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Health Promot Int ; 39(3)2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722020


The health promotion literature that considers how scientific evidence can be effectively communicated tends to focus on evaluating the effectiveness of communication materials. This has resulted in a knowledge gap regarding effective knowledge translation processes. This study explores the process, reasoning and practices for developing books for children that incorporate evidence-based information to aid understanding of scientific evidence about health and environmental or natural disasters. This study is informed by a systematic review of the literature combined with responses to an email interview with authors of books for children. Nine published studies were included in the systematic review. Twenty-two authors responded to the email survey (25% response rate, following 86 invitations). We report seven key findings to guide the development of health-promoting books for children: (i) understand the needs and expectations of the audience, (ii) articulate the topic and research evidence, (iii) assemble a team with a mix of content knowledge and creative expertise, (iv) format should be chosen to suit the user group and guided by the creative team, (v) early testing with children and their support system is crucial, (vi) develop a dissemination strategy to reach the user group and (vii) engage in reflexivity through evaluation of effectiveness of messaging. The current investigation can guide the process, reasoning and practice of developing books for children that incorporate evidence about health and environmental disasters.

Livros , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Criança , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Pesquisadores , Pesquisa Translacional Biomédica
Nature ; 629(8011): 283, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714816

Cidades , Livros , Humanos
Immunol Cell Biol ; 102(5): 358-364, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700076


This paper presents interdisciplinary research exploring the development of inclusive multisensory science books, communicating immunology data for blind, low-vision and diverse-needs audiences. The research adopted an inductive theory-building approach, practice-based art methods and music and design methods, leveraging the lived experience of a legally blind artist. The research also involved designers and scientists in a cocreation process, producing books that incorporate tactile artworks, Braille-inspired protein models, image sonification and interaction. Two multisensory book titles, "The Heroes Within You: A Multisensory Exploration of Infection and Immunity" and "My Goodness: A Multisensory Exploration of Nutrition and Immunity", were developed for the Monash Sensory Science 2023 Exhibition Day. The books offer an innovative way to make science and art more accessible and engaging, addressing the limitations of traditional museum methods. Feedback from audiences has been positive, emphasizing the fascination, sensory engagement and ease of understanding. This paper highlights the potential for an interdisciplinary and inclusive approach to science and art, demonstrating the value of multisensory books as tools for science communication. The findings highlight the positive reception of this novel approach and suggest its potential for broader applications, promoting inclusivity and accessibility.

Alergia e Imunologia , Livros , Humanos , Cegueira/imunologia , Cegueira/terapia , Arte , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual
Vet Rec ; 194(9): 360, 2024 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700210


Reviewed by Matthijs Metselaar, a specialist in fish health and production.

Livros , Animais , Humanos , Medicina Veterinária , Peixes , Médicos Veterinários/psicologia , Organismos Aquáticos
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8609, 2024 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615039


With the advent of large language models, evaluating and benchmarking these systems on important AI problems has taken on newfound importance. Such benchmarking typically involves comparing the predictions of a system against human labels (or a single 'ground-truth'). However, much recent work in psychology has suggested that most tasks involving significant human judgment can have non-trivial degrees of noise. In his book, Kahneman suggests that noise may be a much more significant component of inaccuracy compared to bias, which has been studied more extensively in the AI community. This article proposes a detailed noise audit of human-labeled benchmarks in machine commonsense reasoning, an important current area of AI research. We conduct noise audits under two important experimental conditions: one in a smaller-scale but higher-quality labeling setting, and another in a larger-scale, more realistic online crowdsourced setting. Using Kahneman's framework of noise, our results consistently show non-trivial amounts of level, pattern, and system noise, even in the higher-quality setting, with comparable results in the crowdsourced setting. We find that noise can significantly influence the performance estimates that we obtain of commonsense reasoning systems, even if the 'system' is a human; in some cases, by almost 10 percent. Labeling noise also affects performance estimates of systems like ChatGPT by more than 4 percent. Our results suggest that the default practice in the AI community of assuming and using a 'single' ground-truth, even on problems requiring seemingly straightforward human judgment, may warrant empirical and methodological re-visiting.

Benchmarking , Resolução de Problemas , Humanos , Julgamento , Livros , Idioma
JMIR Hum Factors ; 11: e46698, 2024 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598276


