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1.
Chemosphere ; 355: 141831, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561162

RESUMO

The recalcitrance of lignin impedes the efficient utilization of lignocellulosic biomass, hindering the efficient production of biogas and value-added materials. Despite the emergence of anaerobic digestion as a superior alternative to the aerobic method for lignin processing, achieving its feasibility requires thorough characterization of lignin-degrading anaerobic microorganisms, assessment of their biomethane production potential, and a comprehensive understanding of the degradation pathway. This study aimed to address the aforementioned necessities by bioaugmenting seed sludge with three distinct enriched lignin-degrading microbial consortia at both 25 °C and 37 °C. Enhanced biomethane yields was detected in the bioaugmented digesters, while the highest production was observed as 188 mLN CH4 gVS-1 in digesters operated at 37 °C. Moreover, methane yield showed a significant improvement in the samples at 37 °C ranging from 110% to 141% compared to the control, demonstrating the efficiency of the enriched lignin-degrading microbial community. Temperature and substrate were identified as key factors influencing microbial community dynamics. The observation that microbial communities tended to revert to the initial state after lignin depletion, indicating the stability of the overall microbiota composition in the digesters, is a promising finding for large-scale studies. Noteworthy candidates for lignin degradation, including Sporosarcina psychrophila, Comamonas aquatica, Shewanella baltica, Pseudomonas sp. C27, and Brevefilum fermentans were identified in the bioaugmented samples. PICRUSt2 predictions suggest that the pathway and specific proteins involved in anaerobic lignin degradation might share similarities with those engaged in the degradation of aromatic compounds.


Assuntos
Lignina , Microbiota , Lignina/metabolismo , Consórcios Microbianos , Reatores Biológicos , Anaerobiose , Metano/metabolismo , Biocombustíveis
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8672, 2024 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622317

RESUMO

Extraction of lignin via green methods is a crucial step in promoting the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomasses. In the present study, utilisation of natural deep eutectic solvent for the pretreatment of kenaf fibres biomass is performed. Furthermore, extracted lignin from natural deep eutectic solvent pretreated kenaf biomass was carried out and its comparative study with commercial lignin was studied. The extracted lignin was characterized and investigated through Infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. FTIR Spectra shows that all samples have almost same set of absorption bands with slight difference in frequencies. CHNS analysis of natural deep eutectic solvent pretreated kenaf fibre showed a slight increase in carbon % from 42.36 to 43.17% and an increase in nitrogen % from - 0.0939 to - 0.1377%. Morphological analysis of commercial lignin shows irregular/uneven surfaces whereas natural deep eutectic solvent extracted lignin shows smooth and wavy surface. EDX analysis indicated noticeable peaks for oxygen and carbon elements which are present in lignocellulosic biomass. Thermal properties showed that lignin is constant at higher temperatures due to more branching and production of extremely condensed aromatic structures. In UV-VIS spectroscopy, commercial lignin shows slightly broad peak between 300 and 400 nm due to presence of carbonyl bond whereas, natural deep eutectic solvent extracted lignin does not show up any peak in this range. XRD results showed that the crystallinity index percentage for kenaf and natural deep eutectic solvent treated kenaf was 70.33 and 69.5% respectively. Therefore, these innovative solvents will undoubtedly have significant impact on the development of clean, green, and sustainable products for biocatalysts, extraction, electrochemistry, adsorption applications.


Assuntos
Hibiscus , Lignina , Lignina/química , Solventes Eutéticos Profundos , Biomassa , Carboidratos , Solventes/química , Carbono , Hidrólise
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(14): 7765-7773, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556742

RESUMO

Climate change affects the content and composition of soil organic carbon (SOC). However, warming-induced changes in the SOC compounds remain unknown. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, molecular mixing models, and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, we analyzed the variations and relationships in molecular compounds in Mollisol with 10-56 g C kg-1 soil-1 by translocating soils under six climate regimes. We found that increased temperature and precipitation were negatively correlated with carbohydrate versus lipid and lignin versus protein. The former was consistent across soils with varying SOC contents, but the latter decreased as the SOC content increased. The carbohydrate-lipid correlations were related to dithionite-citrate-extractable Fe, while the lignin-protein correlations were linked to changes in moisture and pyrophosphate-extractable Fe/Al. Our findings indicate that the reduction in the mineral protection of SOC is associated with molecular alterations in SOC under warming conditions.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Solo/química , Carbono/metabolismo , Lignina , Lipídeos , Carboidratos
4.
Molecules ; 29(7)2024 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611834

