Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 7.209
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0305899, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38954676

RESUMO

In the southeastern United States, wood ducks (Aix sponsa) have historically experienced interspecific brood parasitism (IBP) primarily from hooded mergansers (Lophodytes cucullatus), but the recent northward expansion of black-bellied whistling-ducks (Dendrocygna autumnalis) has added a new complexity to these interactions. We monitored nest boxes in Louisiana to evaluate the influence IBP had on wood duck daily nest survival rate (after, DSR) and duckling recruitment. We monitored 1,295 wood duck nests from 2020-2023 and found 112 (8.7%) were parasitized by hooded mergansers and 148 (11.5%) by whistling-ducks. Parasitic egg-laying by hooded mergansers lowered wood duck DSR, while DSR for nests parasitized by whistling-ducks was comparable to clutches containing only wood duck eggs. We considered the wood duck capture histories of 2,465 marked female ducklings and 540 banded adult females to estimate a duckling recruitment probability for the entire study period. We recaptured 50 ducklings as adults; 6 (12.0%) hatched from clutches parasitized by hooded mergansers, 1 (2.0%) from a clutch parasitized by a whistling-duck, and 43 (86.0%) from clutches containing only wood duck eggs. The duckling recruitment probability was 0.039 (95% credible interval = 0.028, 0.051). Nest initiation date had a negative effect on recruitment, wherein most recruits hatched from nests initiated earlier in the season. Given only ~9% of wood duck nests contained hooded merganser eggs, we conclude IBP writ large had no detrimental effect on DSR at a population level. The lower DSR of clutches parasitized by hooded mergansers is potentially linked to a high abundance of early-season parasites that produce "dump nests" and these clutches are often abandoned without being incubated. Despite ongoing parasitism by hooded mergansers and the range expansion of whistling-ducks, wood duck productivity in Louisiana appears to be minimally affected by interspecific brood parasitism.


Assuntos
Patos , Comportamento de Nidação , Animais , Patos/parasitologia , Comportamento de Nidação/fisiologia , Feminino , Louisiana
2.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1394678, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38855452

RESUMO

Introduction: Many decarbonization technologies have the added co-benefit of reducing short-lived climate pollutants, such as particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), creating a unique opportunity for identifying strategies that promote both climate change solutions and opportunities for air quality improvement. However, stakeholders and decision-makers may struggle to quantify how these co-benefits will impact public health for the communities most affected by industrial air pollution. Methods: To address this problem, the LOCal Air Emissions Tracking Atlas (LOCAETA) fills a data availability and analysis gap by providing estimated air quality benefits from industrial decarbonization options, such as carbon capture and storage (CCS). These co-benefits are calculated using an algorithm that connects disparate datasets that separately report greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants at U.S. industrial facilities. Results: Version 1.0 of LOCAETA displays the estimated primary PM2.5 emission reduction co-benefits from additional pretreatment equipment for CCS on industrial and power facilities across the state of Louisiana, as well as the potential for VOC and NH3 generation. The emission reductions are presented in the tool alongside facility pollutant emissions information and relevant air quality, environmental, demographic, and public health datasets, such as air toxics cancer risk, satellite and in situ pollutant measurements, and population vulnerability metrics. Discussion: LOCAETA enables regulators, policymakers, environmental justice communities, and industrial and commercial users to compare and contrast quantifiable public health benefits due to air quality impacts from various climate change mitigation strategies using a free and publicly-available tool. Additional pollutant reductions can be calculated using the same methodology and will be available in future versions of the tool.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Humanos , Louisiana , Indústrias , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Mudança Climática , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise
3.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 55(2): 355-368, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38875192