BACKGROUND: Improving shared decision-making (SDM) for patients has become a health policy priority in many countries. Achieving high-quality SDM is particularly important for approximately 313 million surgical treatment decisions patients make globally every year. Large-scale monitoring of surgical patients' experience of SDM in real time is needed to identify the failings of SDM before surgery is performed. We developed a novel approach to automating real-time data collection using an electronic measurement system to address this. Examining usability will facilitate its optimization and wider implementation to inform interventions aimed at improving SDM. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the usability of an electronic real-time measurement system to monitor surgical patients' experience of SDM. We aimed to evaluate the metrics and indicators relevant to system effectiveness, system efficiency, and user satisfaction. METHODS: We performed a mixed methods usability evaluation using multiple participant cohorts. The measurement system was implemented in a large UK hospital to measure patients' experience of SDM electronically before surgery using 2 validated measures (CollaboRATE and SDM-Q-9). Quantitative data (collected between April 1 and December 31, 2021) provided measurement system metrics to assess system effectiveness and efficiency. We included adult patients booked for urgent and elective surgery across 7 specialties and excluded patients without the capacity to consent for medical procedures, those without access to an internet-enabled device, and those undergoing emergency or endoscopic procedures. Additional groups of service users (group 1: public members who had not engaged with the system; group 2: a subset of patients who completed the measurement system) completed user-testing sessions and semistructured interviews to assess system effectiveness and user satisfaction. We conducted quantitative data analysis using descriptive statistics and calculated the task completion rate and survey response rate (system effectiveness) as well as the task completion time, task efficiency, and relative efficiency (system efficiency). Qualitative thematic analysis identified indicators of and barriers to good usability (user satisfaction). RESULTS: A total of 2254 completed surveys were returned to the measurement system. A total of 25 service users (group 1: n=9; group 2: n=16) participated in user-testing sessions and interviews. The task completion rate was high (169/171, 98.8%) and the survey response rate was good (2254/5794, 38.9%). The median task completion time was 3 (IQR 2-13) minutes, suggesting good system efficiency and effectiveness. The qualitative findings emphasized good user satisfaction. The identified themes suggested that the measurement system is acceptable, easy to use, and easy to access. Service users identified potential barriers and solutions to acceptability and ease of access. CONCLUSIONS: A mixed methods evaluation of an electronic measurement system for automated, real-time monitoring of patients' experience of SDM showed that usability among patients was high. Future pilot work will optimize the system for wider implementation to ultimately inform intervention development to improve SDM. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.1136/bmjopen-2023-079155.

Benchmarking , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto , Humanos , Livros , Política de Saúde , Internet
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0302070, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38669247


Artistic pieces can be studied from several perspectives, one example being their reception among readers over time. In the present work, we approach this interesting topic from the standpoint of literary works, particularly assessing the task of predicting whether a book will become a best seller. Unlike previous approaches, we focused on the full content of books and considered visualization and classification tasks. We employed visualization for the preliminary exploration of the data structure and properties, involving SemAxis and linear discriminant analyses. To obtain quantitative and more objective results, we employed various classifiers. Such approaches were used along with a dataset containing (i) books published from 1895 to 1923 and consecrated as best sellers by the Publishers Weekly Bestseller Lists and (ii) literary works published in the same period but not being mentioned in that list. Our comparison of methods revealed that the best-achieved result-combining a bag-of-words representation with a logistic regression classifier-led to an average accuracy of 0.75 both for the leave-one-out and 10-fold cross-validations. Such an outcome enhances the difficulty in predicting the success of books with high accuracy, even using the full content of the texts. Nevertheless, our findings provide insights into the factors leading to the relative success of a literary work.

Livros , Livros/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Literatura/história
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 73(2): 188-196, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569148

Livros , Humanos
Dimens Crit Care Nurs ; 43(3): 169-171, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564462

Livros , Humanos
Prog Brain Res ; 284: 1-9, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609288


The chapter reviews certain topics in outline. It starts with a brief account of the nature of surgery. This is followed by a short account of modern management of cranial trauma including the evolution of notions of anatomy and pathophysiology. It is emphasized that these principles are and must be irrelevant to the management of cranial trauma in the period covered in this book from Hippocrates to the end of the 18th century. Historical errors arising from assuming modern principles applied in historical practice are mentioned. Finally, the risks inherent in accepting images without questioning their authorship and provenance is also mentioned.

Livros , Humanos
Prog Brain Res ; 284: 87-93, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609297


Unlike previous chapters, this is not about the teachings of a specific individual. Rather, it traces the slow changes in milieu and practice in the centuries following the death of Galen. They were to be profound. The Roman Empire fell in the middle of the 5th century. The Christian religion became increasingly dominant in the west, not only in spiritual matters but also in every activity related to culture and learning. The Byzantine Empire became increasingly important in the east. Islam was founded and began to spread in competition with Christianity. Academic advances develop best in stable societies so that it is not surprising that this was not a period of new ideas. Galen had gained overwhelming authority. The most valuable work on surgery to be written during these times was Book VI of Paul of Ægina's encyclopedia.

