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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12158, 2024 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38802457

RESUMO

Quantitative imaging in life sciences has evolved into a powerful approach combining advanced microscopy acquisition and automated analysis of image data. The focus of the present study is on the imaging-based evaluation of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle (PCA) influenced by long-term functional electrical stimulation (FES), which may assist the inspiration of patients with bilateral vocal fold paresis. To this end, muscle cross-sections of the PCA of sheep were examined by quantitative image analysis. Previous investigations of the muscle fibers and the collagen amount have not revealed signs of atrophy and fibrosis due to FES by a laryngeal pacemaker. It was therefore hypothesized that regardless of the stimulation parameters the fat in the muscle cross-sections would not be significantly altered. We here extending our previous investigations using quantitative imaging of intramuscular fat in cross-sections. In order to perform this analysis both reliably and faster than a qualitative evaluation and time-consuming manual annotation, the selection of the automated method was of crucial importance. To this end, our recently established deep neural network IMFSegNet, which provides more accurate results compared to standard machine learning approaches, was applied to more than 300 H&E stained muscle cross-sections from 22 sheep. It was found that there were no significant differences in the amount of intramuscular fat between the PCA with and without long-term FES, nor were any significant differences found between the low and high duty cycle stimulated groups. This study on a human-like animal model not only confirms the hypothesis that FES with the selected parameters has no negative impact on the PCA, but also demonstrates that objective and automated deep learning-based quantitative imaging is a powerful tool for such a challenging analysis.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Animais , Ovinos , Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Tecido Adiposo , Músculos Laríngeos/fisiopatologia , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10440, 2024 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714750

RESUMO

A wide variety of treatments have been developed to improve respiratory function and quality of life in patients with bilateral vocal fold paresis (BVFP). One experimental method is the electrical activation of the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscle with a laryngeal pacemaker (LP) to open the vocal folds. We used an ovine (sheep) model of unilateral VFP to study the long-term effects of functional electrical stimulation on the PCA muscles. The left recurrent laryngeal nerve was cryo-damaged in all animals and an LP was implanted except for the controls. After a reinnervation phase of six months, animals were pooled into groups that received either no treatment, implantation of an LP only, or implantation of an LP and six months of stimulation with different duty cycles. Automated image analysis of fluorescently stained PCA cross-sections was performed to assess relevant muscle characteristics. We observed a fast-to-slow fibre type shift in response to nerve damage and stimulation, but no complete conversion to a slow-twitch-muscle. Fibre size, proportion of hybrid fibres, and intramuscular collagen content were not substantially altered by the stimulation. These results demonstrate that 30 Hz burst stimulation with duty cycles of 40% and 70% did not induce PCA atrophy or fibrosis. Thus, long-term stimulation with an LP is a promising approach for treating BVFP in humans without compromising muscle conditions.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica , Músculos Laríngeos , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais , Animais , Ovinos , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/terapia , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/fisiopatologia , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Músculos Laríngeos/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Marca-Passo Artificial/efeitos adversos , Prega Vocal/fisiopatologia , Prega Vocal/patologia , Feminino
3.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38686482

RESUMO

Objective:To analyze the characteristics of vocal fold movement and glottic closure in patients with laryngeal neurogenic injury. Methods:A total of 185 patients with vocal fold paralysis diagnosed by laryngeal electromyography as neurogenic damage to cricothyroid muscle, thyreoarytenoid muscle and posterior cricoarytenoid muscle were enrolled, they were divided into unilateral vocal fold paralysis group and bilateral vocal fold paralysis group, respectively, and superior laryngeal paralysis group, recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis group and vagal nerve paralysis group according to nerve injury. The characteristics of vocal fold movement and glottic closure were analyzed under strobe laryngoscope. The qualitative evaluation of vocal fold movement was fixed vocal fold, reduced vocal fold movement and normal vocal fold movement, and the qualitative evaluation of glottic closure was glottic closure and glottic imperfection. The results were analyzed statistically. Results:The proportion of normal, reduced and fixed vocal fold motion in bilateral vocal fold paralysis group was significantly different from that in unilateral vocal fold paralysis group(P<0.05), the composition of normal and reduced vocal fold motion in bilateral vocal fold paralysis group(47.70%) was significantly greater than that in unilateral vocal fold paralysis group(12.27%). There was no significant difference between the proportion of glottic closure and glottic imperfecta in bilateral vocal fold paralysis group and unilateral vocal fold paralysis group(P<0.05). The proportion of decreased vocal fold motion in superior laryngeal nerve paralysis group(50.00%) was higher than that in recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis group(9.32%) and vagal nerve paralysis group(9.00%). The proportion of decreased and fixed vocal fold motion in superior laryngeal nerve paralysis group, recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis group and vagal nerve paralysis group was statistically significant(P<0.05).There was no significant difference in glottic closure among the three groups(P<0.05). Conclusion:Vocal fold movement characteristics of patients with laryngeal neurogenic injury were mainly vocal fold fixation, or normal or weakened vocal fold movement. There may be missed diagnosis of unilateral vocal fold paralysis in clinical practice. In half of the patients with superior laryngeal nerve palsy, vocal fold movement is characterized by vocal fold fixation.