RESUMO

The Louisiana pine snake (Pituophis ruthveni) is a diurnal colubrid species native to Louisiana and eastern Texas whose free-ranging populations have been declining over at least the past 30 yr. The creation and maintenance of sustainable captive breeding programs of P. ruthveni to restore native populations has also provided ample opportunity for research into this species and for P. ruthveni to serve as a research model for other colubrid snakes. However, no investigation into prevalent causes of morbidity and mortality in captive populations of this species has been described. A research population of P. ruthveni was maintained at Louisiana State University (LSU) for over 4 yr due to unsuitability for breeding after testing positive for Cryptosporidium serpentis. Since arrival at LSU, the snakes were under close veterinary surveillance. Complete postmortem examinations were performed on 12 snakes that died or were euthanized. The aim of this study was to further understanding of common factors influencing morbidity and mortality in captive P. ruthveni infected with C. serpentis, by retrospectively reviewing postmortem exam findings from the 12 deceased members of the population at LSU. A predominant finding across individuals included bacterial infections, which were responsible for major illness or death in 37.5% of the animals. Fifty percent of snakes tested positive for Cryptosporidium sp. based on PCR performed from postmortem samples; it was directly implicated as cause of death or morbidity in 83.3% of positive cases. Although infectious disease represented the most common pathologic postmortem finding, several noninfectious disease processes were identified, including gout, goiter, and neoplasia. These findings mirror those of other retrospective investigations of reptile collections at various institutions and highlight the need for appropriate emphasis on the identification, treatment, and prevention of infectious disease as part of routine veterinary care.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Colubridae/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Animais de Zoológico
4.
Crit Care Explor ; 6(6): e1100, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38836576

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Physical functional impairment is one of three components of postintensive care syndrome (PICS) that affects up to 60% of ICU survivors. OBJECTIVES: To explore the prevalence of objective physical functional impairment among a diverse cohort of ICU survivors, both at discharge and longitudinally, and to highlight sociodemographic factors that might be associated with the presence of objective physical functional impairment. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a secondary analysis of 37 patients admitted to the ICU in New Orleans, Louisiana, and Denver, Colorado between 2016 and 2019 who survived with longitudinal follow-up data. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Our primary outcome of physical functional impairment was defined by handgrip strength and the short physical performance battery. We explored associations between functional impairment and sociodemographic factors that included race/ethnicity, sex, primary language, education status, and medical comorbidities. RESULTS: More than 75% of ICU survivors were affected by physical functional impairment at discharge and longitudinally at 3- to 6-month follow-up. We did not see a significant difference in the proportion of patients with physical functional impairment by race/ethnicity, primary language, or education status. Impairment was relatively higher in the follow-up period among women, compared with men, and those with comorbidities. Among 18 patients with scores at both time points, White patients demonstrated greater change in handgrip strength than non-White patients. Four non-White patients demonstrated diminished handgrip strength between discharge and follow-up. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this exploratory analysis, we saw that the prevalence of objective physical functional impairment among ICU survivors was high and persisted after hospital discharge. Our findings suggest a possible relationship between race/ethnicity and physical functional impairment. These exploratory findings may inform future investigations to evaluate the impact of sociodemographic factors on functional recovery.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Sobreviventes , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Fatores Sociodemográficos , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Colorado/epidemiologia , Adulto , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal
5.
Cancer Med ; 13(12): e7301, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38923853

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aim to determine the effect of region of residence (urban vs. rural) on the odds of receiving standard of care treatment for locally advanced BCa in Louisiana and its impact on survival outcomes. METHODS: Using the Louisiana Tumor Registry, we identified American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage II or III, BCa diagnoses in Louisiana residents between 2010 and 2020. Treatment received was classified as standard or non-standard of care according to American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines and location of residence was determined using Rural Urban Commuting Area-Tract-level 2010 (RUCA). Multivariable logistic regression analyses and multivariate cox proportional hazard analyses were performed. RESULTS: Of 983 eligible patients, 85.6% (841/983) lived in urban areas. Overall, only 37.5% received standard-of-care (SOC) for the definitive management of locally advanced bladder cancer. Individuals living in rural areas (OR 0.53, 95% CI: 0.31-0.91, p = 0.02) were less likely to receive standard of care treatment. Both rural residence and receipt of non-standard of care therapy were associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer-specific (adj HR 1.53, 95% CI: 1.09-2.14, p = 0.01 and adj HR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.43-2.39, <0.0001) and overall mortality (adj HR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.01-1.61, p = 0.04 and adj HR: 1.73 95% CI: 1.44-2.07, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Most patients with locally advanced bladder cancer in Louisiana do not receive SOC therapy. Individuals living in rural locations are more likely to receive non-standard of care therapy than individuals in urban areas. Nonstandard of care treatment and rural residence are both associated with worse survival outcomes for Louisiana residents with locally advanced bladder cancer.