RESUMO

Alongside fermentable sugars, weak acids, and furan derivatives, lignocellulosic hydrolysates contain non-negligible amounts of lignin-derived aromatic compounds. The biological funnel of lignin offers a new strategy for the "natural" production of protocatechuic acid (PCA). Herein, Pseudomonas putida KT2440 was engineered to produce PCA from lignin-derived monomers in hydrolysates by knocking out protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase and overexpressing vanillate-O-demethylase endogenously, while acetic acid was used for cell growth. The sugar catabolism was further blocked to prevent the loss of fermentable sugar. Using the engineered strain, a total of 253.88 mg/L of PCA was obtained with a yield of 70.85% from corncob hydrolysate 1. The highest titer of 433.72 mg/L of PCA was achieved using corncob hydrolysate 2 without any additional nutrients. This study highlights the potential ability of engineered strains to address the challenges of PCA production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate, providing novel insights into the utilization of hydrolysates.


Assuntos
Hidroxibenzoatos , Lignina , Pseudomonas putida , Pseudomonas putida/genética , Ácido Acético , Açúcares
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612499

RESUMO

Melatonin (MT) is a vital hormone factor in plant growth and development, yet its potential to influence the graft union healing process has not been reported. In this study, we examined the effects of MT on the healing of oriental melon scion grafted onto squash rootstock. The studies indicate that the exogenous MT treatment promotes the lignin content of oriental melon and squash stems by increasing the enzyme activities of hydroxycinnamoyl CoA ligase (HCT), hydroxy cinnamaldehyde dehydrogenase (HCALDH), caffeic acid/5-hydroxy-conifer aldehyde O-methyltransferase (COMT), caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), 4-hydroxycinnamate CoA ligase (4CL), and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). Using the oriental melon and squash treated with the exogenous MT to graft, the connection of oriental melon scion and squash rootstock was more efficient and faster due to higher expression of wound-induced dedifferentiation 1 (WIND1), cyclin-dependent kinase (CDKB1;2), target of monopteros 6 (TMO6), and vascular-related NAC-domain 7 (VND7). Further research found that the exogenous MT increased the lignin content of the oriental melon scion stem by regulating CmCAD1 expression, and then accelerated the graft healing process. In addition, the root growth of grafted seedlings treated with the exogenous MT was more vigorous.


Assuntos
Cucumis melo , Melatonina , Melatonina/farmacologia , Lignina , Aldeídos , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes
6.
Theor Appl Genet ; 137(4): 94, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578443

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: This study revealed the identification of a novel gene, Zm00001d042906, that regulates maize ear length by modulating lignin synthesis and reported a molecular marker for selecting maize lines with elongated ears. Maize ear length has garnered considerable attention due to its high correlation with yield. In this study, six maize inbred lines of significant importance in maize breeding were used as parents. The temperate maize inbred line Ye107, characterized by a short ear, was crossed with five tropical or subtropical inbred lines featuring longer ears, creating a multi-parent population displaying significant variations in ear length. Through genome-wide association studies and mutation analysis, the A/G variation at SNP_183573532 on chromosome 3 was identified as an effective site for discriminating long-ear maize. Furthermore, the associated gene Zm00001d042906 was found to correlate with maize ear length. Zm00001d042906 was functionally annotated as a laccase (Lac4), which showed activity and influenced lignin synthesis in the midsection cells of the cob, thereby regulating maize ear length. This study further reports a novel molecular marker and a new gene that can assist maize breeding programs in selecting varieties with elongated ears.


Assuntos
Lacase , Zea mays , Zea mays/genética , Lacase/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Lignina , Melhoramento Vegetal
7.
Carbohydr Polym ; 335: 122082, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616100

