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1.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 60, 2024 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The exoproteome, which consists of both secreted proteins and those originating from cell surfaces and lysed cells, is a critical component of trypanosomatid parasites, facilitating interactions with host cells and gut microbiota. However, its specific roles in the insect hosts of these parasites remain poorly understood. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive characterization of the exoproteome in Lotmaria passim, a trypanosomatid parasite infecting honey bees, under culture conditions. We further investigated the functions of two conventionally secreted proteins, aspartyl protease (LpAsp) and chitinase (LpCht), as representative models to elucidate the role of the secretome in L. passim infection of honey bees. RESULTS: Approximately 48% of L. passim exoproteome proteins were found to share homologs with those found in seven Leishmania spp., suggesting the existence of a core exoproteome with conserved functions in the Leishmaniinae lineage. Bioinformatics analyses suggested that the L. passim exoproteome may play a pivotal role in interactions with both the host and its microbiota. Notably, the deletion of genes encoding two secretome proteins revealed the important role of LpAsp, but not LpCht, in L. passim development under culture conditions and its efficiency in infecting the honey bee gut. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the exoproteome as a valuable resource for unraveling the mechanisms employed by trypanosomatid parasites to infect insect hosts by interacting with the gut environment.


Assuntos
Ácido Aspártico Proteases , Leishmania , Microbiota , Parasitos , Abelhas , Animais , Ácido Aspártico Proteases/genética , Secretoma
2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 30(3): 510-518, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38407142

RESUMO

Disseminated leishmaniasis (DL) is an emergent severe disease manifesting with multiple lesions. To determine the relationship between immune response and clinical and therapeutic outcomes, we studied 101 DL and 101 cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cases and determined cytokines and chemokines in supernatants of mononuclear cells stimulated with leishmania antigen. Patients were treated with meglumine antimoniate (20 mg/kg) for 20 days (CL) or 30 days (DL); 19 DL patients were instead treated with amphotericin B, miltefosine, or miltefosine and meglumine antimoniate. High levels of chemokine ligand 9 were associated with more severe DL. The cure rate for meglumine antimoniate was low for both DL (44%) and CL (60%), but healing time was longer in DL (p = 0.003). The lowest cure rate (22%) was found in DL patients with >100 lesions. However, meglumine antimoniate/miltefosine treatment cured all DL patients who received it; therefore, that combination should be considered as first choice therapy.


Assuntos
Leishmania braziliensis , Leishmania , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Fosforilcolina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Antimoniato de Meglumina/uso terapêutico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381898

RESUMO

Asymptomatic infection (the absence or inapparent signs and symptoms) has been observed in many endemic areas of leishmaniasis, however, little is known about the parasitological and immunological factors associated with this type of infection. This study aimed to identify the in vitro expression of IFN-γ in asymptomatic carriers of viable Leishmania parasites. Asymptomatic infection was identified using the Montenegro skin test in an at-risk population from Yucatan, Mexico. Parasite viability was evinced in the blood by 7SL RNA transcripts amplification. The expression of mRNA IFN-γ was analyzed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with soluble Leishmania antigen, using RT-qPCR. Parasite viability was observed in 33.3 % (5/15) of asymptomatic subjects. No differences were found in the expression of IFN-γ between asymptomatic and healthy subjects, and no correlation was found between the presence of viable parasites and the expression of IFN-γ. This study demonstrates the persistence of Leishmania parasites in the absence of an in vitro IFN-γ response in asymptomatic carriers from Mexico.


Assuntos
Leishmania , Parasitos , Animais , Humanos , Infecções Assintomáticas , Leucócitos Mononucleares , México
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 996, 2024 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38200138

