Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.154
Filtrar
1.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 18: 17534666241232284, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504551

RESUMO

Lung and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are therapeutic modalities in chronic pulmonary and hematological diseases, respectively. One of the complications in these patients is the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). The efficacy and safety of available treatment strategies in BOS remain a challenge. A few mechanisms have been recognized for BOS in lung transplant and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) patients involving the TH-1 and TH-2 cells, NF-kappa B, TGF-b, several cytokines and chemokines, and cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLT). Montelukast is a highly selective CysLT receptor antagonist that has been demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects in abundant experiments. One area of interest for the use of montelukast is lung transplants or GVHD-associated BOS. Herein, we briefly review data regarding the mechanisms involved in BOS development and montelukast administration as a treatment modality for BOS, and finally, the possible relationship between CysLTs antagonism and BOS improvement will be discussed.


A review of the therapeutic potential and possible mechanism of Montelukast in the treatment of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome following lung and hematopoietic stem cell transplantationLung and bone marrow transplantation are therapeutic modalities in chronic diseases of the lungs and the blood, respectively. One of the complications in these patients is the development of Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). The efficacy and safety of available treatment strategies in BOS remain a challenge. A few mechanisms for BOS in lung transplant and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) patients involving many immune components have been recognized. Cysteinyl leukotrienes are products of plasma membrane phospholipids that increase smooth muscle contraction, microvascular permeability, and airway mucus secretion. Montelukast is a highly selective cysteinyl leukotriene receptor blocker demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. One area of interest for the use of montelukast is in lung transplant- or GVHD-associated BOS. In this article, we briefly review data regarding the mechanisms involved in BOS development and montelukast administration as a treatment modality for BOS. Finally, the possible relationship between cysteinyl leukotriene inhibition and BOS improvement will be discussed.


Assuntos
Acetatos , Síndrome de Bronquiolite Obliterante , Bronquiolite Obliterante , Ciclopropanos , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Transplante de Pulmão , Quinolinas , Sulfetos , Humanos , Antagonistas de Leucotrienos/efeitos adversos , Bronquiolite Obliterante/diagnóstico , Bronquiolite Obliterante/tratamento farmacológico , Bronquiolite Obliterante/etiologia , Pulmão , Transplante de Pulmão/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Leucotrienos/farmacologia , Leucotrienos/uso terapêutico
2.
Epilepsy Res ; 200: 107305, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38325237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging literature has suggested the antiepileptic activity of cysteine leukotriene receptor (CysLTR) antagonists in experimental animals of epilepsy. Leukotrienes are substances that cause inflammation and affect brain activity, blood flow, oxidation, and inflammation in the brain. These processes are related to epilepsy and its complications. CysLTR antagonists are drugs that prevent leukotrienes from working. They may be useful for treating epilepsy, especially for people who do not respond to other drugs. Therefore, the current study aims to systematically review the potential anti-seizure effect of CysLTR antagonists in experimental studies. METHOD: We systematically reviewed the online databases using online databases such as Google Scholar, science direct, and PubMed until December 2022 to identify experimental studies assessing the anti-seizure activity of CysLTR antagonists. The Systematic Review Centre for Laboratory Animal Experimentation (SYRCLE) was used to evaluate the risk of bias (RoB) of the included studies. RESULTS: Initially we identified 3823 studies. After screening using inclusion and exclusion criteria, 8 studies were finally included in the current study. All included studies, reported that CysLTR antagonists reduced the intensity of seizures in animal models of epilepsy. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, CysLTR antagonists could be a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of epilepsy. However, further preclinical and clinical studies are required to confirm their efficacy, safety, and mechanism of anti-seizure activity.