RESUMO

The preparation of cellulose nanofiber (CNF) using traditional methods is currently facing challenges due to concerns regarding environmental pollution and safety. Herein, a novel CNF was obtained from bamboo shoot shell (BSS) by low-concentration acid and dynamic high-pressure microfluidization (DHPM) treatment. The resulting CNF was then characterized, followed by in vitro and in vivo safety assessments. Compared to insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), the diameters of HIDF (IDF after low-concentration acid hydrolysis) and CNF were significantly decreased to 167.13 nm and 70.97 nm, respectively. Meanwhile, HIDF and CNF showed a higher crystallinity index (71.32 % and 74.35 %). Structural analysis results indicated the successful removal of lignin and hemicellulose of HIDF and CNF, with CNF demonstrating improved thermostability. In vitro, a high dose of CNF (1500 µg/mL) did not show any signs of cytotoxicity on Caco-2 cells. In vivo, no death was observed in the experimental mice, and there was no significant difference between CNF (1000 mg/kg·bw) and control group in hematological index and histopathological analysis. Overall, this study presents an environmentally friendly method for preparing CNF from BSS while providing evidence regarding its safety through in vitro and in vivo assessments, laying the foundation for its potential application in food.


Assuntos
Celulose , Nanofibras , Animais , Camundongos , Humanos , Celulose/toxicidade , Células CACO-2 , Nanofibras/toxicidade , Verduras , Lignina
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 276, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stephania kwangsiensis Lo (Menispermaceae) is a well-known Chinese herbal medicine, and its bulbous stems are used medicinally. The storage stem of S. kwangsiensis originated from the hypocotyls. To date, there are no reports on the growth and development of S. kwangsiensis storage stems. RESULTS: The bulbous stem of S. kwangsiensis, the starch diameter was larger at the stable expanding stage (S3T) than at the unexpanded stage (S1T) or the rapidly expanding stage (S2T) at the three different time points. We used ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and Illumina sequencing to identify key genes involved in bulbous stem development. A large number of differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Based on the differential expression profiles of the metabolites, alkaloids, lipids, and phenolic acids were the top three differentially expressed classes. Compared with S2T, significant changes in plant signal transduction and isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis pathways occurred at both the transcriptional and metabolic levels in S1T. In S2T compared with S3T, several metabolites involved in tyrosine metabolism were decreased. Temporal analysis of S1T to S3T indicated the downregulation of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, including lignin biosynthesis. The annotation of key pathways showed an up-down trend for genes and metabolites involved in isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis, whereas phenylpropanoid biosynthesis was not completely consistent. CONCLUSIONS: Downregulation of the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway may be the result of carbon flow into alkaloid synthesis and storage of lipids and starch during the development of S. kwangsiensis bulbous stems. A decrease in the number of metabolites involved in tyrosine metabolism may also lead to a decrease in the upstream substrates of phenylpropane biosynthesis. Downregulation of lignin synthesis during phenylpropanoid biosynthesis may loosen restrictions on bulbous stem expansion. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of the metabolome and transcriptome profiles of S. kwangsiensis bulbous stems. These data provide guidance for the cultivation, breeding, and harvesting of S. kwangsiensis.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Plantas Medicinais , Stephania , Stephania/química , Stephania/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Lignina/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Melhoramento Vegetal , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Transcriptoma , Alcaloides/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Isoquinolinas/metabolismo , Tirosina/metabolismo , Lipídeos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 272, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. are both original plants of 'Gan Cao' in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, and G. uralensis is currently the mainstream variety of licorice and has a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine. Both of these species have shown some degree of tolerance to salinity, G. inflata exhibits higher salt tolerance than G. uralensis and can grow on saline meadow soils and crusty saline soils. However, the regulatory mechanism responsible for the differences in salt tolerance between different licorice species is unclear. Due to land area-related limitations, the excavation and cultivation of licorice varieties in saline-alkaline areas that both exhibit tolerance to salt and contain highly efficient active substances are needed. The systematic identification of the key genes and pathways associated with the differences in salt tolerance between these two licorice species will be beneficial for cultivating high-quality salt-tolerant licorice G. uralensis plant varieties and for the long-term development of the licorice industry. In this research, the differences in growth response indicators, ion accumulation, and transcription expression between the two licorice species were analyzed. RESULTS: This research included a comprehensive comparison of growth response indicators, including biomass, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and total flavonoids content, between two distinct licorice species and an analysis of their ion content and transcriptome expression. In contrast to the result found for G. uralensis, the salt treatment of G. inflata ensured the stable accumulation of biomass and total flavonoids at 0.5 d, 15 d, and 30 d and the restriction of Na+ to the roots while allowing for more K+ and Ca2+ accumulation. Notably, despite the increase in the Na+ concentration in the roots, the MDA concentration remained low. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the regulatory effects of growth and ion transport on the two licorice species were strongly correlated with the following pathways and relevant DEGs: the TCA cycle, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the photosynthetic carbon fixation pathway involved in carbon metabolism; Casparian strip formation (lignin oxidation and translocation, suberin formation) in response to Na+; K+ and Ca2+ translocation, organic solute synthesis (arginine, polyamines, GABA) in response to osmotic stresses; and the biosynthesis of the nonenzymatic antioxidants carotenoids and flavonoids in response to antioxidant stress. Furthermore, the differential expression of the DEGs related to ABA signaling in hormone transduction and the regulation of transcription factors such as the HSF and GRAS families may be associated with the remarkable salt tolerance of G. inflata. CONCLUSION: Compared with G. uralensis, G. inflata exhibits greater salt tolerance, which is primarily attributable to factors related to carbon metabolism, endodermal barrier formation and development, K+ and Ca2+ transport, biosynthesis of carotenoids and flavonoids, and regulation of signal transduction pathways and salt-responsive transcription factors. The formation of the Casparian strip, especially the transport and oxidation of lignin precursors, is likely the primary reason for the markedly higher amount of Na+ in the roots of G. inflata than in those of G. uralensis. The tendency of G. inflata to maintain low MDA levels in its roots under such conditions is closely related to the biosynthesis of flavonoids and carotenoids and the maintenance of the osmotic balance in roots by the absorption of more K+ and Ca2+ to meet growth needs. These findings may provide new insights for developing and cultivating G. uralensis plant species selected for cultivation in saline environments or soils managed through agronomic practices that involve the use of water with a high salt content.