RESUMO

Leishmania amazonensis is a protozoan that primarily causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans. The parasite relies on the amino acid arginine to survive within macrophages and establish infection, since it is a precursor for producing polyamines. On the other hand, arginine can be metabolized via nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) to produce the microbicidal molecule nitric oxide (NO), although this mechanism does not apply to human macrophages since they lack NOS2 activity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional levels. Our previous work showed that mmu-miR-294 targets Nos2 favoring Leishmania survival in murine macrophages. Here, we demonstrate that human macrophages upregulate the hsa-miR-372, hsa-miR-373, and hsa-miR-520d, which present the same seed sequence as the murine mmu-miR-294. Inhibition of the miR-372 impaired Leishmania survival in THP-1 macrophages and the effect was further enhanced with combinatorial inhibition of the miR-372/373/520d family, pointing to a cooperative mechanism. However, this reduction in survival is not caused by miRNA-targeting of NOS2, since the seed-binding motif found in mice is not conserved in the human 3'UTR. Instead, we showed the miR-372/373/520d family targeting the macrophage's main arginine transporter SLC7A2/CAT2 during infection. Arginine-related metabolism was markedly altered in response to infection and miRNA inhibition, as measured by Mass Spectrometry-based metabolomics. We found that Leishmania infection upregulates polyamines production in macrophages, as opposed to simultaneous inhibition of miR-372/373/520d, which decreased putrescine and spermine levels compared to the negative control. Overall, our study demonstrates miRNA-dependent modulation of polyamines production, establishing permissive conditions for intracellular parasite survival. Although the effector mechanisms causing host cell immunometabolic adaptations involve various parasite and host-derived signals, our findings suggest that the miR-372/373/520d family may represent a potential target for the development of new therapeutic strategies against cutaneous leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Leishmania , Leishmaniose Cutânea , MicroRNAs , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Arginina , Macrófagos , MicroRNAs/genética
5.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 119: e220242, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38198296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eosinophils are granulocytes that rapidly increase frequency in the bloodstream during helminthic infections and allergic responses. They are found in tissue infected by Leishmania during early disease, but their role during infection is not entirely understood. OBJECTIVES: We aim to compare the disease due to Leishmania amazonensis in BALB/c and Δdbl-GATA1 mice, which lack eosinophils. METHODS: BALB/c and Δdbl-GATA1 mice infected with L. amazonensis were observed for several weeks. The parasite load and dissemination pattern were assessed. FINDINGS: The Δdbl-GATA1 mice developed an anticipated dissemination of L. amazonensis and a worsening disease. No differences were found in the lesion development or the parasite load in the footpad among Δdbl-GATA1 mice and BALB/c eight weeks after infection. However, nine weeks after infection, massive growth of metastatic lesions appeared in several parts of the skin in Δdbl-GATA1 mice, weeks earlier than BALB/c. We observed increased parasites in the bloodstream, probably an essential dissemination route. Thirteen weeks after infection, metastatic lesions were found in all Δdbl-GATA1 mice. MAIN CONCLUSION: These results suggest a protective role of eosinophils in delaying the disease caused by L. amazonensis, although several limitations of this mice strain must be considered.


Assuntos
Leishmania mexicana , Leishmania , Animais , Camundongos , Eosinófilos , Carga Parasitária , Pele
6.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 47: 100970, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38199676

RESUMO

Due to the proximity of humans to the countryside and the progressive increase in populations of invasive species, such as wild boars (Sus scrofa), the risk of disease spread is also exacerbated, some of which are zoonoses caused by protozoa. In the present study, 75 tissue/organ samples from 25 wild boars obtained from authorized hunting in the northern region of Rio Grande do Sul were evaluated to investigate the presence of Trypanosoma spp. using conventional PCR with specific primers and amplification of the ITS1 region for Leishmania spp. detection and species differentiation, multiplex PCR with kDNA minicircle amplification was performed. Trypanosoma spp. DNA was detected in 11 out of 25 hearts, representing 44% of the culled animals. Regarding the detection of Leishmania DNA, L. infantum was detected in one spleen sample, accounting for 4%, and L. amazonensis in one liver sample from the same animal, also representing 4% (1/25) of the samples. It is important to note that this wild boar, with detection for both L. amazonensis and L. infantum, also had Trypanosoma spp. DNA detected in a heart sample, indicating the potential of this species to have multiple infections with these agents. Furthermore, this is the first reported case of multiple infection in a wild boar with these agents. Therefore, the results obtained reinforce the risk posed by invasive species, especially wild boars, as potential sources of infectious agent dissemination and their role as possible reservoirs for numerous diseases.