Assuntos
Cisteína , Epilepsia , Humanos , Animais , Cisteína/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Leucotrienos/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Leucotrienos/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/complicações , Leucotrienos , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Inflamação
3.
Brain Behav Immun ; 118: 149-166, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38423397

RESUMO

Macrophages (MΦ) infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 or activated by its envelope protein gp120 exert neurotoxicity. We found previously that signaling via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) is essential to the neurotoxicity of HIVgp120-stimulated MΦ. However, the associated downstream pathways remained elusive. Here we show that cysteinyl-leukotrienes (CysLT) released by HIV-infected or HIVgp120 stimulated MΦ downstream of p38 MAPK critically contribute to neurotoxicity. SiRNA-mediated or pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK deprives MΦ of CysLT synthase (LTC4S) and, pharmacological inhibition of the cysteinyl-leukotriene receptor 1 (CYSLTR1) protects cerebrocortical neurons against toxicity of both gp120-stimulated and HIV-infected MΦ. Components of the CysLT pathway are differentially regulated in brains of HIV-infected individuals and a transgenic mouse model of NeuroHIV (HIVgp120tg). Moreover, genetic ablation of LTC4S or CysLTR1 prevents neuronal damage and impairment of spatial memory in HIVgp120tg mice. Altogether, our findings suggest a novel critical role for cysteinyl-leukotrienes in HIV-associated brain injury.


Assuntos
Cisteína , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Camundongos , Humanos , Animais , HIV-1/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Leucotrienos/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Camundongos Transgênicos , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo
4.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1295150, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38384456

RESUMO

Neutrophils play a primary role in protecting our body from pathogens. When confronted with invading bacteria, neutrophils begin to produce leukotriene B4, a potent chemoattractant that, in cooperation with the primary bacterial chemoattractant fMLP, stimulates the formation of swarms of neutrophils surrounding pathogens. Here we describe a complex redox regulation that either stimulates or inhibits fMLP-induced leukotriene synthesis in an experimental model of neutrophils interacting with Salmonella typhimurium. The scavenging of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species by mitochondria-targeted antioxidants MitoQ and SkQ1, as well as inhibition of their production by mitochondrial inhibitors, inhibit the synthesis of leukotrienes regardless of the cessation of oxidative phosphorylation. On the contrary, antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and sodium hydrosulfide promoting reductive shift in the reversible thiol-disulfide system stimulate the synthesis of leukotrienes. Diamide that oxidizes glutathione at high concentrations inhibits leukotriene synthesis, and the glutathione precursor S-adenosyl-L-methionine prevents this inhibition. Diamide-dependent inhibition is also prevented by diphenyleneiodonium, presumably through inhibition of NADPH oxidase and NADPH accumulation. Thus, during bacterial infection, maintaining the reduced state of glutathione in neutrophils plays a decisive role in the synthesis of leukotriene B4. Suppression of excess leukotriene synthesis is an effective strategy for treating various inflammatory pathologies. Our data suggest that the use of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants may be promising for this purpose, whereas known thiol-based antioxidants, such as N-acetylcysteine, may dangerously stimulate leukotriene synthesis by neutrophils during severe pathogenic infection.


Assuntos
Leucotrieno B4 , Neutrófilos , Salmonella typhimurium , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Diamida/farmacologia , Leucotrienos/farmacologia , Fatores Quimiotáticos , Oxirredução , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Glutationa/farmacologia , Compostos de Sulfidrila/farmacologia
5.
Eur J Immunol ; 54(3): e2350743, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38233139

RESUMO

Candida albicans causes opportunistic infections ranging from mucosal mycoses to life-threatening systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. During C. albicans infection, leukotrienes and prostaglandins are formed from arachidonic acid by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and cyclooxygenases, respectively to amplify inflammatory conditions, but also to initiate macrophage infiltration to achieve tissue homeostasis. Since less is known about the cellular mechanisms triggering such lipid mediator biosynthesis, we investigated the eicosanoid formation in monocyte-derived M1 and M2 macrophages, neutrophils and HEK293 cells transfected with 5-LOX and 5-LOX-activating protein (FLAP) in response to C. albicans yeast or hyphae. Leukotriene biosynthesis was exclusively induced by hyphae in neutrophils and macrophages, whereas prostaglandin E2 was also formed in response to yeast cells by M1 macrophages. Eicosanoid biosynthesis was significantly higher in M1 compared to M2 macrophages. In HEK_5-LOX/FLAP cells only hyphae activated the essential 5-LOX translocation to the nuclear membrane. Using yeast-locked C. albicans mutants, we demonstrated that hyphal-associated protein expression is critical in eicosanoid formation. For neutrophils and HEK_5-LOX/FLAP cells, hyphal wall protein 1 was identified as the essential surface protein that stimulates leukotriene biosynthesis. In summary, our data suggest that hyphal-associated proteins of C. albicans are central triggers of eicosanoid biosynthesis in human phagocytes.