Assuntos
Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Glycyrrhiza , Glycyrrhiza/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Transcriptoma , Lignina/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Transporte de Íons , Carbono/metabolismo , Solo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
10.
Planta ; 259(5): 110, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565704

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Understanding surface defenses, a relatively unexplored area in rice can provide valuable insight into constitutive and induced defenses against herbivores. Plants have evolved a multi-layered defense system against the wide range of pests that constantly attack them. Physical defenses comprised of trichomes, wax, silica, callose, and lignin, and are considered as the first line of defense against herbivory that can directly affect herbivores by restricting or deterring them. Most studies on physical defenses against insect herbivores have been focused on dicots compared to monocots, although monocots include one of the most important crops, rice, which half of the global population is dependent on as their staple food. In rice, Silica is an important element stimulating plant growth, although Silica has also been found to impart resistance against herbivores. However, other physical defenses in rice including wax, trichomes, callose, and lignin are less explored. A detailed exploration of the morphological structures and functional consequences of physical defense structures in rice can assist in incorporating these resistance traits in plant breeding and genetic improvement programs, and thereby potentially reduce the use of chemicals in the field. This mini review addresses these points with a closer look at current literature and prospects on rice physical defenses.


Assuntos
Herbivoria , Oryza , Animais , Lignina , Melhoramento Vegetal , Insetos , Produtos Agrícolas , Dióxido de Silício
11.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301384, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574047

RESUMO

A comprehensive analysis of outdoor weathering and soil burial of cork during 1-year experiments was carried out with measurements of CIELAB color parameters, cellular observations by scanning electron microscopy, and surface chemical features analysed by ATR-FTIR and wet chemical analysis. Cork applied in outdoor conditions above and below ground retained its physical structure and integrity without signs of deterioration or fracturing. The cellular structure was maintained with some small changes at the one-cell layer at the surface, featuring cellular expansion and minute cell wall fractures. Surface color and chemistry showed distinct results for outdoor exposure and soil burial. The weathered cork surfaces acquired a lighter color while the soil buried cork surfaces became darker. With outdoor weathering, the cork polar solubles increased (13.0% vs. 7.6% o.d. mass) while a substantial decrease of lignin occurred (about 28% of the original lignin was removed) leading to a suberin-enriched cork surface. The chemical impact on lignin is therefore responsible for the surface change towards lighter colors. Soil-burial induced hydrolysis of ester bonds of suberin and xylan, and the lignin-enriched cork surface displayed a dark brown color. FTIR and wet chemical results were consistent. Overall cork showed a considerable structural and physical stability that allows its application in outdoor conditions, namely for building façades or other surfacing applications. Architects and designers should take into account the color dynamics of the cork surfaces.