Assuntos
Leishmania , Trypanosoma , Animais , Humanos , Suínos , Leishmania/genética , DNA , Espécies Introduzidas , Trypanosoma/genética , Sus scrofa
7.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 47: 100980, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38199688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leishmania spp., a protozoan transmitted by sandflies, widely affects humans and dogs in Colombia, nevertheless feline leishmaniasis (FeL) remains understudied. OBJECTIVE: This study reports a case of feline leishmaniasis in Colombia and its therapeutic management. METHODS: Complete blood count, renal and hepatic serum biochemistry, nodular lesion cytology, FeLV/FIV snap test, abdominal ultrasound, and molecular diagnosis of Leishmania spp. 16 s rRNA gene amplification by real-time-PCR (qPCR), ITS-1 and hsp70 gene by endpoint-PCR and Sanger sequencing were performed. RESULTS: The patient was negative for FIV/FeLV and showed leukocytosis, lymphocytosis, thrombocytopenia, neutrophilia, monocytosis, hypergammaglobulinemia, increased gamma-glutamyl-transferase, cortical nephrocalcinosis, diffuse heterogeneous splenic parenchyma, and cholangitis. Nodular lesion cytology, qPCR and Sanger sequencing confirmed the diagnosis of Leishmania spp. The patient was treated with allopurinol and miltefosine. After treatment, clinical signs disappeared. CONCLUSION: Clinical examination, cytology, and molecular tests allowed a rapid and sensitive FeL diagnosis. Allopurinol and miltefosine improved the clinical condition of the cat.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Leishmania , Leishmaniose , Fosforilcolina/análogos & derivados , Gatos , Animais , Humanos , Cães , Colômbia , Alopurinol/uso terapêutico , Vírus da Leucemia Felina , Leishmaniose/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 19, 2024 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38217054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding aspects related to the physiology and capacity of vectors is essential for effectively controlling vector-borne diseases. The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis has great importance in medical entomology for disseminating Leishmania parasites, the causative agent of Leishmaniasis, one of the main neglected diseases listed by the World Health Organization (WHO). In this respect, it is necessary to evaluate the transmission potential of this species and the success of vector control interventions. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used to estimate the age of mosquitoes in different conditions (laboratory, semi-field, and conservation), taxonomic analysis, and infection detection. However, no studies are using NIRS for sand flies. METHODS: In this study, we developed analytic models to estimate the age of L. longipalpis adults under laboratory conditions, identify their copulation state, and evaluate their gonotrophic cycle and diet. RESULTS: Sand flies were classified with an accuracy of 58-82% in 3 age groups and 82-92% when separating them into young (<8 days) or old (>8 days) insects. The classification between mated and non-mated sandflies was 98-100% accurate, while the percentage of hits of females that had already passed the first gonotrophic cycle was only 59%. CONCLUSIONS: We consider the age and copula estimation results very promising, as they provide essential aspects of vector capacity assessment, which can be obtained quickly and at a lower cost with NIRS.


Assuntos
Leishmania , Leishmaniose , Phlebotomus , Psychodidae , Feminino , Animais , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Mosquitos Vetores , Leishmania/fisiologia
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(1): e0011892, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38190401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by the Leishmania protozoan affecting millions of people worldwide, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. The immune response involves the activation of various cells to eliminate the infection. Understanding the complex interplay between Leishmania and the host immune system is crucial for developing effective treatments against this disease. METHODS: This study collected extensive transcriptomic data from macrophages, dendritic, and NK cells exposed to Leishmania spp. Our objective was to determine the Leishmania-responsive genes in immune system cells by applying meta-analysis and feature selection algorithms, followed by co-expression analysis. RESULTS: As a result of meta-analysis, we discovered 703 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), primarily associated with the immune system and cellular metabolic processes. In addition, we have substantiated the significance of transcription factor families, such as bZIP and C2H2 ZF, in response to Leishmania infection. Furthermore, the feature selection techniques revealed the potential of two genes, namely G0S2 and CXCL8, as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for Leishmania infection. Lastly, our co-expression analysis has unveiled seven hub genes, including PFKFB3, DIAPH1, BSG, BIRC3, GOT2, EIF3H, and ATF3, chiefly related to signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the response of immune system cells to Leishmania infection and offer novel potential targets for the therapeutic goals.