Assuntos
Paralisia das Pregas Vocais , Prega Vocal , Humanos , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/fisiopatologia , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/etiologia , Prega Vocal/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Feminino , Eletromiografia , Músculos Laríngeos/fisiopatologia , Músculos Laríngeos/inervação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Glote/fisiopatologia , Laringoscopia , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente
4.
Otolaryngol Pol ; 78(2): 18-22, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38623857

RESUMO

<b><br>Introduction:</b> Electromyography (EMG) of the larynx provides information on the electrophysiological condition of laryngeal muscles and innervation. Integration of information obtained from the EMG exams with the clinical parameters as obtained by other methods for laryngeal assessment (endoscopy, perceptual and acoustic analysis, voice self-assessment) provides a multidimensional picture of dysphonia, which is of particular importance in patients with vocal fold (VF) mobility disorders accompanied by glottic insufficiency.</br> <b><br>Aim:</b> The aim of this study was to evaluate laryngeal EMG records acquired in subjects with unilateral vocal fold immobilization with signs of atrophy and glottic insufficiency.</br> <b><br>Material and methods:</b> From the available material of 74 EMG records of patients referred for the exam due to unilateral laryngeal paralysis, records of 17 patients with endoscopic features suggestive of complete laryngeal muscle denervation were selected. The EMG study of thyroarytenoid muscles of mobile and immobile VFs was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively at rest and during volitional activity involving free phonation of vowel /e/ [ε].</br> <b><br>Results:</b> In all patients, the EMG records from mobile VFs were significantly different from those from immobile VFs. Despite endoscopic features of paralysis, no VF activity whatsoever was observed in as few as 2 patients so as to meet the neurophysiological definition of paralysis. In 88% of cases, electromyographic activity of the thyroarytenoid muscle was observed despite immobilization and atrophy of the vocal fold. In these patients, neurogenic type of record was observed with numerous high- -amplitude mobility units. On the basis of the results, quantitative features of EMG records indicative of paralysis and residual activity of the thyroarytenoid muscle were determined.</br> <b><br>Conclusions:</b> Qualitative and quantitative analysis of laryngeal EMG records provides detailed information on the condition of vocal fold muscles and innervation. EMG records of mobile vs immobile VFs differ significantly from each other. Endoscopic evaluation does not provide sufficient basis for the diagnosis of complete laryngeal muscle denervation.</br>.


Assuntos
Disfonia , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais , Humanos , Prega Vocal , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/diagnóstico , Eletromiografia/métodos , Músculos Laríngeos , Endoscopia , Atrofia
5.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 162: 141-150, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38631074

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The laryngeal adductor reflex (LAR) is vital for airway protection and can be electrophysiologically obtained under intravenous general anesthesia (IGA). This makes the electrophysiologic LAR (eLAR) an important tool for monitoring of the vagus nerves and relevant brainstem circuitry during high-risk surgeries. We investigated the intra-class variability of normal and expected abnormal eLAR. METHODS: Repeated measures of contralateral R1 (cR1) were performed under IGA in 58 patients. Data on presence/absence of cR2 and potential confounders were also collected. Review of neuroimaging, pathology and clinical exam, allowed classification into normal and expected abnormal eLAR groups. Using univariate and multivariate analysis we studied the variability of cR1 parameters and their differences between the two groups. RESULTS: In both groups, cR1 latencies had coefficients of variation of <2%. In the abnormal group, cR1 had longer latencies, required higher activation currents and was more frequently desynchronized and unsustained; cR2 was more frequently absent. CONCLUSIONS: cR1 latencies show high analytical precision for measurements. Delayed onset, difficult to elicit, desynchronized and unsustained cR1, and absence of cR2 signal an abnormal eLAR. SIGNIFICANCE: Understanding the variability and behavior of normal and abnormal eLAR under IGA can aid in the interpretation of its changes during monitoring.


