatial clusters of human and livestock anthrax using population derived from zonal statistics routines. The number of cases, crude cumulative incidence, and spatial clusters of human and livestock anthrax were mapped in QGIS. Results indicate peak anthrax incidence from May to October. Buffalo, domestic cattle, and horses accounted for 75% of total animal cases. Horse anthrax was more common in Lao Cai than in its neighbours and often occurred in years with human mortality. Vaccination covered less than 30% of the livestock population. We found an apparent pattern where anthrax was controlled from 1998-2003 with higher vaccine coverage (>20%) and identified spatial clusters of human and livestock anthrax in Muong Khuong, Bao Thang, and Bac Ha districts of Lao Cai. The local public health and veterinary agencies are recommended to revisit the high-risk areas and communicate with neighbouring provinces for a regional approach to anthrax surveillance and control.


Assuntos
Antraz , Vacinas , Humanos , Bovinos , Animais , Cavalos , Antraz/epidemiologia , Antraz/veterinária , Gado , Laos , Vietnã/epidemiologia
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(4): e0012077, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fever is the most frequent symptom in patients seeking care in South and Southeast Asia. The introduction of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria continues to drive patient management and care. Malaria-negative cases are commonly treated with antibiotics without confirmation of bacteraemia. Conventional laboratory tests for differential diagnosis require skilled staff and appropriate access to healthcare facilities. In addition, introducing single-disease RDTs instead of conventional laboratory tests remains costly. To overcome some of the delivery challenges of multiple separate tests, a multiplexed RDT with the capacity to diagnose a diverse range of tropical fevers would be a cost-effective solution. In this study, a multiplex lateral flow immunoassay (DPP Fever Panel II Assay) that can detect serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) and specific microbial antigens of common fever agents in Asia (Orientia tsutsugamushi, Rickettsia typhi, Leptospira spp., Burkholderia pseudomallei, Dengue virus, Chikungunya virus, and Zika virus), was evaluated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Whole blood (WB) and serum samples from 300 patients with undefined febrile illness (UFI) recruited in Vientiane, Laos PDR were tested using the DPP Fever Panel II, which consists of an Antibody panel and Antigen panel. To compare reader performance, results were recorded using two DPP readers, DPP Micro Reader (Micro Reader 1) and DPP Micro Reader Next Generation (Micro Reader 2). WB and serum samples were run on the same fever panel and read on both micro readers in order to compare results. ROC analysis and equal variance analysis were performed to inform the diagnostic validity of the test compared against the respective reference standards of each fever agent (S1 Table). Overall better AUC values were observed in whole blood results. No significant difference in AUC performance was observed when comparing whole blood and serum sample testing, except for when testing for R. typhi IgM (p = 0.04), Leptospira IgM (p = 0.02), and Dengue IgG (p = 0.03). Linear regression depicted R2 values had ~70% agreement across WB and serum samples, except when testing for leptospirosis and Zika, where the R2 values were 0.37 and 0.47, respectively. No significant difference was observed between the performance of Micro Reader 1 and Micro Reader 2, except when testing for the following pathogens: Zika IgM, Zika IgG, and B pseudomallei CPS Ag. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that the diagnostic accuracy of the DPP Fever Panel II is comparable to that of commonly used RDTs. The optimal cut-off would depend on the use of the test and the desired sensitivity and specificity. Further studies are required to authenticate the use of these cut-offs in other endemic regions. This multiplex RDT offers diagnostic benefits in areas with limited access to healthcare and has the potential to improve field testing capacities. This could improve tropical fever management and reduce the public health burden in endemic low-resource areas.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina M , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Feminino , Masculino , Laos , Adulto , Febre/diagnóstico , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/análise , Imunoensaio/métodos , Imunoensaio/normas
14.
Trop Med Int Health ; 29(6): 518-525, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38685885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite substantial economic growth in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) over the past 20 years, high levels of income inequality and poverty persist and have likely been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. In this article, we use novel survey data to assess the extent to which socioeconomic status is associated with access to quality care in Lao PDR. METHODS: We utilised data from the Lao People's Voice Survey (PVS), which was designed to measure health system performance from the perspective of the population. The survey was conducted between May and August 2022. Primary outcomes of interest were having a usual source of healthcare, using a government health centre (rather than a hospital or private clinic) as the usual source for care, receiving preventive health services, experiencing unmet healthcare needs, the quality of recent healthcare visit, and confidence in accessing and affording healthcare when needed. Poverty was measured using household asset ownership. We used logit models to assess the associations between poverty and health system performance measures, and additionally assessed differences between these associations in urban vs. rural areas by interacting urban residence with poverty. RESULTS: Poverty was negatively associated with having a regular provider for care (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.45, 95% CI 0.26-0.78), receiving preventive health services (aOR 0.54, 95% CI 0.37-0.80), and confidence in the ability to receive care (aOR 0.50, 95% CI 0.34-0.72) and afford care (aOR 0.50, 95% CI 0.34-0.73) when needed. Poverty was positively associated with using government managed health centres as a usual source or for care (aOR 2.16, 95% CI 1.35-3.48). Poverty was not significantly associated with user experience or perceived quality of care in the last visit to the health facility. No differences in the associations between poverty and access to quality care were found between rural and urban settings. CONCLUSIONS: The results presented in this article suggest socioeconomic disparities in health care access in Lao PDR despite major national efforts to provide universal access to care. Universal health care policies may not be reaching the poor and additional targeted efforts may be needed to meet their healthcare needs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Laos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pobreza , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , SARS-CoV-2 , Idoso , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , População do Sudeste Asiático
15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 110(4): 759-767, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471149