Assuntos
Leishmania , Leishmaniose , Humanos , Leishmania/genética , Macrófagos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Forminas/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(2)2024 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38256275

RESUMO

Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. In humans, it evolves into a chronic disease, eventually resulting in cardiac, digestive, and/or neurological disorders. In the present study, we characterized a novel T. cruzi antigen named Tc323 (TcCLB.504087.20), recognized by a single-chain monoclonal antibody (scFv 6B6) isolated from the B cells of patients with cardiomyopathy related to chronic Chagas disease. Tc323, a ~323 kDa protein, is an uncharacterized protein showing putative quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase-like domains. A computational molecular docking study revealed that the scFv 6B6 binds to an internal domain of Tc323. Immunofluorescence microscopy and Western Blot showed that Tc323 is expressed in the main developmental forms of T. cruzi, localized intracellularly and exhibiting a membrane-associated pattern. According to phylogenetic analysis, Tc323 is highly conserved throughout evolution in all the lineages of T. cruzi so far identified, but it is absent in Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma brucei. Most interestingly, only plasma samples from patients infected with T. cruzi and those with mixed infection with Leishmania spp. reacted against Tc323. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that Tc323 is a promising candidate for the differential serodiagnosis of chronic Chagas disease in areas where T. cruzi and Leishmania spp. infections coexist.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Leishmania , Trypanosoma cruzi , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Filogenia , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Anticorpos Monoclonais
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(1): e0011875, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38198499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is caused by infection with intracellular protozoans of the genus Leishmania. Transmission occurs predominantly by the bite of phlebotomine sandflies, other routes, including congenital transmission, are rare. The disease manifests as either cutaneous, visceral or mucosal/mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. In recent years, changes in the epidemiological pattern have been reported from Europe. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 311 new and 29 published leishmaniasis cases occurring between 01/01/2000 and 12/31/2021 in Austria were collected and analyzed. These encompassed 146 cutaneous (CL), 14 visceral (VL), 4 mucosal, and 3 cases with concurrent VL and CL. In addition, asymptomatic infections, comprising 11 unspecified cases with Leishmania DNA detectable only in the blood and 162 cases with anti-Leishmania antibodies were reported. Particularly since 2016, the incidence of leishmaniasis has steadily risen, mainly attributable to increasing numbers of CL and cases with positive serology against Leishmania species, whereas the incidence of VL has slowly decreased. Analysis revealed that a shift in the causative species spectrum had occurred and that a substantial number of CL cases were caused by members of the Leishmania donovani/infantum complex. Simultaneous occurrence of VL and CL was identified in immunocompromised individuals, but also in a not yet reported case of an immunocompetent child after vertical transmission. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of leishmaniasis has risen in the recent years. The numbers are anticipated to keep rising due to increasing human mobility, including travel and forced migration, growing reservoir host populations as well as expansion and dispersal of vector species caused by climate and habitat changes, urbanization and globalization. Hence, elevated awareness for the disease, including possible transmission in previously non-endemic regions and non-vector transmission modes, support of sandfly surveillance efforts and implementation and establishment of public health interventions in a One Health approach are pivotal in the global efforts to control and reduce leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Leishmania , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea , Leishmaniose Visceral , Leishmaniose , Psychodidae , Animais , Criança , Humanos , Áustria/epidemiologia , Leishmania/genética , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Pele
12.
J Immunol ; 212(5): 894-903, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38231122

RESUMO

The immune response is central to the pathogenesis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, most of our current understanding of the immune response in human CL derives from the analysis of systemic responses, which only partially reflect what occurs in the skin. In this study, we characterized the transcriptional dynamics of skin lesions during the course of treatment of CL patients and identified gene signatures and pathways associated with healing and nonhealing responses. We performed a comparative transcriptome profiling of serial skin lesion biopsies obtained before, in the middle, and at the end of treatment of CL patients (eight who were cured and eight with treatment failure). Lesion transcriptomes from patients who healed revealed recovery of the stratum corneum, suppression of the T cell-mediated inflammatory response, and damping of neutrophil activation, as early as 10 d after initiation of treatment. These transcriptional programs of healing were consolidated before lesion re-epithelization. In stark contrast, downregulation of genes involved in keratinization was observed throughout treatment in patients who did not heal, indicating that in addition to uncontrolled inflammation, treatment failure of CL is mediated by impaired mechanisms of wound healing. This work provides insights into the factors that contribute to the effective resolution of skin lesions caused by Leishmania (Viannia) species, sheds light on the consolidation of transcriptional programs of healing and nonhealing responses before the clinically apparent resolution of skin lesions, and identifies inflammatory and wound healing targets for host-directed therapies for CL.