Assuntos
Candida albicans , Hifas , Humanos , Células HEK293 , Eicosanoides/metabolismo , Leucotrienos/metabolismo
6.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 22105, 2023 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38092813

RESUMO

T1D can be associated with metabolic disorders and several impaired pathways, including insulin signaling, and development of insulin resistance through the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The main precursor of RAS is angiotensinogen (Agt) and this system is often linked to autophagy dysregulation. Dysregulated autophagy has been described in T1D and linked to impairments in both glucose metabolism, and leukotrienes (LTs) production. Here, we have investigated the role of RAS and LTs in both muscle and liver from T1D mice, and its effects on insulin and autophagy pathways. We have chemically induced T1D in 129sve and 129sve 5LO-/- mice (lacking LTs) with streptozotocin (STZ). To further inhibit ACE activity, mice were treated with captopril (Cap). In muscle of T1D mice, treatment with Cap increased the expression of RAS (angiotensinogen and angiotensin II receptor), insulin signaling, and autophagy markers, regardless of the genotype. In the liver of T1D mice, the treatment with Cap increased the expression of RAS and insulin signaling markers, mostly when LTs were absent. 5LO-/- T1D mice showed increased insulin sensitivity, and decreased NEFA, after the Cap treatment. Cap treatment impacted both insulin signaling and autophagy pathways at the mRNA levels in muscle and liver, indicating the potential role of ACE inhibition on insulin sensitivity and autophagy in T1D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Resistência à Insulina , Camundongos , Animais , Captopril/farmacologia , Angiotensinogênio/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Insulina/metabolismo , Leucotrienos/metabolismo
7.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 75(6): 864-876, 2023 Dec 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38151349

RESUMO

With the acceleration of aging society, delaying aging or promoting healthy aging has become a major demand for human health. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) is a key enzyme catalyzing arachidonic acid into leukotrienes (LTs), which is a potent mediator of the inflammatory response. Previous studies showed that abnormal activation of 5-LOX and overproduction of LTs are closely related to the occurrence and development of aging-related inflammatory diseases. Therefore, inhibiting 5-LOX activation is a possibly potential strategy for treating age-related diseases. In this paper, the latest research progress in 5-LOX activation, 5-LOX in mediating aging-related diseases and its small molecule inhibitors is briefly reviewed to provide scientific theoretical basis and new ideas for the prevention and treatment of aging-related inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Araquidonato 5-Lipoxigenase , Leucotrienos , Humanos , Ácido Araquidônico , Envelhecimento , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/farmacologia
8.
Commun Biol ; 6(1): 1280, 2023 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38110569

RESUMO

The salivary glands of hematophagous arthropods contain pharmacologically active molecules that interfere with host hemostasis and immune responses, favoring blood acquisition and pathogen transmission. Exploration of the salivary gland composition of the rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, revealed several abundant acid phosphatase-like proteins whose sequences lacked one or two of their presumed catalytic residues. In this study, we undertook a comprehensive characterization of the tree most abundant X. cheopis salivary acid phosphatase-like proteins. Our findings indicate that the three recombinant proteins lacked the anticipated catalytic activity and instead, displayed the ability to bind different biogenic amines and leukotrienes with high affinity. Moreover, X-ray crystallography data from the XcAP-1 complexed with serotonin revealed insights into their binding mechanisms.