Assuntos
Reflexo , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Reflexo/fisiologia , Adulto , Músculos Laríngeos/fisiopatologia , Músculos Laríngeos/fisiologia , Eletromiografia/métodos
6.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 67(5): 1324-1338, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592964

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Surface electromyography (sEMG) has been used to evaluate extrinsic laryngeal muscle activity during swallowing and phonation. In the current study, sEMG amplitudes were measured from the infrahyoid and suprahyoid muscles during phonation through a tube submerged in water. METHOD: The sEMG amplitude values measured from the extrinsic laryngeal muscles and the electroglottographic contact quotient (CQ) were obtained simultaneously from 62 healthy participants (31 men, 31 women) during phonation through a tube at six different depths (2, 4, 7, 10, 15, and 20 cm) while using two tubes with different diameters (1 and 0.5 cm). RESULTS: With increasing depth, the sEMG amplitude for the suprahyoid muscles increased in men and women. However, sEMG amplitudes for the infrahyoid muscles increased significantly only in men. Tube diameter had a significant effect on the suprahyoid sEMG amplitudes only for men, with higher sEMG amplitudes when phonating with a 1.0-cm tube. CQ values increased with submerged depth for both men and women. Tube diameter affected results such than CQ values were higher for men when using the wider tube and for women with the narrower tube. CONCLUSIONS: Vocal fold vibratory patterns changed with the depth of tube submersion in water for both men and women, but the patterns of muscle activation differed between the sexes. This suggests that men and women use different strategies when confronted with increased intraoral pressure during semi-occluded vocal tract exercises. In this study, sEMG provided insight into the mechanism for differences between vocally normal individuals and could help detect compensatory muscle activation during tube phonation in water for people with voice disorders.


Assuntos
Eletromiografia , Músculos Laríngeos , Fonação , Água , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Fonação/fisiologia , Músculos Laríngeos/fisiologia , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Prega Vocal/fisiologia , Deglutição/fisiologia , Vibração
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(5)2024 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38475034

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a range of motor and non-motor symptoms. One of the notable non-motor symptoms of PD is the presence of vocal disorders, attributed to the underlying pathophysiological changes in the neural control of the laryngeal and vocal tract musculature. From this perspective, the integration of machine learning (ML) techniques in the analysis of speech signals has significantly contributed to the detection and diagnosis of PD. Particularly, MEL Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) and Gammatone Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (GTCCs) are both feature extraction techniques commonly used in the field of speech and audio signal processing that could exhibit great potential for vocal disorder identification. This study presents a novel approach to the early detection of PD through ML applied to speech analysis, leveraging both MFCCs and GTCCs. The recordings contained in the Mobile Device Voice Recordings at King's College London (MDVR-KCL) dataset were used. These recordings were collected from healthy individuals and PD patients while they read a passage and during a spontaneous conversation on the phone. Particularly, the speech data regarding the spontaneous dialogue task were processed through speaker diarization, a technique that partitions an audio stream into homogeneous segments according to speaker identity. The ML applied to MFCCS and GTCCs allowed us to classify PD patients with a test accuracy of 92.3%. This research further demonstrates the potential to employ mobile phones as a non-invasive, cost-effective tool for the early detection of PD, significantly improving patient prognosis and quality of life.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Fala , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Qualidade de Vida , Aprendizado de Máquina , Músculos Laríngeos
8.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 155(3): 2139-2150, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38498507