Assuntos
Leishmania braziliensis , Leishmania , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/genética , Pele/patologia , Cicatrização/genética , Leishmania braziliensis/fisiologia
13.
ACS Synth Biol ; 13(2): 449-456, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38268082

RESUMO

Eukaryotic cell-free protein expression systems enable rapid production of recombinant multidomain proteins in their functional form. A cell-free system based on the rapidly growing protozoan Leishmania tarentolae (LTE) has been extensively used for protein engineering and analysis of protein interaction networks. However, like other eukaryotic cell-free systems, LTE deteriorates at ambient temperatures and requires deep freezing for transport and storage. In this study, we report the development of a lyophilized version of LTE. Use of lyoprotectants such as poly(ethylene glycol) and trehalose during the drying process allows retention of 76% of protein expression activity versus nonlyophilized controls. Lyophilized LTE is capable of withstanding storage at room temperature for over 2 weeks. We demonstrated that upon reconstitution the lyophilized LTE could be used for in vitro expression of active enzymes, analysis of protein-protein interactions by AlphaLISA assay, and functional analysis of protein biosensors. Development of lyophilized LTE lowers the barriers to its distribution and opens the door to its application in remote areas.


Assuntos
Leishmania , Leishmania/metabolismo , Sistema Livre de Células/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteômica
14.
ACS Infect Dis ; 10(2): 467-474, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38189234

RESUMO

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a polymorphic and spectral skin disease caused by Leishmania spp. protozoan parasites. CL is difficult to diagnose because conventional methods are time-consuming, expensive, and low-sensitive. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) with machine learning (ML) algorithms has been explored as an alternative to achieve fast and accurate results for many disease diagnoses. Besides the high accuracy demonstrated in numerous studies, the spectral variations between infected and noninfected groups are too subtle to be noticed. Since variability in sample set characteristics (such as sex, age, and diet) often leads to significant data variance and limits the comprehensive understanding of spectral characteristics and immune responses, we investigate a novel methodology for diagnosing CL in an animal model study. Blood serum, skin lesions, and draining popliteal lymph node samples were collected from Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis-infected BALB/C mice under experimental conditions. The FTIR method and ML algorithms accurately differentiated between infected (CL group) and noninfected (control group) samples. The best overall accuracy (∼72%) was obtained in an external validation test using principal component analysis and support vector machine algorithms in the 1800-700 cm-1 range for blood serum samples. The accuracy achieved in analyzing skin lesions and popliteal lymph node samples was satisfactory; however, notable disparities emerged in the validation tests compared to results obtained from blood samples. This discrepancy is likely attributed to the elevated sample variability resulting from molecular compositional differences. According to the findings, the successful functioning of prediction models is mainly related to data analysis rather than the differences in the molecular composition of the samples.


Assuntos
Leishmania , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Animais , Camundongos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Modelos Animais , Aprendizado de Máquina
15.
Acta Trop ; 249: 107064, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37926385

RESUMO

More than 90 species of phlebotomines are vectors of parasites, bacteria, and viruses, which cause disease in animals and humans. Therefore, their study is necessary to establish prevention and control strategies. Mexico is an endemic country for leishmaniasis, mostly in the center and southern regions of the country, yet only few studies have been conducted in the northern part of the country. The present study aims to: (a) assess the alpha diversity of Phlebotominae in an annual cycle, (b) to correlate climatic variables with abundance, (c) to generate barcodes of these insects as part of the integrative taxonomy, and (d) to detect Leishmania, Wolbachia and blood sources in an area close to where a case of autochthonous leishmaniasis has been detected in Nuevo Leon, Mexico. A systematic sampling was conducted during three consecutive nights from 17:00 to 22:00 h., placing Shannon traps, CDC traps with incandescent light, and BG Sentinel 2 + BG Lure traps. A total catch effort of 660 nights/traps/hours was achieved, in which a total number of 707 phlebotomines (58% female and 42% male) of six species were collected and identified. The most abundant species were Psathyromyia cratifer (57%) and Psathyromyia shannoni sensu stricto (26%). The highest abundance (72%; 507/707) was collected during March, April and May 2021. Barcodes were generated for four species of phlebotomines, which represent new records for Mexico. For the molecular detection of microorganisms, 302 specimens were analyzed, although no specimens were positive for Leishmania spp. Wolbachia strains were detected in phlebotomines with an infection rate of 1.32% (4/302) and found in Pa. cratifer and Lu. cruciata. Likewise, human DNA was identified in female Lu. cruciata and Pa. cratifer phlebotomines. These findings indicate the presence of potential vector species of the parasite Leishmania spp. This result shows the need for further entomological surveillance to elucidate the transmission mechanisms in these northern areas of the country.