Assuntos
Sifonápteros , Xenopsylla , Ratos , Animais , Sifonápteros/fisiologia , Fosfatase Ácida , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/genética , Aminas Biogênicas , Leucotrienos
9.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 36(2): 507-513, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37530159

RESUMO

Leukotrienes are important icosanoids group involved in a lot of normal and pathological states. Montelukast (MK) is a selective cysteinyl leukotriene receptor (Cys LT1) antagonist. Purpose. The purpose of the study is to observe the influence of MK on renal damage caused by experimental diabetes in rats. The experiment was carried out on four groups of adult male Wistar rats. Lot I was a witness and received 1.5ml of physiological saline ip. in unique dose on the first day of the experiment. Lots II and III have been caused experimental diabetes by streptozotocin (STZ) administration of 60mg/kg ip. in the unique dose. Lot III also received MK daily 10mg/kg/day daily 8weeks.Lot IV received only MK 10mg/kg/day daily 8 weeks. After eight weeks all animals were anesthetized and were sacrificed. The following pathological modifications were observed: tubular injury, glomerular hypertrophy and lesions, leukocytes infiltration. Obtained data showed that MK has significantly reduced the intensity of glomerular lesions (score 3.50+/-0.21 in STZ lot vs. 2.50+/-0.17 in STZ+MK lot p<0.01) and tubular damages. Renal interstitial leukocyte infiltration in animals with diabetes has been also reduced by MK. MK has a partially protective action against the lesions produced by experimental diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Quinolinas , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Ratos Wistar , Antagonistas de Leucotrienos/farmacologia , Rim , Leucotrienos , Acetatos/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Ciclopropanos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia
10.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 123: 110729, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37536182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma is the most common and lethal primary brain tumor in adults. Despite the available cancer treatments, the recurrence of the tumor is high, and the survival rate is low. New approaches to antitumor therapies are needed. Eosinophils are prominent in allergic diseases and accumulate in several human brain tumors. Recently, the antitumor role of eosinophils has been targeted as eosinophils release several cytotoxic factors that induce cell impairment and death. OBJECTIVE: Here we aim to evaluate the interaction of the eosinophil and glioblastoma cells, the mechanism involved in the potential killing of the glioblastoma cells by the eosinophils, and how allergy/asthma could confer a better glioblastoma prognosis. METHODS: Eosinophils and serum from asthmatic and non-asthmatic donors were cultivated with different glioblastoma cell lines. RESULTS: Glioblastoma cells recruit eosinophils via GM-CSF signaling, activating and increasing eosinophil survivability and function on a GM-CSF-dependent manner. Eosinophils reduce glioblastoma cells metabolism, proliferation, and migration, via Fas/FasL. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes are accounted for the asthmatic serum enhancement of the glioblastoma cell migration and proliferation. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes enhance glioblastoma cell proliferation and migration, albeit activate eosinophils that suppress glioblastoma cells. CONCLUSION: Eosinophils have the potential to be key cells on glioblastoma therapeutics, as allergy and eosinophilia are correlated with a better glioblastoma prognosis. Eosinophils are elicited and attach to glioblastoma cells, where, by its cytotoxic function, via Fas/FasL, hind glioblastoma cell metabolism, proliferation, migration, and induce cell death.


Assuntos
Asma , Glioblastoma , Adulto , Humanos , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/metabolismo , Eosinófilos/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Asma/metabolismo , Leucotrienos/metabolismo , Apoptose
11.
Nature ; 620(7974): 634-642, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37438525

RESUMO

The physiological functions of mast cells remain largely an enigma. In the context of barrier damage, mast cells are integrated in type 2 immunity and, together with immunoglobulin E (IgE), promote allergic diseases. Allergic symptoms may, however, facilitate expulsion of allergens, toxins and parasites and trigger future antigen avoidance1-3. Here, we show that antigen-specific avoidance behaviour in inbred mice4,5 is critically dependent on mast cells; hence, we identify the immunological sensor cell linking antigen recognition to avoidance behaviour. Avoidance prevented antigen-driven adaptive, innate and mucosal immune activation and inflammation in the stomach and small intestine. Avoidance was IgE dependent, promoted by Th2 cytokines in the immunization phase and by IgE in the execution phase. Mucosal mast cells lining the stomach and small intestine rapidly sensed antigen ingestion. We interrogated potential signalling routes between mast cells and the brain using mutant mice, pharmacological inhibition, neural activity recordings and vagotomy. Inhibition of leukotriene synthesis impaired avoidance, but overall no single pathway interruption completely abrogated avoidance, indicating complex regulation. Collectively, the stage for antigen avoidance is set when adaptive immunity equips mast cells with IgE as a telltale of past immune responses. On subsequent antigen ingestion, mast cells signal termination of antigen intake. Prevention of immunopathology-causing, continuous and futile responses against per se innocuous antigens or of repeated ingestion of toxins through mast-cell-mediated antigen-avoidance behaviour may be an important arm of immunity.