RESUMO

Phonatory instabilities and involuntary register transitions can occur during singing. However, little is known regarding the mechanisms which govern such transitions. To investigate this phenomenon, we systematically varied laryngeal muscle activation and airflow in an in vivo canine larynx model during phonation. We calculated voice range profiles showing average nerve activations for all combinations of fundamental frequency (F0) and sound pressure level (SPL). Further, we determined closed-quotient (CQ) and minimum-posterior-area (MPA) based on high-speed video recordings. While different combinations of muscle activation favored different combinations of F0 and SPL, in the investigated larynx there was a consistent region of instability at about 400 Hz which essentially precluded phonation. An explanation for this region may be a larynx specific coupling between sound source and subglottal tract or an effect based purely on larynx morphology. Register transitions crossed this region, with different combinations of cricothyroid and thyroarytenoid muscle (TA) activation stabilizing higher or lower neighboring frequencies. Observed patterns in CQ and MPA dependent on TA activation reproduced patterns found in singers in previous work. Lack of control of TA stimulation may result in phonation instabilities, and enhanced control of TA stimulation may help to avoid involuntary register transitions, especially in the singing voice.


Assuntos
Músculos Laríngeos , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Cães , Músculos Laríngeos/fisiologia , Fonação/fisiologia , Som , Gravação em Vídeo
9.
Surg Oncol ; 53: 102059, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461616

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Injury of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN) is easily overlooked in thyroidectomy, and voice changes caused by the injury have a negative effect on an increasing number of patients. This study aimed to reduce the injury rate of EBSLN by expanding the sternothyroid-laryngeal triangle and standardizing the exploration procedure. METHODS: A total of 520 patients who had undergone thyroidectomy at the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University between September 2021 and April 2022 were analyzed. During the operation, the exposure rate of the EBSLN before and after sternothyroid-laryngeal triangle expansion was compared, and all EBSLNs were anatomically classified. RESULTS: The exposure rate of EBSLN after sternothyroid-laryngeal triangle expansion reached 82.7%, which is much higher than that before sternothyroid-laryngeal triangle expansion (33.7%), and voice change caused by injury of the EBSLN was reported in one case (the injury rate was 0.2%). The classification and proportion of the EBSLN were as follows: Type 1 (55.3%), the nerve ran within 1 cm above the STP, but no coincidence or crossover with blood vessels was observed in this region; Type 2 (14.7%), the nerve travelled within 1 cm above the STP and overlapped or intersected with blood vessels in this region; Type 3 (12.7%), the EBSLN ran below the level of the STP; and Type 4 (17.3%), no EBSLN was observed within 1 cm above the STP. CONCLUSION: In thyroidectomy, injury to the EBSLN can be effectively reduced by expanding the sternothyroid-laryngeal triangle and exploring the upper pole area of the thyroid as far as possible, which has great clinical significance in reducing postoperative voice box injury.


Assuntos
Monitorização Intraoperatória , Tireoidectomia , Humanos , Tireoidectomia/efeitos adversos , Tireoidectomia/métodos , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Nervos Laríngeos , Músculos Laríngeos/inervação
10.
Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 32(3): 151-155, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38393684

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To propose a pathway for expanding the understanding of potential mechanisms of action with laryngeal-based manual therapy (LMT) for muscle tension dysphonia (MTD). This review may help determine if current LMT literature has kept up with advances in the more general manual therapy (MT) findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies over the past thirty years, including recently published articles, have confirmed the efficacy of various manual therapy interventions in treating MTD. However, gaps exist between current LMT literature and that being presented in the more general MT field. Instead of viewing peripheral manipulation's influences as a local cause/effect process, the MT literature paints a richer tapestry of centrally mediated impacts. SUMMARY: Evidence from outside the LMT field has introduced a broad tapestry of factors that may contribute to the efficacy of MT, extending beyond the local effects reported in LMT literature. To better understand the effect and mechanism of action touch-based interventions have on a patient's voice and to potentially improve outcomes, it is necessary to broaden investigations to include a broader range of perspectives.