Assuntos
Lignina , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Lignina/química , Cor , Solo
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 265(Pt 1): 130834, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38484815

RESUMO

Blending poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) and polylactic acid (PLA) is a cost-effective strategy to obtain biodegradable plastic with complementary properties. However, the incompatibility between PBAT and PLA is a great challenge for fabricating high-performance composite films. Herein, the ethyl acetate fractionated lignin with the small glass transition temperature and low molecular weight was achieved and incorporated into the PBAT/PLA composite as a compatibilizer. The fractionated lignin can be uniformly dispersed within the PBAT/PLA matrix through a melt blending process and interact with the molecular chain of PBAT and PLA as a bonding bridge, which enhances the intermolecular interactions and reduces the interfacial tension of PBAT/PLA. By adding fractionated lignin, the tensile strength of the PBAT/PLA composite increased by 35.4 % and the yield strength increased by 37.7 %. Owing to lignin, the composite films possessed the ultraviolet shielding function and exhibited better water vapor barrier properties (1.73 ± 0.08 × 10-13 g·cm/cm2·s·Pa). This work conclusively demonstrated that fractionated lignin can be used as a green compatibilizer and a low-cost functional filler for PBAT/PLA materials, and provides guidance for the application of lignin in biodegradable plastics.


Assuntos
Alcenos , Plásticos Biodegradáveis , Lignina , Ácidos Ftálicos , Adipatos , Poli A , Poliésteres
13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 265(Pt 1): 130860, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38490397

RESUMO

Lignin is a popular material for energy transition and high-value utilization due to its low cost, non-toxicity, renewability, and widespread availability. However, its complex structure has hindered its application. Waterborne polyurethane (WPU) uses water as a dispersion medium, which is safer for humans and the environment but also leads to disadvantages such as poor mechanical properties and water resistance. In this study, we prepared multicolor photoluminescent carbon quantum dots (CQDs) in a wide range of wavelengths from lignin. We successfully prepared panchromatic CQDs by additive mixing. The redshift of the emission wavelength is attributed to the synergistic effect of the sp2 conjugated structure and the surface functional groups. The full-color solid-state luminescence of the CQDs was successfully achieved, and most importantly, the application of full-color CQDs in light-emitting diodes was realized. Moreover, the embedding of the multicolor CQDs in WPU not only makes WPU luminescent but also improves the water resistance and mechanical properties of WPUs. The hydrogen-bonding interactions between the functional groups on the surface of the CQDs and the urethane were responsible for the high performance of the composite. We investigated the UV and strong blue light shielding abilities of WPU/yellow CQDs films, which resulted from the unique absorption peaks of yellow CQDs in the UV region and the strong blue light region. This work provides an efficient method for the high-value utilization of biomass materials and paves the way for the multifunctional application of WPU.


Assuntos
Pontos Quânticos , Humanos , Pontos Quânticos/química , Poliuretanos , Lignina/química , Carbono/química , Água
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 265(Pt 1): 130911, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492693

RESUMO

In this study, the solubilization and structural changes of lignin in naked oat stems were investigated under subcritical water autohydrolysis systems (170-210 °C, 0.68-1.85 MPa). In this system, Hemicellulose was preferentially hydrolyzed in the liquid water at elevated temperatures, leading to the production of acetic acid and glucuronic acid, which acidified the reaction system. Under acidic and high-temperature conditions, lignin primarily underwent degradation and condensation reactions. At autohydrolysis temperatures below 190 °C and autohydrolysis pressures below 1.22 MPa, lignin degradation was predominant, realizing a maximum lignin removal of 47.8 % and breakage of numerous ß-O-4 bonds from lignin. At autohydrolysis temperatures above 190 °C and autohydrolysis pressures above 1.22 MPa, lignin condensation dominated, with an increase in the amount of organic acids generated upon hemicellulose degradation, leading to condensation reactions with the degraded low-molecular-weight lignin. The degree of lignin condensation was positively correlated with the temperature of the reaction system. This study provides essential insights into the dynamic changes in the structure of lignin in both the hydrolysis residue and hydrolysis solution during subcritical water autohydrolysis.