RESUMO

Viral gastrointestinal infections are an important public health concern, and the occurrence of asymptomatic enteric virus infections makes it difficult to prevent and control their spread. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with asymptomatic enteric virus infection in adults in northern Laos. Fecal samples were collected from apparently healthy participants who did not report diarrhea or high fever at the time of the survey in northern Laos, and enteric viruses were detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Individual characteristics, including the gut microbiome, were compared between asymptomatic carriers and noncarriers of each enteric virus. Of the participants (N = 255), 12 (4.7%) were positive for norovirus genogroup I (GI), 8 (3.1%) for human adenovirus, and 1 (0.4%) for norovirus GII; prevalence tended to be higher in less-modernized villages. Gut microbial diversity (evaluated by the number of operational taxonomic units) was higher in asymptomatic carriers of norovirus GI or human adenovirus than in their noncarriers. Gut microbiome compositions differed significantly between asymptomatic carriers and noncarriers of norovirus GI or human adenovirus (permutational analysis of variance, P <0.05). These findings imply an association between asymptomatic enteric virus infection and modernization and/or the gut microbiome in northern Laos.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Gastroenterite , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Norovirus , Viroses , Adulto , Humanos , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Laos/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Norovirus/genética , Viroses/epidemiologia , Fezes , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0300052, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452151