Assuntos
População Rural , Padrão de Cuidado , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Humanos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/terapia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Idoso , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(25): 11084-11095, 2024 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38860676

RESUMO

Ethylene oxide ("EtO") is an industrially made volatile organic compound and a known human carcinogen. There are few reliable reports of ambient EtO concentrations around production and end-use facilities, however, despite major exposure concerns. We present in situ, fast (1 Hz), sensitive EtO measurements made during February 2023 across the southeastern Louisiana industrial corridor. We aggregated mobile data at 500 m spatial resolution and reported average mixing ratios for 75 km of the corridor. Mean and median aggregated values were 31.4 and 23.3 ppt, respectively, and a majority (75%) of 500 m grid cells were above 10.9 ppt, the lifetime exposure concentration corresponding to 100-in-one million excess cancer risk (1 × 10-4). A small subset (3.3%) were above 109 ppt (1000-in-one million cancer risk, 1 × 10-3); these tended to be near EtO-emitting facilities, though we observed plumes over 10 km from the nearest facilities. Many plumes were highly correlated with other measured gases, indicating potential emission sources, and a subset was measured simultaneously with a second commercial analyzer, showing good agreement. We estimated EtO for 13 census tracts, all of which were higher than EPA estimates (median difference of 21.3 ppt). Our findings provide important information about EtO concentrations and potential exposure risks in a key industrial region and advance the application of EtO analytical methods for ambient sampling and mobile monitoring for air toxics.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Óxido de Etileno , Louisiana , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise
7.
J Viral Hepat ; 31(7): 432-435, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758571

RESUMO

In the United States, modelling studies suggest a high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in incarcerated populations. However, limited HCV testing has been conducted in prisons. Through the Louisiana Hepatitis C Elimination Plan, persons incarcerated in the eight state prisons were offered HCV testing from 20 September 2019 to 14 July 2022, and facility entry/exit HCV testing was introduced. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate associations with HCV antibody (anti-HCV) positivity and viremia. Of 17,231 persons in the eight state prisons screened for anti-HCV, 95.1% were male, 66.7% were 30-57 years old, 3% were living with HIV, 68.2% were Black and 2904 (16.9%) were anti-HCV positive. HCV RNA was detected in 69.3% of anti-HCV positive individuals tested. In the multivariable model, anti-HCV positivity was associated with older age including those 30-57 (odds ratio [OR] 3.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.96-4.20) and those ≥58 (OR 10.43, 95% CI 8.66-12.55) as compared to those ≤29 years of age, living with HIV (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.36-2.07), hepatitis B (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.25-2.69) and syphilis (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.23-1.86). HCV viremia was associated with male sex (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.36-2.63) and Black race (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.20-1.68). HCV prevalence was high in the state prisons in Louisiana compared to community estimates. To the extent that Louisiana is representative, to eliminate HCV in the United States, it will be important for incarcerated persons to have access to HCV testing and treatment.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C , Hepatite C , Prisioneiros , Prisões , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Adulto , Prevalência , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisões/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Hepacivirus/genética , Adulto Jovem , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Viremia/epidemiologia , RNA Viral/sangue , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico
8.
J Environ Manage ; 360: 121093, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735069