Assuntos
Lignina , Água , Lignina/química , Avena , Compostos Orgânicos , Temperatura , Hidrólise
15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 265(Pt 1): 130906, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38493611

RESUMO

The pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) produced during pulp dissolution and biomass refining is mainly composed of hemicellulose and lignin, and it is a potential source for production of value-added materials and platform chemicals; however, their utilization has been a serious challenge. In this study, we proposed a green and simple strategy to simultaneously prepare size-controlled functional lignin nanoparticles (LNPs) and levulinic acid (LA) from PHL as the raw material. The as-prepared LNPs exhibited remarkable stability thanks to the presence of saccharides with abundant oxygen-containing groups and surface charges, which prevented aggregation and maintained long-term storage stability. Trace amounts of the LNPs (≤ 0.2 wt%) could stabilize various Pickering emulsions, even with oil-to-water ratios as high as 5:5 (v/v). Subsequently, the remaining PHL was directly used to produce LA without adding a catalyst; under optimal conditions (160 °C and 1 h), the yield of LA was 56.3 % based on the dry saccharide content in the raw PHL. More importantly, p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TsOH), the only reactive reagent used during the entire preparation process, including the two preparation steps of the LNPs and LA, was reusable, and the recovery rate was >70 % after five cycles. Overall, this green and simple strategy effectively and comprehensively utilized the PHL and showed potential for producing biobased nanomaterials and platform chemicals.


Assuntos
Ácidos Levulínicos , Nanopartículas , Populus , Lignina/química , Hidrólise , Madeira/química , Carboidratos/análise
16.
Biotechnol Adv ; 72: 108341, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38499256

RESUMO

Lignocellulosic biomass holds a crucial position in the prospective bio-based economy, serving as a sustainable and renewable source for a variety of bio-based products. These products play a vital role in displacing fossil fuels and contributing to environmental well-being. However, the inherent recalcitrance of biomass poses a significant obstacle to the efficient access of sugar polymers. Consequently, the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars remains a prominent challenge in biorefinery processes to produce biofuels and biochemicals. In addressing these challenges, extensive efforts have been dedicated to mitigating biomass recalcitrance through diverse pretreatment methods. One noteworthy process is Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) pretreatment, characterized by its dry-to-dry nature and minimal water usage. The volatile ammonia, acting as a catalyst in the process, is recyclable. AFEX contributes to cleaning biomass ester linkages and facilitating the opening of cell wall structures, enhancing enzyme accessibility and leading to a fivefold increase in sugar conversion compared to untreated biomass. Over the last decade, AFEX has demonstrated substantial success in augmenting the efficiency of biomass conversion processes. This success has unlocked the potential for sustainable and economically viable biorefineries. This paper offers a comprehensive review of studies focusing on the utilization of AFEX-pretreated biomass in the production of second-generation biofuels, ruminant feed, and additional value-added bioproducts like enzymes, lipids, proteins, and mushrooms. It delves into the details of the AFEX pretreatment process at both laboratory and pilot scales, elucidates the mechanism of action, and underscores the role of AFEX in the biorefinery for developing biofuels and bioproducts, and nutritious ruminant animal feed production. While highlighting the strides made, the paper also addresses current challenges in the commercialization of AFEX pretreatment within biorefineries. Furthermore, it outlines critical considerations that must be addressed to overcome these challenges, ensuring the continued progress and widespread adoption of AFEX in advancing sustainable and economically viable bio-based industries.


Assuntos
Amônia , Biocombustíveis , Amônia/química , Amônia/farmacologia , Biomassa , Estudos Prospectivos , Lignina/metabolismo , Açúcares
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 265(Pt 1): 130993, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508567

RESUMO

Hemicellulases are enzymes that hydrolyze hemicelluloses, common polysaccharides in nature. Thermophilic hemicellulases, derived from microbial strains, are extensively studied as natural biofuel sources due to the complex structure of hemicelluloses. Recent research aims to elucidate the catalytic principles, mechanisms and specificity of hemicellulases through investigations into their high-temperature stability and structural features, which have applications in biotechnology and industry. This review article targets to serve as a comprehensive resource, highlighting the significant progress in the field and emphasizing the vital role of thermophilic hemicellulases in eco-friendly catalysis. The primary goal is to improve the reliability of hemicellulase enzymes obtained from thermophilic bacterial strains. Additionally, with their ability to break down lignocellulosic materials, hemicellulases hold immense potential for biofuel production. Despite their potential, the commercial viability is hindered by their high enzyme costs, necessitating the development of efficient bioprocesses involving waste pretreatment with microbial consortia to overcome this challenge.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Biocombustíveis , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Lignina
18.
Biotechnol Adv ; 72: 108344, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521282

