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1.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804083

RESUMO

Alkaloids of the Lycopodiaceae family are of great interest to researchers due to their numerous properties and wide applications in medicine. They play a very important role mainly due to their potent antioxidant, antidepressant effects and a reversible ability to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme activity. This property is of immense importance due to the growing problem of an increasing number of patients with neurodegenerative diseases in developed countries and a lack of effective and efficient treatment for them. Numerous studies have shown that Lycopodiaceae alkaloids are a rich source of AChE inhibitors. In the obtaining of new therapeutic phytochemicals from plant material, the extraction process and its efficiency is crucial. Therefore, the aim of this work was to optimize the conditions of modern PLE to obtain bioactive alkaloids from two Lycopodium species: L. clavatum L. and L. annotinum L. Five different solvents of different polarity were used for prepared plant extracts in order to compare the alkaloid content in and thereby effectiveness of the entire extraction. PLE parameters were used based on multiple studies conducted that gave the highest alkaloids recovery. Crude extracts were purified using solid-phase extraction (SPE) on Oasis HLB cartridge and examined by HPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS of the highly abundant alkaloids. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time such high recoveries have been obtained for known Lycopodiaceae alkaloids. The best extraction results of alkaloid-lycopodine were detected in the dichloromethane extract from L. clavatum, where the yield exceeded 45%. The high recovery of annotinine above 40% presented in L. annotinum was noticed in dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts. Moreover, chromatograms were obtained with all isolated alkaloids and the best separation and quality of the bands in methanolic extracts. Interestingly, no alkaloid amounts were detected in cyclohexane extracts belonging to the non-polar solvent. These results could be helpful for understanding and optimizing the best conditions for isolating potent AChE inhibitors.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/química , Lycopodiaceae/química , Lycopodium/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Acetilcolinesterase/química , Antioxidantes/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos
2.
J Nat Prod ; 83(10): 2831-2843, 2020 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941036

RESUMO

Eighteen new Lycopodium alkaloids, lycosquarrines A-R (1-18), and eight known alkaloids were isolated from the aerial parts of Phlegmariurus squarrosus. Compounds 1-5 and 19, identified from natural sources for the first time, are uncommon lycopodine-type alkaloids with ß-oriented H-4. Pentacyclic 4 and 5 represent the first examples of 5,12- and 5,11-epoxy Lycopodium alkaloids, respectively, and an epoxide-opening cyclization reaction is suggested to be a key step in their biosynthesis. Compound 18 possesses the same carbon skeleton as carinatine A (22), which was previously reported as a unique Lycopodium alkaloid with a 5/6/6/6 ring system. X-ray crystallographic data analysis was used to determine the absolute configuration of 18, leading to the establishment of the absolute configuration of 22 by comparison of the ECD spectra. An anti-acetylcholinesterase activity assay showed that 11 and 20 exhibited inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 4.2 and 2.1 µM, respectively.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/química , Lycopodiaceae/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase , Lycopodium/química
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 132, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: NADP-malic enzyme (NAPD-ME), and pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) are important enzymes that participate in C4 photosynthesis. However, the evolutionary history and forces driving evolution of these genes in C4 plants are not completely understood. RESULTS: We identified 162 NADP-ME and 35 PPDK genes in 25 species and constructed respective phylogenetic trees. We classified NADP-ME genes into four branches, A1, A2, B1 and B2, whereas PPDK was classified into two branches in which monocots were in branch I and dicots were in branch II. Analyses of selective pressure on the NAPD-ME and PPDK gene families identified four positively selected sites, including 94H and 196H in the a5 branch of NADP-ME, and 95A and 559E in the e branch of PPDK at posterior probability thresholds of 95%. The positively selected sites were located in the helix and sheet regions. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses revealed that expression levels of 6 NADP-ME and 2 PPDK genes from foxtail millet were up-regulated after exposure to light. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that positively selected sites of NADP-ME and PPDK evolution in C4 plants. It provides information on the classification and positive selection of plant NADP-ME and PPDK genes, and the results should be useful in further research on the evolutionary history of C4 plants.