Assuntos
Disfonia , Manipulações Musculoesqueléticas , Humanos , Disfonia/terapia , Disfonia/fisiopatologia , Manipulações Musculoesqueléticas/métodos , Músculos Laríngeos/fisiopatologia , Tono Muscular/fisiologia
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3631, 2024 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351102

RESUMO

Primates have varied vocal repertoires to communicate with conspecifics and sometimes other species. The larynx has a central role in vocal source generation, where a pair of vocal folds vibrates to modify the air flow. Here, we show that Madagascan lemurs have a unique additional pair of folds in the vestibular region, parallel to the vocal folds. The additional fold has a rigid body of a vocal muscle branch and it is covered by a stratified squamous epithelium, equal to those of the vocal fold. Such anatomical features support the hypothesis that it also vibrates in a manner like the vibrations that occur in the vocal folds. To examine the acoustic function of the two pairs of folds, we made a silicone compound model to demonstrate that they can simultaneously vibrate to lower the fundamental frequency and increase vocal efficiency. Similar acoustic effects are achieved using different features of the larynx for the other primates, e.g., by vibrating multiple sets of ventricular folds in several species and further by an evolutionary modification of enlarged larynx in howler monkeys. Our multidisciplinary approaches found that these functions were acquired through a unique evolutionary adaptation of the twin vocal folds in Madagascan lemurs.


Assuntos
Lemur , Prega Vocal , Animais , Prega Vocal/fisiologia , Músculos Laríngeos , Vibração , Acústica
12.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 148, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cricothyrotomy is an invasive and rare emergency intervention to secure the airway in a "cannot intubate, cannot ventilate" situation. This leads to lack of routine. Cricothyrotomy is performed only hesitantly. Therefore, we aim to improve teaching by including a virtual reality (VR) cricothyrotomy as a learning tool. METHODS: We programmed the VR cricothyrotomy in the C# programming language on the open-source Unity platform. We could include 149 students that we randomly assigned to either a study group (VR cricothyrotomy) or control group (educational video). We asked the study group to subjectively rate the VR cricothyrotomy. To evaluate our intervention (VR cricothyrotomy) we took the time participants needed to perform a cricothyrotomy on a plastic model of a trachea and evaluated the correct procedural steps. RESULTS: The majority of students that performed the VR simulation agreed that they improved in speed (81%) and procedural steps (92%). All participants completed the cricothyrotomy in 47s ± 16s and reached a total score of 8.7 ± 0.7 of 9 possible points. We saw no significant difference in time needed to perform a cricothyrotomy between study and control group (p > 0.05). However, the total score of correct procedural steps was significantly higher in the study group than in the control group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Virtual reality is an innovative learning tool to improve teaching of emergency procedures. The VR cricothyrotomy subjectively and objectively improved correct procedural steps. Digitized education fills an educational gap between pure haptic experience and theoretical knowledge. This is of great value when focusing on extension of factual knowledge. TRIAL REGISTRATION: DRKS00031736, registered on the 20th April 2023.


Assuntos
Gamificação , Laringectomia , Treinamento por Simulação , Realidade Virtual , Humanos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Aprendizagem , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Músculos Laríngeos/cirurgia
13.
Laryngoscope ; 134(1): 272-282, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37436167

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: No curative injectable therapy exists for unilateral vocal fold paralysis. Herein, we explore the early implications of muscle-derived motor-endplate expressing cells (MEEs) for injectable vocal fold medialization after recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury. METHODS: Yucatan minipigs underwent right RLN transection (without repair) and muscle biopsies. Autologous muscle progenitor cells were isolated, cultured, differentiated, and induced to form MEEs. Three weeks after the injury, MEEs or saline were injected into the paralyzed right vocal fold. Outcomes including evoked laryngeal electromyography (LEMG), laryngeal adductor pressure, and acoustic vocalization data were analyzed up to 7 weeks post-injury. Harvested porcine larynges were examined for volume, gene expression, and histology. RESULTS: MEE injections were tolerated well, with all pigs demonstrating continued weight gain. Blinded analysis of videolaryngoscopy post-injection revealed infraglottic fullness, and no inflammatory changes. Four weeks after injection, LEMG revealed on average higher right distal RLN activity retention in MEE pigs. MEE-injected pigs on average had vocalization durations, frequencies, and intensities higher than saline pigs. Post-mortem, the MEE-injected larynges revealed statistically greater volume on quantitative 3D ultrasound, and statistically increased expression of neurotrophic factors (BDNF, NGF, NTF3, NTF4, NTN1) on quantitative PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Minimally invasive MEE injection appears to establish an early molecular and microenvironmental framework to encourage innate RLN regeneration. Longer follow-up is needed to determine if early findings will translate into functional contraction. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA Laryngoscope, 134:272-282, 2024.