Assuntos
Alérgenos , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Hipersensibilidade , Mastócitos , Animais , Camundongos , Alérgenos/imunologia , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Mastócitos/imunologia , Estômago/imunologia , Vagotomia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Imunidade nas Mucosas/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Leucotrienos/biossíntese , Leucotrienos/imunologia , Intestino Delgado/imunologia
12.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 234: 115574, 2023 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37481900

RESUMO

Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common allergic disease characterized by nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea, and sneezing. Cineole, a monoterpenoid compound widely present in various volatile oils, has a wide range of pharmacological activities and is of interest in allergic airway diseases for its anti-inflammatory and anti-mucus production abilities. However, the protective effects of cineole in mice with allergic rhinitis and its mechanisms have not been well investigated. In this study, the protective effect of cineole against ovalbumin-induced (OVA-induced) allergic rhinitis and its molecular mechanism is investigated by metabolomic analysis based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). OVA combined with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant is used to sensitize and establish the allergic rhinitis (AR) mouse model. The mice are randomly divided into groups of control, AR, cineole (30 mg/kg), and budesonide (38.83 µg/kg). The pharmacodynamic results show that cineole significantly reduces the levels of Th2-type cytokines and OVA-specific IgE (OVA-sIgE) in AR mice, improves nasal mucosal tissue damage and alleviates nasal symptoms compared to the untreated AR group. Metabolomic results show that arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism and tryptophan (Trp) metabolism are reprogrammed on the basis of 27 significantly altered metabolites. Further studies show that cineole inhibits the biosynthesis of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators leukotrienes (LTs) and prostaglandins (PGs) in mice by inhibiting the activity of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the arachidonic acid metabolic (AA metabolic) pathway. It also inhibits the production of Th2 cytokines and inflammatory cell infiltration, thereby alleviating symptoms such as nasal congestion and nasal leakage. These results reveal the action and molecular mechanism of cineole in alleviating AR and provide a theoretical basis for the clinical application of cineole in treating AR.


Assuntos
Prostaglandinas , Rinite Alérgica , Camundongos , Animais , Eucaliptol/uso terapêutico , Prostaglandinas/efeitos adversos , Ácido Araquidônico , Cromatografia Líquida , Imunoglobulina E , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Rinite Alérgica/induzido quimicamente , Rinite Alérgica/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas , Leucotrienos/efeitos adversos , Metabolômica , Ovalbumina , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
13.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 13: 1192800, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37377641

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical parasitic disease with few approved medications. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the most frequent form, responsible for 0.7 - 1.0 million new cases annually worldwide. Leukotrienes are lipid mediators of inflammation produced in response to cell damage or infection. They are subdivided into leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and cysteinyl leukotrienes LTC4 and LTD4 (Cys-LTs), depending on the enzyme responsible for their production. Recently, we showed that LTB4 could be a target for purinergic signaling controlling Leishmania amazonensis infection; however, the importance of Cys-LTs in the resolution of infection remained unknown. Mice infected with L. amazonensis are a model of CL infection and drug screening. We found that Cys-LTs control L. amazonensis infection in susceptible (BALB/c) and resistant (C57BL/6) mouse strains. In vitro, Cys-LTs significantly diminished the L. amazonensis infection index in peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. In vivo, intralesional treatment with Cys-LTs reduced the lesion size and parasite loads in the infected footpads of C57BL/6 mice. The anti-leishmanial role of Cys-LTs depended on the purinergic P2X7 receptor, as infected cells lacking the receptor did not produce Cys-LTs in response to ATP. These findings suggest the therapeutic potential of LTB4 and Cys-LTs for CL treatment.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea , Leishmaniose , Camundongos , Animais , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Leucotrienos/fisiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Cisteína , Leucotrieno B4 , Leishmaniose/patologia
14.
J Bone Miner Res ; 38(8): 1135-1153, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37314430