RESUMO

In a cross-sectional analytical study, a Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ) for diabetes management was developed and tested in Thailand and Lao PDR. A systematic review of qualitative studies was conducted to formulate themes of the PSQ. The 20-item PSQ was prepared in Thai and translated to Lao, with subsequent backward translation. Both versions were tested for reliability and construct validity using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. The study was performed at a university hospital in Thailand and two central hospitals in Vientiane, Lao PDR. There were 300 diabetic patients from Thailand (n = 150) and Lao PDR (n = 150). The 5-factor Thai version showed 74.52% of total explained variance with good internal consistency and satisfactory goodness-of-fit indices (χ2/df = 1.91, GFI = 0.83, CFI = 0.98, SRMR = 0.063, RMSEA = 0.078). The five factors were 1) Standard of Service, 2) Diabetic Service, 3) Competency of Providers, 4) Competency of Pharmacists, and 5) Communication with Providers. For the Lao version, 20 items showed a 3-factor structure with a total explained variance of 71.09%. Goodness-of-fit indices for the Lao model were satisfactory (χ2/df = 2.45, GFI = 0.78, CFI = 0.95, SRMR = 0.075 and RMSEA = 0.095). The results showed the PSQ Thai and Lao versions were valid and reliable for assessing patient satisfaction with diabetes management, however more testing of the questionnaire is appropriate.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Satisfação do Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Hospitais Universitários , Laos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tailândia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
17.
Ann Med ; 56(1): 2329133, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Steatotic liver disease (SLD) prevalence is rising worldwide, linked to insulin resistance and obesity. SLD prevalence can surpass 10% even among those with normal weight. In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), where Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) trematode infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are common, infection related liver morbidity such as cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is high, but data on SLD prevalence is lacking. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and explore determinants of SLD in rural southern Lao PDR for lean and non-lean populations. METHOD: A cross-sectional community-based study assessed SLD prevalence using abdominal ultrasonography (US). Factors investigated for association with SLD were identified by interview, serological tests (Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg); lipids and HbA1c), anthropometrical measurements, and parasitological assessments (OV infection). Uni- and multivariable logistic regression analyses with SLD as endpoint were conducted separately for lean (body mass index (BMI) <23.0 kg/m2) and non-lean (BMI ≥ 23.0 kg/m2) participants. RESULT: 2,826 participants were included. SLD prevalence was 27.1% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 24.0%-30.4%), higher among non-lean (39.8%) than lean individuals (17.4%). Lean individuals with OV infection had a statistically significant association with lower odds of SLD (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.49, 95% CI 0.33 - 0.73). T2DM showed a significant positive association with SLD in both lean (aOR 3.58, 95% CI 2.28 - 5.63) and non-lean individuals (aOR 3.31, 95% CI 2.31 - 4.74) while dyslipidemia was significantly associated only in the non-lean group (aOR 1.83, 95% CI 1.09 - 3.07). Females participants exhibited elevated odds of SLD in both lean (aOR 1.43, 95% CI 1.02 - 2.01) and non-lean SLD (aOR 1.50, 95% CI 1.12 - 2.01). CONCLUSION: SLD prevalence is notably high among Laotian adults in rural areas, particularly in females and in non-lean individuals. Lean individuals with OV infection exhibited lower SLD prevalence. SLD was more prevalent in individuals with T2DM, independent of BMI. SLD adds to the burden of infection-related liver morbidity in Lao PDR.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Opistorquíase , População do Sudeste Asiático , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Laos/epidemiologia , Opistorquíase/complicações , Opistorquíase/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Masculino
18.
Zootaxa ; 5406(1): 141-152, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480160

RESUMO

The genus Dedalopterus Sabatinelli & Pontuale, 1998 from Laos and Vietnam is reviewed: three species are present of which Dedalopterus lexuanhuei Pham, Ahrens & Sabatinelli, new species from Central Vietnam (Ngoc Linh Mts., Annamite Range) is here described. Dedalopterusmalyszi Bunalski, 2001 is present in North Vietnam (Lao Cai, Hoang Lien Son Range), and Dedalopterus pulchellus Sabatinelli & Pontuale, 1998 (= D.bezdekorum Zdek & Krajk, 2007, new synonymy) is known from Northeast Laos (Mt. Xiangkhouang and Mt. Phou Pan). Additional records, an updated checklist, and an identification key of the genus Dedalopterus are provided. All species treated are abundantly illustrated.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Laos , Vietnã
19.
Zootaxa ; 5405(4): 545-561, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480171