Assuntos
Laringe , Traumatismos do Nervo Laríngeo Recorrente , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais , Animais , Suínos , Prega Vocal , Porco Miniatura , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/terapia , Eletromiografia , Nervo Laríngeo Recorrente/cirurgia , Células Musculares , Músculos Laríngeos/inervação
14.
Laryngoscope ; 134(1): 324-328, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37462328

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with bilateral vocal fold paralysis (BVFP) experience airway obstruction because of loss of abductor function of posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscles. We previously reported that implantation of autologous muscle progenitor (stem) cells into thyroarytenoid muscles during reinnervation resulted in improved adductor function. In this study, that same approach was applied to treating PCA muscles in a canine model of BVFP. DESIGN: Animal study. METHODS: Two canines underwent baseline measures of glottal resistance (GR), then complete transection and suture repair of both recurrent laryngeal nerves. Muscle stem cells were isolated from skeletal muscle and cultured. Two months later, GR was measured, and then 107 stem cells were implanted into one PCA muscle of each animal. After four more months, GR and glottal opening force (GOF) were measured and the muscles were harvested for histologic study. One control dog underwent the same procedures without stem cell implantation, for comparison. RESULTS: GR increased by 21%-25% over baseline at 2 months, but after stem cell implantation, improved to 10%-14% over baseline at 6 months. PCA muscle strength, as determined by GOF, was 61%-65% on control sides (no stem cells), and 78%-83% on treated sides (with stem cells). Histology confirmed survival of stem cells and a 50% higher rate of innervation of motor endplates in the stem cell treated sides. CONCLUSION: Autologous muscle progenitor (stem) cells show promise as a potential new therapy for patients with bilateral vocal fold paralysis. Additional studies are needed to determine the optimal number of cells, timing of implantation, and other variables before launching a clinical trial. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA (animal study) Laryngoscope, 134:324-328, 2024.


Assuntos
Paralisia das Pregas Vocais , Prega Vocal , Animais , Cães , Eletromiografia , Músculos Laríngeos/inervação , Músculos , Nervo Laríngeo Recorrente/cirurgia , Células-Tronco , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/cirurgia , Prega Vocal/cirurgia
15.
Laryngoscope ; 134(1): 240-246, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37409790

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate spasmodic dysphonia patients' perception of pain associated with laryngeal botulinum toxin (BTX) injections and to determine factors associated with higher pain scores relative to other included patients. METHODS: Prospective cohort study. Adult patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia that presented to a tertiary laryngology practice for BTX injections were recruited from March to July 2022. Patients completed the visual analog scale (VAS) pre-procedure to quantify predicted pain. Ten minutes post-procedure they completed VAS and the short form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ). Factors that may affect pain were extracted from charts. Descriptive statistics, univariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted (alpha = 0.05). RESULTS: One hundred and nineteen patients were included (63 ± 14 yo, 26% Male). SF-MPQ reported mild pain (4.12 ± 4.05 out of 45) with a pain intensity of none to mild (0.70 ± 0.89 out of 5). Bilateral injections yielded significantly higher SF-MPQ scores (5.19 ± 4.66) than unilateral injections (3.30 ± 3.30) (p = 0.012). There was a significant VAS reduction from pre 28.9 ± 24.6 mm (out of 10 mm) to post 24.5 ± 22.3 (p < 0.001). On multiple regression analyses, receiving a bilateral injection significantly (p < 0.05) contributed to a model that predicted higher pre-VAS (p = 0.013). Bilateral injections (p < 0.05) and higher VHI-10 (p < 0.05) contributed to a model that predicted higher total SF-MPQ (p = 0.001) and affective SF-MPQ (p = 0.001) scores. Not being a professional voice user (PVU) significantly (p < 0.05) contributed to a model that predicted higher post-VAS (p = 0.008) scores. CONCLUSIONS: BTX injections were well tolerated with low pain scores. Factors associated with higher relative predicted or experienced pain included bilateral versus unilateral injection, PVU status, and higher VHI-10. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 134:240-246, 2024.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A , Disfonia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Disfonia/tratamento farmacológico , Disfonia/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Dor , Músculos Laríngeos , Percepção , Injeções Intramusculares
16.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; 133(1): 87-96, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37497827

