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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(21): 5600-5605, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951212

RESUMO

Scutellariae Radix is a commonly used Chinese medicinal first recorded in the Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. In the ancient books of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), Scutellariae Radix is used in two specifications, solid one(Ziqin) and hollow one(Kuqin). In the current rules and regulations of Chinese medicine, Scutellariae Radix is used without the specific requirements for the specifications applied. To clarify the evolution of Scutellariae Radix specifications and analyze the current specifications of Scutellariae Radix pieces, the present study reviews the Scutellariae Radix from ancient literature, modern rules and regulations, and differences between Ziqin and Kuqin in composition, efficacy, and transformation mechanism. According to the research on ancient books, Kuqin is effective in clearing the fire of the upper energizer, and Ziqin in purging the heat of the lower energizer. Modern studies have revealed that Kuqin and Ziqin are significantly different in chemical components, and Ziqin and Kuqin target the colon and lung, respectively, which are consistent with the relevant records in ancient books. The review study suggests that the two specifications of Scutellariae Radix are reasonable since they can facilitate the precise treatment of Scutellariae Radix.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Literatura Moderna , Materia Medica , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Scutellaria baicalensis
3.
J Lesbian Stud ; 25(4): 309-319, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291727

RESUMO

In this article, Susan Krieger reflects on how lesbian realities have figured in her published work over the years, although the word "lesbian" did not appear in the books' titles. Why the invisibility? What lessons are to be learned from exploring the frequent invisibility of lesbian subject matter? Krieger's discussion throws light on the challenges of writing and publishing from a lesbian perspective.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Feminina , Literatura Moderna , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Feminino , Humanos , Redação
4.
Med Humanit ; 47(3): e4, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253585

RESUMO

COVID-19 represents one of the most challenging global health issues in modern times. However, as epidemics have affected humans since our origins, many before us have described how significantly they compromise human lives. Leaving apart the aspects more linked to medicine and health sciences, we focus here on analysing how epidemics force people to change their habits, what type of emotions and behaviours they promote, and which roles are played by different social actors. For such a purpose, especially if we wish to draw some parallels between past epidemics and COVID-19, historical records seemed to be more suitable than literary works. Nonetheless, we have taken this approach relying on La Peste (Albert Camus, 1947), a novel based on a fictional epidemic of plague in the Algerian town of Oran. Far from creating a barrier separating fiction from reality, this reading allowed us to establish several links with our current situation. Recognising that context and solutions vary widely between the two scenarios, core matters concerning epidemics seemed to remain invariable. The important role of data and statistics, the leadership acquired by health authorities, the separations of relatives or the negative effects on trade and business are some issues which took place in Oran as well as nowadays. Besides that, epidemics also affect humans at an individual level, and certain thoughts and feelings in La Peste's main characters may make us identify with our own fears and desires.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epidemias , Obras de Ficção como Assunto , Literatura Moderna , Peste , França , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Literatura Moderna/história , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Anesth Hist ; 7(2): 27-31, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175110

RESUMO

Horace Wells is discussed in a literary manner as a classic tragic hero. Wells' apparent failed end is not the ultimate truth concerning him. His story helps us see and confront life. Many of the scientific, personal, and social issues he grappled with are relevant to us today such as human experimentation and drug addiction. His idealism and romantic pursuit are to be admired. We benefit today from the achievements of his daring and fateful quest.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Inalação/história , Obras de Ficção como Assunto , Literatura Moderna/história , Medicina na Literatura/história , Óxido Nitroso/história , Romantismo/história , História do Século XX
7.
Hist Psychol ; 24(3): 228-254, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956463

RESUMO

In 1948, the motion picture The Snake Pit was released to popular and critical acclaim. Directed by Anatole Litvak, the film told of the mental illness and recovery of one patient, who survived overcrowding and understaffing and was treated by a neo-Freudian psychiatrist known as Dr. Kik. It was based on a novel of the same title by Mary Jane Ward, who had been treated at Rockland State Hospital in New York. Building upon exposés of horrid hospital conditions in the press, The Snake Pit helped motivate reforms in the treatment of the mentally ill. Via unpublished correspondence and drafts of the film's screenplay, this article explores the populist and antifascist themes in The Snake Pit, which came from the director, screenwriters, and the politics of the immediate post-WWII era. It also describes the case history of Mary Jane Ward and her treatment by Gerard Chrzanowski, the real "Dr. Kik." (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comunismo , Literatura Moderna/história , Medicina nas Artes/história , Transtornos Mentais/história , Filmes Cinematográficos/história , Psiquiatria na Literatura , Psiquiatria/história , Pessoas Famosas , História do Século XX , Humanos , New York , Estados Unidos
8.
Br J Gen Pract ; 71(706): 228, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926882
11.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(8): 4375-4380, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420530