RESUMO

Coastal Louisiana's ecosystems are threatened by anthropogenic factors exacerbated by climate change induced sea-level rise. The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in injuries and deaths to coastal birds in Louisiana, and the ongoing loss of habitat has limited the potential for successful nesting of resident birds throughout the coast. Habitat loss is being addressed through increased large-scale ecosystem restoration as a result of settlement funds from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. To further inform bird restoration in Louisiana, an avian restoration guidance document (Guidance for Coastal Ecosystem Restoration and Monitoring to Create or Improve Bird-NestingHabitat, 2023) was developed to maximize restoration benefits for coastal breeding birds while also achieving broader habitat restoration objectives. The developed restoration guidance was co-produced by subject-matter experts and professionals, including avian experts, engineers, and coastal restoration project managers. The result of this cross-disciplinary effort was specific and targeted guidance that presents designable habitat features that are in the control of project engineers and are also important high-value bird nesting habitats (e.g., shoreline access, elevation heterogeneity and edge habitat). For the first time in Louisiana, defined nest-site characteristics and monitoring approaches are readily available to inform ecosystem restoration project implementation. The restoration document specifically emphasizes bird species that breed and nest in coastal habitats in Louisiana, and restoration managers can use these guidelines to explicitly incorporate bird nesting habitat features into coastal restoration planning, design, and implementation. In developing this guidance, many knowledge gaps and data needs were identified specific to engineering and project design, enabling the research community to frame research questions around specific coastal restoration questions. The co-production of science model applied here for avian resources is applicable to a wide range of other living marine resources that may benefit from large-scale ecosystem restoration and is an example of the benefits of working relationships, communications, and common goal setting.


Assuntos
Aves , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Louisiana , Mudança Climática , Poluição por Petróleo , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos
9.
Mycologia ; 116(4): 536-557, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38727560

RESUMO

The ascomycete fungus Aspergillus flavus infects and contaminates corn, peanuts, cottonseed, and tree nuts with toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins. Subdivision between soil and host plant populations suggests that certain A. flavus strains are specialized to infect peanut, cotton, and corn despite having a broad host range. In this study, the ability of strains isolated from corn and/or soil in 11 Louisiana fields to produce conidia (field inoculum and male gamete) and sclerotia (resting bodies and female gamete) was assessed and compared with genotypic single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) differences between whole genomes. Corn strains produced upward of 47× more conidia than strains restricted to soil. Conversely, corn strains produced as much as 3000× fewer sclerotia than soil strains. Aspergillus flavus strains, typified by sclerotium diameter (small S-strains, <400 µm; large L-strains, >400 µm), belonged to separate clades. Several strains produced a mixture (M) of S and L sclerotia, and an intermediate number of conidia and sclerotia, compared with typical S-strains (minimal conidia, copious sclerotia) and L-strains (copious conidia, minimal sclerotia). They also belonged to a unique phylogenetic mixed (M) clade. Migration from soil to corn positively correlated with conidium production and negatively correlated with sclerotium production. Genetic differences correlated with differences in conidium and sclerotium production. Opposite skews in female (sclerotia) or male (conidia) gametic production by soil or corn strains, respectively, resulted in reduced effective breeding population sizes when comparing male:female gamete ratio with mating type distribution. Combining both soil and corn populations increased the effective breeding population, presumably due to contribution of male gametes from corn, which fertilize sclerotia on the soil surface. Incongruencies between aflatoxin clusters, strain morphotype designation, and whole genome phylogenies suggest a history of sexual reproduction within this Louisiana population, demonstrating the importance of conidium production, as infectious propagules and as fertilizers of the A. flavus soil population.


Assuntos
Aspergillus flavus , Doenças das Plantas , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Microbiologia do Solo , Esporos Fúngicos , Zea mays , Zea mays/microbiologia , Aspergillus flavus/genética , Aspergillus flavus/classificação , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Louisiana , Filogenia , Genótipo
10.
J Econ Entomol ; 117(3): 887-898, 2024 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567742

RESUMO

For non-native insects that are economically damaging, understanding the drivers of range expansions and contractions is important for forecasting pest pressure. The invasion of the redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), reached Louisiana, United States, in 2000, after which the northern range limits of this species have fluctuated annually. Low winter temperatures have been implicated as a major driver of this pattern, but the importance of cold temperatures-or other abiotic factors-for the persistence of this pest over large geographic scales are incompletely understood. We coupled occurrence data of P. guildinii with climatic data to investigate trends in P. guildinii presence in relation to winter temperatures and develop species distribution models, forecasting habitat suitability based on current and future climatic scenarios. Our results show that (i) some P. guildinii persisted in locations where ambient temperatures reached -12°C, (ii) overwintering temperatures drive P. guildinii range dynamics, and (iii) with intermediate projections of climatic warming, northward expansion by P. guildinii in North America is likely to be minimal. While the northern extent of P. guildinii's range may now be largely realized in North America, our results suggest that increased frequency of mild winters could reduce interannual fluctuations of P. guildinii and enable it to become a more consistent economic concern for soybean growers throughout the Midsouth region of the United States.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Heterópteros , Estações do Ano , Animais , Heterópteros/fisiologia , Distribuição Animal , Louisiana , Mudança Climática , Espécies Introduzidas
11.
AIDS Behav ; 28(6): 2034-2053, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605253