RESUMO

Leukotrienes (LTs) are derived from arachidonic acid metabolism by the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) enzyme. The production of LTs is stimulated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis, and periodontitis, with a relevant contribution to bone resorption. However, its role in bone turnover, particularly the suppression of bone formation by modulating the function of osteoclasts and osteoblasts, remains unclear. We investigated the effects of LTs on bone metabolism and their impact on osteogenic differentiation and osteoclastogenesis using a 5-LO knockout (KO) mouse model. Results from micro-computed tomography (µCT) analysis of femur from 8-week-old 5-LO-deficient mice showed increased cortical bone and medullary region in females and males and decreased trabecular bone in females. In the vertebra, we observed increased marrow area in both females and males 5-LO KO and decreased trabecular bone only in females 5-LO KO. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis showed higher levels of osteogenic markers tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and osteopontin (OPN) and lower expression of osteoclastogenic marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) in the femurs of 5-LO KO mice versus wild-type (WT). Alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization assay results showed that the 5-LO absence enhances osteoblasts differentiation and mineralization but decreases the proliferation. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Bglap, and Sp7 gene expression were higher in 5-LO KO osteoblasts compared to WT cells. Eicosanoids production was higher in 5-LO KO osteoblasts except for thromboxane 2, which was lower in 5-LO-deficient mice. Proteomic analysis identified the downregulation of proteins related to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism in 5-LO KO osteoblasts, and the upregulation of transcription factors such as the adaptor-related protein complex 1 (AP-1 complex) in long bones from 5-LO KO mice leading to an increased bone formation pattern in 5-LO-deficient mice. We observed enormous differences in the morphology and function of osteoclasts with reduced bone resorption markers and impaired osteoclasts in 5-LO KO compared to WT osteoclasts. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the absence of 5-LO is related to the greater osteogenic profile. © 2023 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea , Osteogênese , Masculino , Feminino , Camundongos , Animais , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Proteômica , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea/patologia , Diferenciação Celular , Camundongos Knockout , Leucotrienos/metabolismo , Leucotrienos/farmacologia
15.
Molecules ; 28(11)2023 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37298790

RESUMO

One of the most important constituents of the cell membrane is arachidonic acid. Lipids forming part of the cellular membrane can be metabolized in a variety of cellular types of the body by a family of enzymes termed phospholipases: phospholipase A2, phospholipase C and phospholipase D. Phospholipase A2 is considered the most important enzyme type for the release of arachidonic acid. The latter is subsequently subjected to metabolization via different enzymes. Three enzymatic pathways, involving the enzymes cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450, transform the lipid derivative into several bioactive compounds. Arachidonic acid itself plays a role as an intracellular signaling molecule. Additionally, its derivatives play critical roles in cell physiology and, moreover, are involved in the development of disease. Its metabolites comprise, predominantly, prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. Their involvement in cellular responses leading to inflammation and/or cancer development is subject to intense study. This manuscript reviews the findings on the involvement of the membrane lipid derivative arachidonic acid and its metabolites in the development of pancreatitis, diabetes and/or pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Leucotrienos , Lipídeos de Membrana , Ácido Araquidônico/metabolismo , Prostaglandinas/metabolismo , Fosfolipases A2
16.
JCI Insight ; 8(13)2023 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37227781