Assuntos
Malato Desidrogenase/genética , Filogenia , Plantas/genética , Piruvato Ortofosfato Diquinase/genética , Evolução Biológica , Briófitas/genética , Briófitas/metabolismo , Clorófitas/genética , Clorófitas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Lycopodiaceae/genética , Lycopodiaceae/metabolismo , Magnoliopsida/genética , Magnoliopsida/metabolismo , Malato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Piruvato Ortofosfato Diquinase/metabolismo
4.
J Plant Res ; 133(3): 291-296, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002717

RESUMO

The independent origin of roots in lycophytes and euphyllophytes has been proposed, mainly based on paleobotanical records. However, the question of how roots evolved within these lineages remains unresolved. Root apical meristem (RAM) organization in lycophytes would provide a clue toward understanding the early evolution of roots. Recently, we examined RAM organization in lycophytes (Lycopodiaceae, Isoetaceae, and Selaginellaceae) in terms of cell division activity and anatomy, comparing RAM among vascular plants. Lycophyte RAM exhibited four organization types (I, II, III, and apical); thus, RAM organization in extant lycophytes was more diverse than expected. Type I RAM contained a region with very low cell division frequency, reminiscent of the quiescent center (QC) in seed plant RAM. Although some euphyllophyte RAMs were structurally similar to types II and III and apical cell-type RAM, lycophyte RAM of types II and III had no QC-like area. These results support the paleobotanical predictions that roots evolved several times in lycophytes, as well as in euphyllophytes. In this review, we also introduce recent findings on RAM organization in extant lycophytes and discuss the origin of roots in vascular plants.


Assuntos
Lycopodiaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meristema/citologia , Raízes de Plantas/citologia , Evolução Biológica , Divisão Celular , Lycopodiaceae/citologia
5.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(5): 2661-2675, 2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915815

RESUMO

The occurrence of group II introns in plant mitochondrial genomes is strikingly different between the six major land plant clades, contrasting their highly conserved counterparts in chloroplast DNA. Their present distribution likely reflects numerous ancient intron gains and losses during early plant evolution before the emergence of seed plants. As a novelty for plant organelles, we here report on five cases of twintrons, introns-within-introns, in the mitogenomes of lycophytes and hornworts. An internal group II intron interrupts an intron-borne maturase of an atp9 intron in Lycopodiaceae, whose splicing precedes splicing of the external intron. An invasive, hypermobile group II intron in cox1, has conquered nine further locations including a previously overlooked sdh3 intron and, most surprisingly, also itself. In those cases, splicing of the external introns does not depend on splicing of the internal introns. Similar cases are identified in the mtDNAs of hornworts. Although disrupting a group I intron-encoded protein in one case, we could not detect splicing of the internal group II intron in this 'mixed' group I/II twintron. We suggest the name 'zombie' twintrons (half-dead, half-alive) for such cases where splicing of external introns does not depend any more on prior splicing of fossilized internal introns.


Assuntos
Íntrons/genética , Lycopodiaceae/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Sequência de Bases , Sequência Conservada/genética , Evolução Molecular , Hepatófitas/genética , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Filogenia , Terminologia como Assunto
6.
J Nat Prod ; 83(2): 216-222, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994397

RESUMO

Palhinosides A-H (1-8), new flavone glucosidic truxinate esters, including ß-truxinate and µ-truxinate forms, were isolated from Palhinhaea cernua. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods and chemical analyses. The flavone glucoside cyclodimers possess a unique cyclobutane ring in their carbon scaffolds. Compounds 2-7 represent three pairs of stereoisomers (2/3, 4/5, 6/7). The protective effects of 1-8 against the damage of HT-22 cells induced by l-glutamate were evaluated, and compounds 4 and 5 showed better neuroprotective effects than the positive control, Trolox.


Assuntos
Flavonas/isolamento & purificação , Lycopodiaceae/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Ésteres , Flavonas/química , Glucosídeos , Estrutura Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Triterpenos/química
7.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(9): 1270-1275, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30856017

RESUMO

12α-hydroxy-N-demethyl-sauroxine (1), another new Lycopodium alkaloid from the Lycodane group, was isolated from Phlegmariurus saururus (Lam.) B. Øllg. (Lycopodiaceae). Elucidation of the chemical structure and relative stereochemistry were stated by spectroscopic data and chemical correlation. In addition, the inhibitory activity on acetylcholinesterase for 1 was determined as well as for N-methyllycodine (2), a derivative with the same nucleus, previously identified in P. saururus (IC50 = 33.8 ± 0.8 µM and 547.5 ± 0.5 µM, respectively) and N-demethylsauroxine (3) whose inhibition in the actual conditions was better than the previously informed.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Lycopodiaceae/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Estereoisomerismo
8.
Curr Drug Discov Technol ; 17(3): 397-411, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's Disease (AD) has become the most common age-dependent disease of dementia. The trademark pathologies of AD are the presence of amyloid aggregates in neurofibrils. Recently phytochemicals being considered as potential inhibitors against various neurodegenerative, antifungal, antibacterial and antiviral diseases in human beings. OBJECTIVE: This study targets the inhibition of BACE-1 by phytochemicals using in silico drug discovery analysis. METHODS: A total of 3150 phytochemicals were collected from almost 25 different plants through literature assessment. The ADMET studies, molecular docking and density functional theory (DFT) based analysis were performed to analyze the potential inhibitory properties of these phytochemicals. RESULTS: The ADMET and docking results exposed seven compounds that have high potential as an inhibitory agent against BACE-1 and show binding affinity >8.0 kcal/mol against BACE-1. They show binding affinity greater than those of various previously reported inhibitors of BACE-1. Furthermore, DFT based analysis has shown high reactivity for these seven phytochemicals in the binding pocket of BACE- 1, based on ELUMO, EHOMO and Kohn-Sham energy gap. All seven phytochemicals were testified (as compared to experimental ones) as novel inhibitors against BACE-1. CONCLUSION: Out of seven phytochemicals, four were obtained from plant Glycyrrhiza glabra i.e. Shinflavanone, Glabrolide, Glabrol and PrenyllicoflavoneA, one from Huperzia serrate i.e. Macleanine, one from Uncaria rhynchophylla i.e. 3a-dihydro-cadambine and another one was from VolvalerelactoneB from plant Valeriana-officinalis. It is concluded that these phytochemicals are suitable candidates for drug/inhibitor against BACE-1, and can be administered to humans after experimental validation through in vitro and in vivo trials.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/antagonistas & inibidores , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/antagonistas & inibidores , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Fitoterapia/métodos , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/metabolismo , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/ultraestrutura , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/ultraestrutura , Sítios de Ligação/efeitos dos fármacos , Glycyrrhiza/química , Humanos , Lycopodiaceae/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Valeriana/química
9.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(1): 489-495, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659691