RESUMO

Ensuring adequate and equitable access to affordable HIV testing is a crucial step toward ending the HIV epidemic (EHE). Using the high-burden Baton Rouge Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) as an example, we measure spatial access to HIV testing facilities for vulnerable populations and assess whether their access would improve if eliminating a considerable barrier-costs. Locations and status (free, low-cost, and full cost) of HIV testing facilities are searched on the Internet and confirmed through a field survey. Vulnerable populations include the uninsured and people living with HIV (PLWH), disaggregated from county-level HIV prevalence data. Spatial access is computed by a normalized urban-rural two-step floating catchment area (NUR2SFCA) method. Our survey confirms that only 11% and 37% of the 103 Internet-searched HIV testing facilities are indeed free and low-cost. Making more facilities cheaper or free increases the average access of PLWH, the uninsured, and the entire population but their geographic patterns vary. Free testing facilities, clustered in Baton Rouge city, are highly accessible to 82.6%, 69.4%, and 70.2% of three population groups living in East and West Baton Rouge Parish. In comparison, making all low-cost facilities free increases access in most outlying parishes but at the cost of reducing access in East Baton Rouge Parish, leaving west Livingston, north Iberville, and east Pointe Coupee Parish with the poorest access. Making all full-cost facilities cheaper or free exhibits a similar pattern. The study has important policy implications for where and how to improve access to HIV testing for vulnerable populations.


RESUMEN: Medimos el acceso espacial a las instalaciones de pruebas de VIH para poblaciones vulnerables y evaluamos si su acceso mejoraría si se eliminaran las barreras de costos, utilizando como ejemplo el área estadística metropolitana de Baton Rouge, que tiene una alta carga. Nuestra encuesta confirma que el 11% y el 37% de los 103 centros de pruebas de VIH buscados en Internet son efectivamente gratuitos y de bajo costo. Hacer que más instalaciones sean más baratas o gratuitas aumenta el acceso promedio de las PLWH, las personas sin seguro y toda la población, pero sus patrones geográficos varían. Las instalaciones de pruebas gratuitas, agrupadas en la ciudad de Baton Rouge, son muy accesibles para el 82,6%, el 69,4% y el 70,2% de los tres grupos de población del este y oeste de Baton Rouge. En comparación, hacer que las instalaciones de bajo costo sean gratuitas aumenta el acceso en las parroquias periféricas, pero a costa de reducir el acceso en East Baton Rouge. Hacer que las instalaciones de costo total sean más baratas o gratuitas muestra un patrón similar. El estudio tiene importantes implicaciones políticas para mejorar el acceso a las pruebas del VIH para las poblaciones vulnerables.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Teste de HIV , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Populações Vulneráveis , Humanos , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Teste de HIV/estatística & dados numéricos , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Adulto , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Espacial
12.
J Dent Child (Chic) ; 91(1): 3-9, 2024 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38671573

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the current knowledge and usage of silver diammine fluoride (SDF) by general dentists in Louisiana and to identify primary barriers to the imple- mentation of SDF. Methods: A 16-item survey was emailed to 1719 Louisiana Dental Association members to identify factors influencing general dentists' usage of SDF. Results: Eighty-two surveys were completed with a response rate of 4.8 percent, with 69 identified as general dentists. Over half of the respondents were male (53.6%) and their practice experience ranged from less than one year to 48 years. The majority were solo owners (43.5%) while 7.3 percent had jobs in the corporate setting. Most agreed/strongly agreed that their knowledge of SDF was from either dental journals or online resources, while fewer stated they were taught about SDF (25%) or used SDF (8%) in dental school. The majority knew the advantages and off-label usage of SDF. However, only 40 percent recognized that SDF was officially approved for tooth hypersensitivity only. The most reported perceived barrier to SDF implementation was not learning about SDF in dental school (36%). Conclusion: There is a lack of understanding of SDF usage among Louisiana general dentists. The main reason for not incorporating SDF into their practice is the lack of training in their dental education.