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Novels and autopathographies that employ cancer as a central theme offer a wealth of opportunities for researching the way patients with cancer make sense of their illness and its treatment. Such literatures can also inform clinical care, because they can support patients in living with their illness. The use of novels and autopathographies for research and care in persons with cancer fits within the framework of 'Health Humanities', the interdisciplinary field where medicine and social science meet. This paper presents a concise overview of novels and autopathographies that explore cancer as their theme. METHODS: Literature searches were conducted using PubMed, major scientific journals of medicine and clinical oncology, and databases in the Health Humanities. Searches focused on novels and autopathographies where cancer is the central theme, which are available in English, and which can be considered to represent 'high literature'. RESULTS: Twenty-nine books were identified. The majority of the books were written originally in English, and breast cancer and lung cancer were the most frequently discussed types of cancer. The core themes identified were giving meaning to illness; coping with medical treatment; and the psychological and social consequences of illness. CONCLUSION: Novels and autopathographies about cancer represent an innovative base for research on living with cancer and offer rich data on how people make sense of cancer and its medical treatment. Clinical implications of this review pertain to interventions based on bibliotherapy and expressive writing. Novels and autopathographies are just part of the Health Humanities context: a wide range of art genres may prove helpful in improving the quality of life of persons with cancer.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Autobiografias como Assunto , Obras de Ficção como Assunto , Literatura Moderna , Neoplasias da Mama , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Redação
12.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 9, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469787

RESUMO

Goethe's studies of natural form have occupied generations of scholars and the discussion on the relationship between Goethe's thought and evolutionary theory has never ceased since Haeckel's claims in the late nineteenth century. In scholarship which has aimed to address the question of change in Goethe's concept of nature, the focus has been primarily on his scientific writings. Aiming for a comprehensive understanding of Goethe's thought on reproduction, this article sets out to contribute to the ongoing debate by focusing on his literary text The New Melusine, a story centred on a dwarf figure. Examining texts by naturalists such as Buffon, Humboldt, and Darwin, the article demonstrates how Goethe, in the speculative framework of a literary text, explores patterns of transformation by means of sexual reproduction which did not make it into his better known scientific writings on plant morphology and comparative anatomy. I argue that the Melusine story becomes for Goethe a space to consider a new understanding of reproduction, its transformative power, and biopolitical possibilities, while at the same time providing an opportunity to reflect critically on its consequences for the individual.


Assuntos
Mitologia/história , Reprodução , Romantismo/história , Ciência na Literatura/história , Alemanha , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Literatura Moderna/história
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 268: 113572, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188899

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The seed of Senna obtusifolia (L.) H. S. Irwin & Barneby (Cassiae semen, CS) also known as Jue ming zi in China, has been traditionally used for weight management by purging the liver and improving the liver functions to support digestion. In the past decades, it has been used for hepatoprotection and treatment of overweight and other metabolic disorders such as hyperlipidaemia and diabetes. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review aimed at providing comprehensive information on the traditional usages, pharmacology, phytochemistry and toxicology of CS and critically exploring its potential usage for clinical weight management from both traditional and modern application perspectives. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to fully understand the properties, actions and indications of CS, two sets of Chinese classical texts were searched, namely: Zhong Hua Yi Dian (Encyclopedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine) and Zhong Guo Ben Cao Quan Shu (Complete Collection of Traditional Texts on Chinese Materia Medica). The purpose of studying these classical texts was to determine the traditional use of CS in weight management. Comprehensive searches were also performed on seven databases for publications on original randomised clinical trials (RCT), in vivo, in vitro or in silico studies related to pharmacological effects of CS. Detailed information about the phytochemistry of CS was collected from books, encyclopedia, online databases and journal literature. FINDINGS: In classical literature review, 89 classic texts provided information of properties, actions and indications of CS. In modern literature review, 44 studies were included for analysis, including 5 RCTs, 7 in vivo studies, 14 in vitro studies, 2 in silico studies and 16 studies of mixed types. Chinese classic literature has provided traditional evidence of the usage of CS for weight management. Contemporary studies have revealed that CS has weight loss effects and possesses some other pharmacological activities supporting weight management. Some chemical compounds of CS have been hypothesised to have a direct or indirect contribution to weight control. CONCLUSIONS: The relationships between chemical compounds and the corresponding weight-loss target proteins are not fully understood. Therefore, CS constituents should be further explored for the development of novel therapeutic or preventive agents for the treatment of overweight and obesity.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Cinnamomum aromaticum , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Etnofarmacologia/métodos , Literatura Moderna , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/isolamento & purificação , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Humanos , Sobrepeso/tratamento farmacológico , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Sementes
16.
J Homosex ; 68(3): 476-495, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429664

RESUMO

Members of sexual minority groups confront a dearth of fictional characters in k-12 curricula with whom they can feel any affinity, particularly in regard to sexual orientation. This is especially problematic for readers who are at odds with themselves and/or society over cultural constructions of normalcy. Queer theory can address this issue by encouraging readers to contest the putative heteronormativity in works of literature. The perennially popular novel Johnny Tremain provides such an opportunity. Though the author, Esther Forbes, depicts the main protagonist as heterosexual, a queer analysis of the novel and comparison to the subsequent film version by Walt Disney suggest that other interpretations are possible. This is significant because healthy identity formation can be fostered by encountering positive portrayals of fictional individuals like oneself. Moreover, promoting self-esteem is consistent with the praxis - the "activist agenda" - that has become an important element of queer criticism.