RESUMO

Therapeutic strategies targeting complement have revolutionized the treatment of myasthenia gravis (MG). However, a deeper understanding of complement modulation in the human system is required to improve treatment responses and identify off-target effects shaping long-term outcomes. For this reason, we studied a cohort of patients with MG treated with either eculizumab or azathioprine as well as treatment-naive patients using a combined proteomics and metabolomics approach. This strategy validated known effects of eculizumab on the terminal complement cascade. Beyond that, eculizumab modulated the serum proteometabolome as distinct pathways were altered in eculizumab-treated patients, including the oxidative stress response, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, and lipid metabolism with particular emphasis on arachidonic acid signaling. We detected reduced levels of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) and leukotriene A4 in eculizumab-treated patients. Mechanistically, ligation of the C5a receptor (C5aR) is needed for ALOX5 metabolism and generation of downstream leukotrienes. As eculizumab prevents cleavage of C5 into C5a, decreased engagement of C5aR may inhibit ALOX5-mediated synthesis of pro-inflammatory leukotrienes. These findings indicate distinct off-target effects induced by eculizumab, illuminating potential mechanisms of action that may be harnessed to improve treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Complemento C5 , Miastenia Gravis , Humanos , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento , Ativação do Complemento , Miastenia Gravis/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor da Anafilatoxina C5a , Leucotrienos
17.
Pharmacol Ther ; 248: 108455, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37257760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer is a major burden of disease worldwide and increasing evidence shows that inflammation contributes to cancer development and progression. Eicosanoids are derived from dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid (AA), and are mainly produced by a series of enzymatic pathways that include cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX), and cytochrome P-450 epoxygenase (CYP). Eicosanoids consist of at least several hundred individual molecules and play important roles in the inflammatory response and inflammation-related cancers. SCOPE AND APPROACH: Dietary sources of AA and biosynthesis of eicosanoids from AA through different metabolic pathways are summarized. The bioactivities of eicosanoids and their potential molecular mechanisms on inflammation and cancer are revealed. Additionally, current challenges and limitations in eicosanoid research on inflammation-related cancer are discussed. KEY FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: Dietary AA generates a large variety of eicosanoids, including prostaglandins, thromboxane A2, leukotrienes, cysteinyl leukotrienes, lipoxins, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Eicosanoids exert different bioactivities and mechanisms involved in the inflammation and related cancer developments. A deeper understanding of eicosanoid biology may be advantageous in cancer treatment and help to define cellular targets for further therapeutic development.


Assuntos
Eicosanoides , Neoplasias , Humanos , Eicosanoides/metabolismo , Ácido Araquidônico/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Leucotrienos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2
18.
Adv Pharmacol ; 97: 423-444, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37236766

RESUMO

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-exacerbated respiratory disease (N-ERD) is characterized by nasal polyp formation, adult-onset asthma, and hypersensitivity to all cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) inhibitors. Oxygenated lipids are collectively known as oxylipins and are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) oxidation products. The most extensively researched oxylipins being the eicosanoids formed from arachidonic acid (AA). There are four major classes of eicosanoids including leukotrienes, prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and lipoxins. In N-ERD, the underlying inflammatory process of the upper and lower respiratory systems begins and occurs independently of NSAID consumption and is due to the overproduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes. Leukotriene mediators all induce edema, bronchoconstriction, and airway mucous secretion. Thromboxane A2 is a potent bronchoconstrictor and induces endothelial adhesion molecule expression. Elevated Prostaglandin D2 metabolites lead to vasoconstriction, additionally impaired up-regulation of prostaglandin E2 leads to symptoms seen in N-ERD as it is essential for maintaining homeostasis of inflammatory responses in the airway and has bronchoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. A characteristic feature of N-ERD is diminished lipoxin levels, this decreased capacity to form endogenous mediators with anti-inflammatory properties could facilitate local inflammatory response and expose bronchial smooth muscle to relatively unopposed actions of broncho-constricting substances. Treatment options, such as leukotriene modifying agents, aspirin desensitization, biologic agents and ESS, appear to influence eicosanoid pathways, however more studies need to be done to further understand the role of oxylipins. Besides AA-derived eicosanoids, other oxylipins may also pay a role but have not been sufficiently studied. Identifying pathogenic N-ERD mechanism is likely to define more effective treatment targets.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides , Doenças Respiratórias , Adulto , Humanos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Oxilipinas/uso terapêutico , Leucotrienos/metabolismo , Leucotrienos/uso terapêutico , Eicosanoides/metabolismo , Eicosanoides/uso terapêutico , Doenças Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Doenças Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Prostaglandinas/uso terapêutico
19.
Exp Eye Res ; 232: 109517, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37211287