Assuntos
Fluoretos Tópicos , Padrões de Prática Odontológica , Compostos de Prata , Humanos , Louisiana , Fluoretos Tópicos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Compostos de Prata/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Padrões de Prática Odontológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/uso terapêutico , Odontologia Geral , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Consultórios Odontológicos , Odontólogos/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 927: 172284, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38588743

RESUMO

Mangrove canopy height (MCH) has been described as a leading characteristic of mangrove forests, protecting coastal economic interests from hurricanes. Meanwhile, winter temperature has been considered the main factor controlling the MCH along subtropical coastlines. However, the MCH in Cedar Key, Florida (∼12 m), is significantly higher than in Port Fourchon, Louisiana (∼2.5 m), even though these two subtropical locations have similar winter temperatures. Port Fourchon has been more frequently impacted by hurricanes than Cedar Key, suggesting that hurricanes may have limited the MCH in Port Fourchon rather than simply winter temperatures. This hypothesis was evaluated using novel high-resolution remote sensing techniques that tracked the MCH changes between 2002 and 2023. Results indicate that hurricanes were the limiting factor keeping the mean MCH at Port Fourchon to <1 m (2002-2013), as the absence of hurricane impacts between 2013 and 2018 allowed the mean MCH to increase by 60 cm despite the winter freezes in Jan/2014 and Jan/2018. Hurricanes Zeta (2020) and Ida (2021) caused a decrease in the mean MCH by 20 cm, breaking branches, defoliating the canopy, and toppling trees. The mean MCH (∼1.6 m) attained before Zeta and Ida has not yet been recovered as of August 2023 (∼1.4 m), suggesting a longer-lasting impact (>4 years) of hurricanes on mangroves than winter freezes (<1 year). The high frequency of hurricanes affecting mangroves at Port Fourchon has acted as a periodic "pruning," particularly of the tallest Avicennia trees, inhibiting their natural growth rates even during quiet periods following hurricane events (e.g., 12 cm/yr, 2013-2018). By contrast, the absence of hurricanes in Cedar Key (2000-2020) has allowed the MCH to reach 12 m (44-50 cm/yr), implying that, besides the winter temperature, the frequency and intensity of hurricanes are important factors limiting the MCH on their latitudinal range limits in the Gulf of Mexico.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Áreas Alagadas , Golfo do México , Florida , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Louisiana , Estações do Ano , Rhizophoraceae
14.
Public Health Rep ; 139(1_suppl): 53S-61S, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38511560

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Louisiana Department of Health identified a need for greater outreach in low-income Black communities that addressed environmental asthma triggers. We piloted an asthma virtual home visit (VHV) program and evaluated its reach and ability to promote asthma self-management strategies in communities with a high prevalence of poorly controlled asthma. METHODS: Participants from Louisiana were continuously recruited into the VHV program starting in March 2021 and provided with asthma education materials. Participants reporting poorly controlled asthma and environmental triggers were also offered 3 VHVs with a respiratory therapist. All participants were asked to complete a preintervention and postintervention knowledge test, an Asthma Control Test (ACT) (maximum score = 25; scores ≤19 indicate poorly controlled asthma), and a final survey that assessed perceptions about asthma management and reduction of environmental triggers. RESULTS: As of October 2022, 147 participants were enrolled in the program, and 52 had consented to and received ≥1 VHV. Forty VHV recipients (77%) were aged <18 years, 40 (77%) were Black people, and 46 (88%) were from families with extremely low or low incomes. Asthma symptoms improved across all participants, with a median increase of 2.4 points on the ACT. Knowledge tests revealed that 86% of participants learned about ≥1 new asthma trigger; a larger percentage of VHV recipients than nonrecipients (68% vs 36%) had an improved knowledge test score postintervention. Compared with preintervention, about three-quarters of participants reported feeling more empowered to self-manage their asthma and a significant improvement in their quality of life postintervention. CONCLUSIONS: The program provided virtual asthma education to communities with a high burden of asthma and improved asthma outcomes for participants. Similar virtual models can be used to promote health equity, especially in areas with limited access to health care.