Assuntos
Leishmania , Leishmaniose , Psychodidae , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Psychodidae/parasitologia , México , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania/genética , Comportamento Alimentar
16.
Acta Trop ; 249: 107081, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37993039

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is an emerging infectious disease in Thailand, with Leishmania martiniquensis and Leishmania orientalis identified as the primary causative agents among immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Variations in drug susceptibility among different Leishmania species have been reported in different regions. Therefore, drug susceptibility assays are essential to assess the effectiveness of antileishmanial drugs used or potentially used in the affected areas. This study investigated the in vitro drug sensitivity of L. martiniquensis and L. orientalis, along with two reference species causing VL, namely L. donovani and L. infantum, against six antileishmanial drugs. Using a parasite-rescue and transformation assay, the results demonstrated that the IC50 values of amphotericin B (AmB), miltefosine (MIL), and sodium stibogluconate (Sb(III)) against all Leishmania species tested were within the sensitive range of each drug. On the contrary, the IC50 values of artemisinin (ART) and dihydroartemisinin (DHA), drugs primarily used for malaria treatment, were outside the sensitive range of the Leishmania species tested except L. infantum. This in vitro study highlights that AmB could effectively exhibit good sensitivity against the intracellular amastigotes of L. martiniquensis and L. orientalis. Also, MIL and Sb(III) could be considered alternative drugs for antileishmanial treatment in Thailand.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários , Leishmania , Leishmaniose , Parasitos , Humanos , Animais , Leishmaniose/tratamento farmacológico , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Anfotericina B/farmacologia , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico
17.
FASEB J ; 38(1): e23367, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38095329

RESUMO

Leishmania encode six paralogs of the cap-binding protein eIF4E and five eIF4G candidates, forming unique complexes. Two cap-binding proteins, LeishIF4E1 and LeishIF4E2, do not bind any identified LeishIF4Gs, thus their roles are intriguing. Here, we combine structural prediction, proteomic analysis, and interaction assays to shed light on LeishIF4E2 function. A nonconserved C-terminal extension was identified through structure prediction and sequence alignment. m7 GTP-binding assays involving both recombinant and transgenic LeishIF4E2 with and without the C-terminal extension revealed that this extension functions as a regulatory gate, modulating the cap-binding activity of LeishIF4E2. The interactomes of the two LeishIF4E2 versions were investigated, highlighting the role of the C-terminal extension in binding to SLBP2. SLBP2 is known to interact with a stem-loop structure in the 3' UTRs of histone mRNAs. Consistent with the predicted inhibitory effect of SLBP2 on histone expression in Xenopus laevis, a hemizygous deletion mutant of LeishIF4E2, exhibited an upregulation of several histones. We therefore propose that LeishIF4E2 is involved in histone expression, possibly through its interaction between SLBP2 and LeishIF4E2, thus affecting cell cycle progression. In addition, cell synchronization showed that LeishIF4E2 expression decreased during the S-phase, when histones are known to be synthesized. Previous studies in T. brucei also highlighted an association between TbEIF4E2 and SLBP2, and further reported on an interaction between TbIF4E2 and S-phase-abundant mRNAs. Our results show that overexpression of LeishIF4E2 correlates with upregulation of cell cycle and chromosome maintenance proteins. Along with its effect on histone expression, we propose that LeishIF4E2 is involved in cell cycle progression.