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Systemic glucocorticoids (GC)s are employed to treat various voice disorders. However, GCs have varying pharmacodynamic properties with adverse effects ranging from changes in epithelial integrity, skeletal muscle catabolism, and altered body weight. We sought to characterize the acute temporal effects of systemic dexamethasone and methylprednisolone on vocal fold (VF) epithelial glucocorticoid receptor (GR) nuclear translocation, epithelial tight junction (ZO-1) expression, thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle fiber morphology, and body weight using an established pre-clinical model. We hypothesized dexamethasone and methylprednisolone will elicit changes in VF epithelial GR nuclear translocation, epithelial ZO-1 expression, TA muscle morphology, and body weight compared to placebo-treated controls. METHODS: Forty-five New Zealand white rabbits received intramuscular injections of methylprednisolone (4.5 mg; n = 15), dexamethasone (450 µg; n = 15), or volume matched saline (n = 15) into the iliocostalis/longissimus muscle for 6 consecutive days. Vocal folds from 5 rabbits from each treatment group were harvested at 1-, 3-, or 7 days following the final injection and subjected to immunohistochemistry for ZO-1 and GR as well as TA muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) measures. RESULTS: Dexamethasone increased epithelial GR nuclear translocation and ZO-1 expression 1-day following injections compared to methylprednisolone (P = .024; P = .012). Dexamethasone and methylprednisolone increased TA CSA 1-day following injections (P = .011). Methylprednisolone decreased body weight 7 days following injections compared to controls (P = .004). CONCLUSIONS: Systemic dexamethasone may more efficiently activate GR in the VF epithelium with a lower risk of body weight loss, suggesting a role for more refined approaches to GC selection for laryngeal pathology.


Assuntos
Glucocorticoides , Prega Vocal , Animais , Coelhos , Peso Corporal , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Injeções Intramusculares , Músculos Laríngeos , Metilprednisolona/farmacologia , Prega Vocal/efeitos dos fármacos , Prega Vocal/patologia
17.
Laryngoscope ; 134(2): 848-854, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37597167

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to increase muscle volume and improve phonation characteristics of the aged ovine larynx by functional electrical stimulation (FES) using a minimally invasive surgical procedure. METHODS: Stimulation electrodes were placed bilaterally near the terminal adduction branch of the recurrent laryngeal nerves (RLN). The electrodes were connected to battery powered pulse generators implanted subcutaneously at the neck region. Training patterns were programmed by an external programmer using a bidirectional radio frequency link. Training sessions were repeated automatically by the implant every other day for 1 week followed by every day for 8 weeks in the awake animal. Another group of animals were used as sham, with electrodes positioned but not connected to an implant. Outcome parameters included gene expression analysis, histological assessment of muscle fiber size, functional analysis, and volumetric measurements based on three-dimensional reconstructions of the entire thyroarytenoid muscle (TAM). RESULTS: Increase in minimal muscle fiber diameter and an improvement in vocal efficiency were observed following FES, compared with sham animals. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to demonstrate beneficial effects in the TAM of FES at molecular, histological, and functional levels. FES of the terminal branches of the RLN reversed the effects of age-related changes and improved vocal efficiency. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA Laryngoscope, 134:848-854, 2024.


Assuntos
Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais , Ovinos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Músculos Laríngeos/inervação , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Estimulação Elétrica/métodos
18.
J Laryngol Otol ; 138(3): 341-344, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37417245

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk of fibromyalgia in patients with primary muscle tension dysphonia. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of patients with primary muscle tension dysphonia, diagnosed based on history of dysphonia with evidence of laryngeal muscle tension on examination. Fibromyalgia was assessed using the Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool ('FiRST'). RESULTS: Fifty patients were enrolled: 25 with primary muscle tension dysphonia (study group) and 25 matched controls. The mean age of the study group was 50.7 ± 15.2 years versus 49.5 ± 18.6 years for the controls, with a male to female ratio of 3:2 for both groups. Fifty-six per cent tested positive for fibromyalgia in the study group versus 4 per cent in the controls (p < 0.001). The mean Voice Handicap Index 10 score in the study group was significantly higher for those who screened positive for fibromyalgia compared to those who screened negative. There was a positive, strong point-biserial correlation between Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool and Voice Handicap Index 10 scores (r = 0.39; p = 0.09). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that fibromyalgia is a significant co-morbid condition in primary muscle tension dysphonia.