RESUMO

Biohydrogen (Bio-H2) is widely recognized as a sustainable and environmentally friendly energy source, devoid of any detrimental impact on the environment. Lignocellulosic biomass (LB) is a readily accessible and plentiful source material that can be effectively employed as a cost-effective and sustainable substrate for Bio-H2 production. Despite the numerous challenges, the ongoing progress in LB pretreatment technology, microbial fermentation, and the integration of molecular biology techniques have the potential to enhance Bio-H2 productivity and yield. Consequently, this technology exhibits efficiency and the capacity to meet the future energy demands associated with the valorization of recalcitrant biomass. To date, several pretreatment approaches have been investigated in order to improve the digestibility of feedstock. Nevertheless, there has been a lack of comprehensive systematic studies examining the effectiveness of pretreatment methods in enhancing Bio-H2 production through dark fermentation. Additionally, there is a dearth of economic feasibility evaluations pertaining to this area of research. Thus, this review has conducted comparative studies on the technological and economic viability of current pretreatment methods. It has also examined the potential of these pretreatments in terms of carbon neutrality and circular economy principles. This review paves the way for a new opportunity to enhance Bio-H2 production with technological approaches.


Assuntos
Hidrogênio , Lignina , Biomassa , Hidrogênio/química , Lignina/química , Fermentação , Biocombustíveis
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 926: 171943, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38527546

RESUMO

Monoculture plantations in China, characterized by the continuous cultivation of a single species, pose challenges to timber accumulation and understory biodiversity, raising concerns about sustainability. This study investigated the impact of continuous monoculture plantings of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata [Lamb.] Hook.) on soil properties, dissolved organic matter (DOM), and microorganisms over multiple generations. Soil samples from first to fourth-generation plantations were analyzed for basic chemical properties, DOM composition using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, and microorganisms via high-throughput sequencing. Results revealed a significant decline in nitrate nitrogen content with successive rotations, accompanied by an increase in easily degradable compounds like carbohydrates, aliphatic/proteins, tannins, Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen- (CHON) and Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Sulfur- (CHOS) containing compounds. However, the recalcitrant compounds, such as lignin and carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAMs), condensed aromatics and Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen- (CHO) containing compounds decreased. Microorganism diversity, abundance, and structure decreased with successive plantations, affecting the ecological niche breadth of fungal communities. Bacterial communities were strongly influenced by DOM composition, particularly lignin/CRAMs and tannins. Continuous monoculture led to reduced soil nitrate, lignin/CRAMs, and compromised soil quality, altering chemical properties and DOM composition, influencing microbial community assembly. This shift increased easily degraded DOM, accelerating soil carbon and nitrogen cycling, ultimately reducing soil carbon sequestration. From environmental point of view, the study emphasizes the importance of sustainable soil management practices in continuous monoculture systems. Particularly the findings offer valuable insights for addressing challenges associated with monoculture plantations and promoting long-term ecological sustainability.


Assuntos
Cunninghamia , Microbiota , Matéria Orgânica Dissolvida , Nitratos/análise , Lignina/metabolismo , Taninos/análise , Taninos/metabolismo , Solo/química , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Compostos de Enxofre/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/análise , Carbono/análise , Hidrogênio/análise , Oxigênio/análise
20.
J Vis Exp ; (205)2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38497633

RESUMO

The applicability of biopolymer micro-/nano- technology in human, veterinary medicine, pharmaceutical, and food technology is rapidly growing due to the great potential of biopolymer-based particles as effective carrier systems. The use of lignin as a basic heteropolymer biomatrix for the design of innovative micro-/submicron formulations allows the achievement of increased biocompatibility and offers various active functional groups presenting opportunities for customization of the physicochemical properties and bioactivities of the formulations for diverse applications. The aim of the present study was to develop a simple and ecofriendly methodology for the synthesis of lignin particles with micro- and submicron size; to evaluate their physicochemical, spectral, and structural characteristics; and to examine their capacity for encapsulation of biologically active molecules and potential for in vitro release of bioflavonoids in simulated gastrointestinal media. The presented methodologies apply cheap and green solvents; easy, straightforward, quick, and sensitive processes requiring little equipment, non-toxic substances, and simple methods for their characterization, the determination of encapsulation capacity towards the poorly water-soluble bioactive compounds morin and quercetin, and the in vitro release potential of the lignin matrices.


Assuntos
Lignina , Farmácia , Humanos , Flavonoides , Álcalis , Polímeros
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