Assuntos
Leishmania , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cap de RNA/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Proteômica , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular , Ligação Proteica
18.
Acta Trop ; 251: 107116, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38159713

RESUMO

Neglected tropical diseases (NTD) like Leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis affect millions of people annually, while currently used antiprotozoal drugs have serious side effects. Drug research based on natural products has shown that microalgae and cyanobacteria are a promising platform of biochemically active compounds with antiprotozoal activity. These unicellular photosynthetic organisms are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, pigments including phycocyanin, chlorophylls and carotenoids, polyphenols, bioactive peptides, terpenes, alkaloids, which have proven antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, antiplasmodial and antiprotozoal properties. This review provides up-to-date information regarding ongoing studies on substances synthesized by microalgae and cyanobacteria with notable activity against Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma cruzi, and Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agents of Leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, and human African trypanosomiasis, respectively. Extracts of several freshwater or marine microalgae have been tested on different strains of Leishmania and Trypanosoma parasites. For instance, ethanolic extract of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Tetraselmis suecica have biological activity against T. cruzi, due to their high content of carotenoids, chlorophylls, phenolic compounds and flavonoids that are associated with trypanocidal activity. Halophilic Dunaliella salina showed moderate antileishmanial activity that may be attributed to the high ß-carotene content in this microalga. Peptides such as almiramides, dragonamides, and herbamide that are biosynthesized by marine cyanobacteria Lyngbya majuscula were found to have increased activity in micromolar scale IC50 against L. donovani, T. Cruzi, and T. brucei parasites. The cyanobacterial peptides symplocamide and venturamide isolated from Symploca and Oscillatoria species, respectively, and the alkaloid nostocarbonile isolated from Nostoc have shown promising antiprotozoal properties and are being explored for pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes. The discovery of new molecules from microalgae and cyanobacteria with therapeutic potential against Leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis may address an urgent medical need: effective and safe treatments of NTDs.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários , Doença de Chagas , Cianobactérias , Leishmania , Leishmaniose , Microalgas , Parasitos , Trypanosoma cruzi , Tripanossomíase , Animais , Humanos , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Tripanossomíase/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose/tratamento farmacológico , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Carotenoides/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos
19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 110(2): 228-233, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38109765

RESUMO

In situ and systemic evaluations of the immune responses of HIV-infected patients to mucosal leishmaniasis have been poorly described. We describe a recently diagnosed HIV-infected patient with mucosal leishmaniasis who was characterized by a CD4 count of 85 cells/mm3 and nasal septum destruction resulting from pruritic and ulcerated nasal mucosa with crust formation and progression over 2 years. In situ and systemic immune evaluations of T cell activation, memory, and exhaustion were conducted using cytofluorometric assays, and sequencing of the Leishmania species was performed. The immune profile of HIV-infected patient with mucosal leishmaniasis shows a mixed Th1/Th2 pattern and an activated and exhausted status.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Leishmania , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea , Humanos , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Imunidade , Infecções por HIV/complicações
20.
Parasitol Res ; 123(1): 6, 2023 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38052752

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis transmission cycles are maintained and sustained in nature by the complex crosstalk of the Leishmania parasite, sandfly vector, and the mammalian hosts (human, as well as zoonotic reservoirs). Regardless of the vast research on human host-parasite interaction, there persists a substantial knowledge gap on the parasite's development and modulation in the vector component. This review focuses on some of the intriguing aspects of the Leishmania-sandfly interface, beginning with the uptake of the intracellular amastigotes from an infected host to the development of the parasite within the sandfly's alimentary canal, followed by the transmission of infective metacyclic stages to another potential host. Upon ingestion of the parasite, the sandfly hosts an intricate repertoire of immune barriers, either to evade the parasite or to ensure its homeostatic coexistence with the vector gut microbiome. Sandfly salivary polypeptides and Leishmania exosomes are co-egested with the parasite inoculum during the infected vector bite. This has been attributed to the modulation of the parasite infection and subsequent clinical manifestation in the host. While human host-based studies strive to develop effective therapeutics, a greater understanding of the vector-parasite-microbiome and human host interactions could help us to identify the targets and to develop strategies for effectively preventing the transmission of leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Leishmania , Leishmaniose , Parasitos , Phlebotomus , Psychodidae , Animais , Humanos , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Mamíferos
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