RESUMO

Hylophthirus spinosus, new genus and new species (Phthiraptera: Anoplura: Enderleinellidae), is described from specimens collected from the particoloured flying squirrel, Hylopetes alboniger in Khammouane Province, Laos (Lao Peoples Democratic Republic). Both sexes of the new louse are illustrated with stacked microphotographs, scanning electron micrographs and line drawings. An updated morphological identification key to the six genera (Atopophthirus, Enderleinellus, Hylophthirus, Microphthirus, Phthirunculus and Werneckia) now recognised within the family Enderleinellidae is presented. The new genus is unique within the Enderleinellidae in having massive spines (modified setae) on some abdominal sternites, partially bulbous 5th antennal segments, mesothoracic spiracles borne on protuberances and the morphology of the genitalia of both sexes. Tables showing all genera of sucking lice that include species parasitising sciurids (squirrels, chipmunks, susliks and marmots), and all known species of enderleinellids, with their known host associations and geographical distributions are included and briefly discussed in relation to the new genus and species.


Assuntos
Anoplura , Infestações por Piolhos , Ftirápteros , Doenças dos Roedores , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Anoplura/anatomia & histologia , Laos , Sciuridae , Infestações por Piolhos/veterinária
20.
Zootaxa ; 5423(1): 1-66, 2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480303

RESUMO

This study provides a comprehensive account of 40 species (52 valid names and one preoccupied name) of the genus Nemophora Hoffmannsegg, 1798 described or recorded from Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. A key to the species based on external characters and on male genitalia is provided; 14 new species are described: N. auricapitella Kozlov, sp. nov., N. chalcoptera Kozlov, sp. nov., N. karsholti Kozlov, sp. nov., N. kuznetzovi Kozlov, sp. nov., N. meyi Kozlov, sp. nov., N. nielseni Kozlov, sp. nov., N. nieukerkeni Kozlov, sp. nov., N. nigripunctella Kozlov, sp. nov., N. punctifasciella Kozlov, sp. nov., N. rubicunda Kozlov, sp. nov., N. szabokyi Kozlov, sp. nov., N. thailandensis Kozlov, sp. nov., N. vietnamensis Kozlov, sp. nov. and N. yeni Kozlov, sp. nov. Lectotypes are designated for four species, including one junior synonym: Nemotois diplophragma Meyrick, 1938, Nemotois sinicella Walker, 1863, Nemotois cleodoxa Meyrick, 1922 and Adela satrapodes Meyrick, 1894. Eight new synonyms for four species are proposed: Nemophora badagongshana Liao, Hirowatari & Huang in Liao, Hirowatari, Yagi, Wang, Wang & Huang, 2023, syn. nov. of Nemophora aurifera (Butler, 1881); Nemotois chrysocharis Caradja, 1938, syn. nov. of Nemophora sinicella (Walker, 1863); Nemotois diplophragma Meyrick, 1938, syn. nov. of Nemophora melichlorias (Meyrick, 1907); Nemophora basalistriata Liao, Hirowatari & Huang in Liao, Hirowatari, Yagi, Wang, Wang & Huang, 2023, syn. nov. of Nemophora melichlorias (Meyrick, 1907); Nemotois limenites Meyrick, 1914, syn. nov. of Nemophora aurifera (Butler, 1881); Nemophora quadrata Liao, Hirowatari & Huang in Liao, Hirowatari, Yagi, Wang, Wang & Huang, 2023, syn. nov. of Nemophora aurifera (Butler, 1881); Nemotois rubrofascia formosicola Matsumura, 1931, syn. nov. of Nemophora sakaii (Matsumura, 1931); Nemotois servata Meyrick in Caradja, 1925, syn. nov. of Nemophora aurifera (Butler, 1881). Four new combinationsare introduced: Nemophora aglaospila (Meyrick, 1928), comb. nov.; Nemophora cleodoxa (Meyrick, 1922), comb. nov.; Nemophora melichlorias (Meyrick, 1907), comb. nov.; and Nemophora sinicella (Walker, 1863), comb. nov. Of 40 species considered, 16 were recorded in Myanmar, 21 in Thailand, 4 in Laos, 4 in Cambodia and 13 in Vietnam.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Masculino , Animais , Camboja , Vietnã , Laos , Mianmar , Tailândia , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Tamanho do Órgão
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