Assuntos
Asma , Negro ou Afro-Americano , COVID-19 , Pobreza , Telemedicina , Humanos , Asma/etnologia , Asma/prevenção & controle , Asma/terapia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Visita Domiciliar , Adolescente , SARS-CoV-2 , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Pandemias , Autogestão/métodos
15.
Am J Med Sci ; 368(1): 9-17, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Favorable neighborhood-level social determinants of health (SDoH) are associated with lower cardiovascular disease risk. Less is known about their influence on cardioprotective behaviors. We evaluated the associations between neighborhood-level SDoH and cardioprotective behaviors among church members in Louisiana. METHODS: Participants were surveyed between November 2021 to February 2022, and were asked about health behaviors, aspects of their neighborhood, and home address (to link to census tract and corresponding social deprivation index [SDI] data). Logistic regression models were used to assess the relation of neighborhood factors with the likelihood of engaging in cardioprotective behaviors: 1) a composite of healthy lifestyle behaviors [fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and a tobacco/nicotine-free lifestyle], 2) medication adherence, and 3) receipt of routine medical care within the past year. RESULTS: Participants (n = 302, mean age: 63 years, 77% female, 99% Black) were recruited from 12 churches in New Orleans. After adjusting for demographic and clinical factors, perceived neighborhood walkability or conduciveness to exercise (odds ratio [OR]=1.25; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.53), availability of fruits and vegetables (OR=1.23; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.42), and social cohesion (OR=1.55; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.97) were positively associated with the composite of healthy lifestyle behaviors. After multivariable adjustment, SDI was in the direction of association with all three cardioprotective behavior outcomes, but associations were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In this predominantly Black, church-based population, neighborhood-level SDoH including the availability of fruits and vegetables, walkability or conduciveness to exercise, and social cohesion were associated with cardioprotective behaviors. Findings reiterate the need to address adverse neighborhood-level SDoH in the design and implementation of health interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Características de Residência , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Nova Orleans , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Louisiana
16.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 38(3): 144-150, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471093

RESUMO

There is an unmet need for HIV prevention among Black cisgender women. From January to November 2020, we conducted formative research to develop locally informed implementation strategies to enhance pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) uptake among Black cisgender women in New Orleans, Louisiana. Following an iterative process, we conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs) with Black women who were not taking PrEP and used those findings to inform IDIs with Black women taking PrEP. We asked about PrEP awareness, social support, PrEP-related norms, medical mistrust, motivation to take PrEP, and potential implementation strategies. Data were analyzed using applied thematic analysis. We established the Black Women and PrEP (BWAP) Task Force-a diverse group of 25 Black female community representatives who reviewed the IDI findings and identified strategies to address these determinants of PrEP uptake. We interviewed 12 Black women who were not taking PrEP and 13 Black women who were taking PrEP. Two main PrEP uptake barriers were identified from the IDI findings and Task Force discussions. First, Black women do not know of other Black women taking PrEP. Women perceived PrEP as a drug for gay men. Most said that testimonials from Black women taking PrEP would make its use more relatable. Second, Black women are not frequently offered PrEP by their providers. Many preferred accessing PrEP through women's health providers. The Task Force identified two strategies to address these barriers: a social media campaign for women and an educational initiative to train providers to discuss and prescribe PrEP. These implementation strategies require further study.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Nova Orleans , Confiança , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Louisiana
18.
J Emerg Manag ; 22(1): 33-44, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38533698