Assuntos
Disfonia , Fibromialgia , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Disfonia/diagnóstico , Disfonia/etiologia , Tono Muscular , Fibromialgia/complicações , Fibromialgia/diagnóstico , Fibromialgia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Músculos Laríngeos
19.
Laryngoscope ; 134(2): 831-834, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37676073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) is a useful diagnostic test in the evaluation of vocal fold paralysis (VFP). This study investigates factors that can make LEMG challenging to perform. METHODS: Patients with subacute unilateral VFP presented for LEMG were prospectively enrolled. Demographic data including BMI, previous neck surgery, and anatomic factors were collected. Patient-reported pain related to the procedure was recorded on a visual analogue scale (VAS). Electromyographer and otolaryngologist recorded a consensus rating of the perceived difficulty in performing the test and confidence in using the results for clinical decision-making. RESULTS: A total of 111 patients (56.8% female) were enrolled between August 2015 and August 2018. The mean age was 55 ± 14 years, and the average body mass index (BMI) was 28.5 ± 6.4. The mean patient-reported VAS score for pain was 35 ± 24. Notably, 31.2% of the tests were considered "very easy," 32.1% were considered "mildly challenging" and 23.9% and 12.8% were considered "moderately challenging" and "extremely challenging," respectively, by the clinicians. Common factors affecting LEMG difficulty included poorly palpable surface anatomy (50.5%) and patient intolerance (15.6%). Clinicians felt confident in 76.1% of the test findings. Bivariate analyses showed that prior neck surgery is associated with elevated VAS (p = 0.02), but clinician-perceived difficulty of performing the test is not associated with elevated VAS scores (p = 0.55). CONCLUSIONS: Majority of LEMG tests are well tolerated by patients. Physicians reported more confidence using LEMG for clinical decision-making when the test was easier to perform. Difficult surface anatomy and patient intolerance affects clinician confidence in integrating the test results with clinical care. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Laryngoscope, 134:831-834, 2024.


Assuntos
Laringe , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Masculino , Eletromiografia/métodos , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/diagnóstico , Pescoço , Dor , Músculos Laríngeos
20.
Auris Nasus Larynx ; 51(1): 106-112, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37365040

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Laryngeal dystonia (LD) is characterized by irregular and involuntary task-specific spasms of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles. There is no curative treatment for it, however, laryngeal botulinum neurotoxin injections (BoNT-I) are considered the standard of care therapy. This study aims to characterize the population of LD patients and to assess the results of laryngeal BoNT-I. METHODS: A Retrospective cohort study was conducted. Medical records were reviewed for all the patients with LD diagnosis seen in the Voice Unit of the Red de Salud UCChristus between January 2013 and October 2021. Biodemographic, clinical and treatment data were collected. Additionally, a telephonic survey was completed by the patients that underwent laryngeal BoNT-I, including self-reported voice outcomes and Voice Handicap Index 10 (VHI-10). RESULTS: Of the 34 patients with LD included in the study, 23 received a total of 93 laryngeal BoNT-I and 19 completed the telephone survey. The majority (97%) of the injections corresponded to patients with adductor LD and 3% to abductor LD. Patients received a median of 3 (1-17) injections, with a more frequent cricothyroid approach (94.4%), while the thyrohyoid approach accounted for 5.6% of cases. Most injections were bilateral (96.8%). A significant improvement in the vocal quality and effort was noted after the last injection and the overall BoNT-I treatment (P < 0.001). Similarly, the VHI-10 score improved from a median of 31 (7-40) to 2 (0-19) (P < 0.001) after the last injection. A post-treatment breathy voice was reported in 95% of patients, and dysphagia to liquids and solids in 68% and 21%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Laryngeal BoNT-I is an effective treatment for LD, achieving an improvement in self-reported vocal quality and VHI-10 scores, and a reduction of the self-reported vocal effort. Adverse effects are mild in the majority of cases, constituting a safe and effective therapy for these patients.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A , Toxinas Botulínicas , Disfonia , Distonia , Humanos , Toxinas Botulínicas/uso terapêutico , Distonia/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Disfonia/tratamento farmacológico , Disfonia/diagnóstico , Qualidade da Voz , Músculos Laríngeos , Resultado do Tratamento , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/uso terapêutico
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