Assuntos
Literatura Moderna , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Feminino , Heterossexualidade , História do Século XX , Humanos , Literatura Moderna/história , Masculino , Teoria Psicológica , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/história
17.
J Homosex ; 68(5): 777-801, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573874

RESUMO

German-Jewish physician, sexologist and critical race theorist Magnus Hirschfeld (1868-1935) was arguably one of the most significant sexual thinkers of the twentieth century and a renowned sexual minority rights advocate. Hirschfeld's sexual-emancipatory engagement has been widely acknowledged. But his groundbreaking universalization of sexual intermediariness and the resulting dissolution of binary, triadic or otherwise finite schemes of sexuality have been mostly ignored or misrepresented in intellectual history. A relevant exception in this regard is the way sexuality historian Manfred Herzer has shortly approached the "doctrine of sexual intermediaries" as the "key concept" of his thought. While assessing and setting in historical perspective Herzer's interpretive contentions, the present study foregrounds Hirschfeld's Darwinian-inspired, non-essentialist naturalism as the ontic support for the new sexual and race regime he envisaged. By conceptualizing the potential in-finitization of sexualities and races, Hirschfeld was envisioning an unprecedented path toward the Messianic-albeit a-theological-goal of intra-historic liberation.


Assuntos
Literatura Moderna , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Sexualidade , Direitos Civis , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual , Feminino , Humanos , Judaísmo , Masculino , Religião e Sexo
18.
J Lesbian Stud ; 25(3): 258-273, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657257

RESUMO

Saving Delaney is one of a number of "special needs" parent memoirs published in the United States since 2000 and is the only memoir about raising a disabled child in the United States written by lesbian parents. Like many representations of disability, "special needs" parent memoirs use a problematic narrative in which the presumed negative effects of disability are individually overcome before life lived happily ever after. Also like popular and positive representations of disability, the children subjects of "special needs" parent memoirs are almost entirely white. In this paper, I contextualize Saving Delaney within histories of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) family-making in the United States, drawing particular attention to the overrepresentation of children with disabilities among gay and lesbian adoptive parent households. Then, drawing attention to the overwhelming whiteness of both positive portrayals of children with disabilities in "special needs" parent memoirs and LGBT families in scholarship, data, and media, I argue that white privilege facilitates visibility and protection against disability stigmas. I demonstrate that LGBT family-making and caring for children with disabilities cohere as issues of comprehensive reproductive justice and that narratives like Delaney's fail to advance the reproductive justice movement due to reiterative entrenchment in the material and discursive privileges of whiteness.


Assuntos
Crianças com Deficiência , Homossexualidade Feminina/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Cuidado da Criança , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Literatura Moderna , Estados Unidos , /psicologia
19.
J Lesbian Stud ; 25(3): 227-241, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657262

RESUMO

Focusing on two of Jane Rule's novels, The Young in One Another's Arms and Memory Board, this essay treats them as a resource for rethinking the relationship between queerness, kinship, and domesticity. Rather than a fully agential idea of queer kinship-the familiar model of "families we choose"-Rule grounds her model of kinship in shared domestic experience, and in slow and mutual adaptation. Her vision of kinship is profoundly relational, and never homonormative; it is also grounded in the lived experience of disability. For Rule, adaptation is both an interpersonal process and a material one: her novels take place in houses that are adapted to accommodate physical and intellectual disabilities, non-monogamous romantic relationships, communal child-rearing, transient populations, and other unconventional communities of care. Adaptive kinship is a way of opposing state rule, the ideology of genetic lineage, and the hegemony of the couple form. Rule's groups of people, which usually include characters queered by race, disability, citizenship, and other forms of difference in addition to sexuality, become families not because they share a legal or genetic tie or because they have chosen each other, but because they have shared and shaped a domestic space.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Família , Homossexualidade , Humanos , Literatura Moderna , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
20.
Clin Dermatol ; 38(5): 569-573, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33280805

RESUMO

Popular culture has long used skin conditions to suggest a character's immorality, deviancy, or to give the reader terror. This is especially obvious in Gothic literature, which utilizes dark themes including supernaturalism. Some examples of famous characters from Gothic literature include Frankenstein's monster creation that has jaundiced skin, Dracula who has albinism, poliosis, and an obvious scar, and finally, Stanton in Melmoth the Wanderer, who has albinism. These skin conditions are reflections of the characters' inner selves and serve to underline that these characters exist outside the realm of normalcy.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Medo/psicologia , Literatura Moderna , Interpretação Psicanalítica , Pigmentação da Pele , Pele , Cicatriz , Humanos
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