RESUMO

Hurricane Laura began as a disorganized tropical depression in August 2020. Early forecast guidance showed that the tropical cyclone could either completely dissipate or strengthen to a major hurricane as it approached the United States Gulf Coast. While this uncertainty was known by meteorologists, it was not necessarily communicated to the public in a direct manner. As it turned out, the worst-case scenario was the correct one. The tropical depression rapidly intensified and made landfall near Cameron, Louisiana, with sustained winds of 150 mph, making Laura a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale. Laura's rapid intensification caught some people off guard. Ideally, weather forecasts would have begun warning Louisiana residents to prepare for the possibility of a devastating hurricane in the early stages of tropical cyclone development. No one is suggesting that meteorologists did anything wrong. However, with the benefit of hindsight and decades of scholarly research in risk communication, we can speculate how an ideal forecast would have been written. This paper demonstrates that there are some simple considerations that could be made that might better alert the public to future hurricane worst-case scenarios, even in uncertain situations.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Louisiana , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Vento
19.
Phytopathology ; 114(5): 1039-1049, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38514043

RESUMO

Aerial blight, caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG) 1-IA, is an economically important soybean disease in the mid-Southern United States. Management has relied on fungicide applications during the season, but there is an increasing prevalence of resistance to commonly used strobilurin fungicides and an urgent need to identify soybean varieties resistant to aerial blight. Because the patchy distribution of the pathogen complicates field variety screening, the present study aimed to develop a greenhouse screening protocol to identify soybean varieties resistant to aerial blight. For this, 88 pathogen isolates were collected from commercial fields and research farms across five Louisiana parishes, and 77% were confirmed to be R. solani AG1-IA. Three polymorphic codominant microsatellite markers were used to explore the genetic diversity of 43 R. solani AG1-IA isolates, which showed high genetic diversity, with 35 haplotypes in total and only two haplotypes common to two other locations. Six genetically diverse isolates were chosen and characterized for their virulence and fungicide sensitivity. The isolate AC2 was identified as the most virulent and was resistant to both active ingredients, azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin, tested. The six isolates were used in greenhouse variety screening trials using a millet inoculation protocol. Of the 31 varieties screened, only Armor 48-D25 was classified as moderately resistant, and plant height to the first node influenced final disease severity. The study provides short-term solutions for growers to choose less susceptible varieties for planting and lays the foundation to characterize host resistance against this important soybean pathogen.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Glycine max , Doenças das Plantas , Rhizoctonia , Rhizoctonia/fisiologia , Rhizoctonia/genética , Rhizoctonia/efeitos dos fármacos , Rhizoctonia/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Glycine max/microbiologia , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Estrobilurinas/farmacologia , Metacrilatos/farmacologia , Variação Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Virulência/genética , Louisiana , Pirimidinas
20.
Accid Anal Prev ; 199: 107503, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368777

RESUMO

In the U.S., the interstate highway system is categorized as a controlled-access or limited-access route, and it is unlawful for pedestrians to enter or cross this type of highway. However, pedestrian-vehicle crashes on the interstate highway system pose a distinctive safety concern. Most of these crashes involve 'unintended pedestrians', drivers who come out of their disabled vehicles, or due to the involvement in previous crashes on the interstate. Because these are not 'typical pedestrians', a separate investigation is required to better understand the pedestrian crash problem on interstate highways and identify the high-risk scenarios. This study explored 531 KABC (K = Fatal, A = Severe, B = Moderate, C = Complaint) pedestrian injury crashes on Louisiana interstate highways during the 2014-2018 period. Pedestrian injury severity was categorized into two levels: FS (fatal/severe) and IN (moderate/complaint). The random parameter binary logit with heterogeneity in means (RPBL-HM) model was utilized to address the unobserved heterogeneity (i.e., variations in the effect of crash contributing factors across the sample population) in the crash data. Some of the factors were found to increase the likelihood of pedestrian's FS injury in crashes on interstate highways, including pedestrian impairment, pedestrian action, weekend, driver aged 35-44 years, and spring season. The interaction of 'pedestrian impairment' and 'weekend' was found significant, suggesting that alcohol-involved pedestrians were more likely to be involved in FS crashes during weekends on the interstate. The obtained results can help the 'unintended pedestrians' about the crash scenarios on the interstate and reduce these unexpected incidents.


Assuntos
Pedestres , Ferimentos e Lesões , Humanos , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Modelos Logísticos , População Rural , Louisiana , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...