Livros , Aprendizagem , Humanos , Europa (Continente)
Prog Brain Res ; 284: 19-29, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609292


Humankind demonstrates boundless curiosity, mostly expressed through the activities of a small number of individuals, whose achievements affect all members of society. The extent and distribution of pre-historic trepanation and trepanation in contemporary unsophisticated societies are reviewed. In the great majority of cases the intention of trepanation has been therapeutic, even if the understanding of underlying pathophysiology is not the same as that which scientific societies now accept. This review demonstrates variation in surgical technique. In the Atlas Mountains it was unacceptable to operate on the cranial sutures whereas in New Ireland it was not important. Pain relief was unnecessary in Melanesia because the patients were largely unconscious following injury. In South America, there was access to the coca leaf which could help with pain relief. In East Africa, one patient described the application of a powder to his wound which was thought to be for pain relief. The nature of the powder remains unknown. There were differences in the indications for trepanation. In New Britain, the operation was performed only for cases of fracture. In nearby New Ireland, epilepsy and certain forms of mental disturbance were also indications. In North and East Africa, the indication was most frequently headache following trauma. Most of these trepanations did not involve drilling, which is the main subject of this book.

Cocaína , Crânio , Humanos , Pós , Livros , Dor
Mikrochim Acta ; 191(5): 260, 2024 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38607575


Isoniazid and streptomycin are vital drugs for treating tuberculosis, which are utilized as efficient anti-tuberculosis agents. This paper presents a novel visible-light-driven composite photocatalyst Ti3C2/Bi/BiOI, which was built from Ti3C2 nanosheets and Bi/BiOI microspheres. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensors based on Ti3C2/Bi/BiOI were synthesized for isoniazid identification, which showed a linear concentration range of 0.1-125 µM with a detection limit of 0.05 µM (S/N = 3). Moreover, we designed a PEC aptasensors based on aptamer/Ti3C2/Bi/BiOI to detect streptomycin in 0.1 M PBS covering the electron donor isoniazid, because the isoniazid consumes photogenerated holes thus increasing the photocurrent effectively and preventing photogenerated electron-hole pairs from being recombined. Furthermore, PEC aptasensors based on aptamer/Ti3C2/Bi/BiOI were synthesized for streptomycin identification, which exhibited a linear concentration range of 0.01-1000 nM with a detection limit of 2.3 × 10-3 nM (S/N = 3), and are well stable in streptomycin sensing.

Isoniazida , Estreptomicina , Microesferas , Titânio , Livros , Metais , Oligonucleotídeos
Turk Neurosurg ; 34(3): 535-541, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38650571


The aim of this article is to introduce the 19th century neurosurgery books to reveal their contributions to modern neurosurgery. Methods In this study, 29 books were accessed, and reviewed, and the resources from the late 18th century and early 20th century were included. However, neurology or general surgery books that included neurosurgical subjects or chapter were excluded unless there were revolutionary ideas in their relevant chapters. The books of this period observed to have some common differences from the books that were written in the previous century. Parallel to the concept of cerebral localization, which started to develop in this period, neurosurgery evolved from skull surgery to brain surgery. Due to the advancements in patient care, anesthesia and sterile techniques, surgical medical branches showed rapid development in the 1800s. During this period, cerebral localization concept changed the comprehension and approach in neurosurgery and opened the gate of a new era in the field of neurological surgery unlike other branches and helped to establish modern neurosurgery. 19th century surgeons became able to operate on more complex cases with more advanced techniques. Knowledge of published pioneer papers and books help understanding of emergence of neurological surgery as a separate discipline.

Neurocirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Neurocirurgia/história , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/história , Livros/história , Ocidente/história , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XX
Soc Sci Med ; 347: 116759, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38513562


Understanding the unique ways in which queer, trans, and non-monogamous young women and non-binary youth navigate and negotiate equitable intimate relationships is a first step toward strong research, programs/resources, and policies to support healthy relationship dynamics across the life course. Using a youth-engaged collaborative Reflexive Thematic Analysis, we aimed to explore how youth of diverse genders and relationship experiences understand gender equity in their relationships. Thirty cis- and transgender inclusive young women (46.7%) and non-binary youth (53.3%) aged 17-29 who were in a current (76.6%) or recent (in past 12 months, 23.4%) non-heterosexual and/or non-monogamous intimate relationship and residing in British Columbia, Canada, completed qualitative interviews between August and November 2022. Of the 30 youth, 53.3% reported having experience living as a trans person, 33.3% identified only as bisexual and 10% identified as only lesbian or gay, whereas the remaining 56.7% identified with ≥1 of: queer, pansexual, and demisexual. Participants identified that relationship equity requires: 1) Moving away from cis-heteronormative conceptualizations of gender roles and norms; 2) Actively working to dismantle hierarchal power structures by sharing power, responsibility, labour, and decision-making; and 3) Accommodating and affirming each person's unique needs and identities in a relationship. For theme one, youth further described the ways in which they re-imagined relationship norms and discussed the various challenges to resisting ingrained hierarchical cis-heteronormativity. This research contributes a greater understanding of how to create equitable and healthy relationships and has important implications for healthcare providers, educators, and policymakers working with queer, transgender, and non-monogamous youth.

Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Pessoas Transgênero , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adolescente , Colúmbia Britânica , Equidade de Gênero , Identidade de Gênero , Livros
Br J Gen Pract ; 74(741): 179-180, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38538122

Livros , Humanos
Br J Gen Pract ; 74(741): 180, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38538118

Livros , Humanos