RESUMO

The cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) have important functions in the regulation of inflammation and cellular stress. Blocking the CysLT receptors (CysLTRs) with specific antagonists is beneficial against progression of retinopathies (e.g. diabetic retinopathy, wet AMD). However, the exact cellular localization of the CysLTRs and their endogenous ligands in the eye have not been elucidated in detail yet. It is also not known whether the expression patterns differ between humans and animal models. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe and compare the distribution of two important enzymes in CysLT biosynthesis, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP), and of CysLTR1 and CysLTR2 in healthy human, rat and mouse eyes. Human donor eyes (n = 10) and eyes from adult Sprague Dawley rats (n = 5) and CD1 mice (n = 8) of both sexes were collected. The eyes were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and cross-sections were investigated by immunofluorescence with specific antibodies against 5-LOX, FLAP (human tissue only), CysLTR1 and CysLTR2. Flat-mounts of the human choroid were prepared and processed similarly. Expression patterns were assessed and semiquantitatively evaluated using a confocal fluorescence microscope (LSM710, Zeiss). We observed so far unreported expression sites for CysLT system components in various ocular tissues. Overall, we detected expression of 5-LOX, CysLTR1 and CysLTR2 in the human, rat and mouse cornea, conjunctiva, iris, lens, ciliary body, retina and choroid. Importantly, expression profiles of CysLTR1 and CysLTR2 were highly similar between human and rodent eyes. FLAP was expressed in all human ocular tissues except the lens. Largely weak immunoreactivity of FLAP and 5-LOX was observed in a few, yet unidentified, cells of diverse ocular tissues, indicating low levels of CysLT biosynthesis in healthy eyes. CysLTR1 was predominantly detected in ocular epithelial cells, supporting the involvement of CysLTR1 in stress and immune responses. CysLTR2 was predominantly expressed in neuronal structures, suggesting neuromodulatory roles of CysLTR2 in the eye and revealing disparate functions of CysLTRs in ocular tissues. Taken together, we provide a comprehensive protein expression atlas of CysLT system components in the human and rodent eye. While the current study is purely descriptive and therefore does not allow significant functional conclusions yet, it represents an important basis for future studies in diseased ocular tissues in which distribution patterns or expression levels of the CysLT system might be altered. Furthermore, this is the first comprehensive study to elucidate expression patterns of CysLT system components in human and animal models that will help to identify and understand functions of the system as well as mechanisms of action of potential CysLTR ligands in the eye.


Assuntos
Inflamação , Leucotrienos , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Ratos , Camundongos , Animais , Ligantes , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Leucotrienos/farmacologia
20.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1157373, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37081886

RESUMO

Allergic inflammation of the airways such as allergic asthma is a major health problem with growing incidence world-wide. One cardinal feature in severe type 2-dominated airway inflammation is the release of lipid mediators of the eicosanoid family that can either promote or dampen allergic inflammation. Macrophages are key producers of prostaglandins and leukotrienes which play diverse roles in allergic airway inflammation and thus require tight control. Using RNA- and ATAC-sequencing, liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), enzyme immunoassays (EIA), gene expression analysis and in vivo models, we show that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) contributes to this control via transcriptional regulation of lipid mediator synthesis enzymes in bone marrow-derived as well as in primary alveolar macrophages. In the absence or inhibition of AhR activity, multiple genes of both the prostaglandin and the leukotriene pathway were downregulated, resulting in lower synthesis of prostanoids, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and cysteinyl leukotrienes, e.g., Leukotriene C4 (LTC4). These AhR-dependent genes include PTGS1 encoding for the enzyme cyclooxygenase 1 (COX1) and ALOX5 encoding for the arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) both of which major upstream regulators of the prostanoid and leukotriene pathway, respectively. This regulation is independent of the activation stimulus and partially also detectable in unstimulated macrophages suggesting an important role of basal AhR activity for eicosanoid production in steady state macrophages. Lastly, we demonstrate that AhR deficiency in hematopoietic but not epithelial cells aggravates house dust mite induced allergic airway inflammation. These results suggest an essential role for AhR-dependent eicosanoid regulation in macrophages during homeostasis and inflammation.


Assuntos
Macrófagos Alveolares , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico , Humanos , Cromatografia Líquida , Dinoprostona , Eicosanoides/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Leucotrienos , Macrófagos Alveolares/metabolismo , Prostaglandinas , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...