RESUMO

Highly prized huperzine A (Hup A), a natural alkaloid formerly isolated from the Chinese medicinal plant Huperzia serrata, has been widely used for the treatment of Alzheimer disease, inspiring us to search for endophytic fungi that produce this compound. In this study, we obtained the C17 fungus isolate from the Mexican club moss Phlegmariurus taxifolius, which produced a yield of 3.2 µg/g Hup A in mycelial dry weight, when cultured in potato dextrose broth medium. The C17 isolate was identified as belonging to the genus Fusarium with reference to the colony´s morphological characteristics and the presence of macroconidia and microconidia structures; and this was confirmed by DNA-barcoding analysis, by amplifying and sequencing the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (rITS).


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Endófitos/química , Fusarium/química , Lycopodiaceae/microbiologia , Sesquiterpenos , Alcaloides/análise , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores da Colinesterase/análise , Inibidores da Colinesterase/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores da Colinesterase/metabolismo , DNA Fúngico/genética , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Fusarium/classificação , Fusarium/genética , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Sesquiterpenos/química , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação
10.
Fitoterapia ; 139: 104378, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676395

RESUMO

Five previously undescribed lycodine-type alkaloids, named huperzine Y (1), 8,15-epoxy-N-demethylhuperzinine (2), 7-hydroxyl-huperzinine (3), huperzine Z (4), and huperzine D N-oxide (5), were isolated from the aerial parts and roots of Lycopodiastrum casuarinoides (Lycopodiaceae), along with ten known analogues. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by means of spectroscopic technique (IR, UV, MS and NMR). The absolute configurations of the new compounds were established on the basis of comparison of their experimental and TD-DFT (time-dependent density functional theory) calculated ECD spectra. Moreover, all the isolates were evaluated for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity. Only huperzine C showed moderate activity, with an IC50 value of 0.525 ±â€¯0.140 µM, which was comparable with the positive control, huperzine A (IC50 = 0.143 ±â€¯0.029 µM).


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/farmacologia , Lycopodiaceae/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , China , Inibidores da Colinesterase/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química
11.
Genome Biol Evol ; 11(11): 3181-3193, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633753

RESUMO

Transposable elements represent the largest components of many eukaryotic genomes and different genomes harbor different combinations of elements. Here, we discovered a novel DNA transposon in the genome of the clubmoss Selaginella lepidophylla. Further searching for related sequences to the conserved DDE region uncovered the presence of this superfamily of elements in fish, coral, sea anemone, and other animal species. However, this element appears restricted to Bryophytes and Lycophytes in plants. This transposon, named GingerRoot, is associated with a 6 bp (base pair) target site duplication, and 100-150 bp terminal inverted repeats. Analysis of transposase sequences identified the DDE motif, a catalytic domain, which shows similarity to the integrase of Gypsy-like long terminal repeat retrotransposons, the most abundant component in plant genomes. A total of 77 intact and several hundred truncated copies of GingerRoot elements were identified in S. lepidophylla. Like Gypsy retrotransposons, GingerRoots show a lack of insertion preference near genes, which contrasts to the compact genome size of about 100 Mb. Nevertheless, a considerable portion of GingerRoot elements was found to carry gene fragments, suggesting the capacity of duplicating gene sequences is unlikely attributed to the proximity to genes. Elements carrying gene fragments appear to be less methylated, more diverged, and more distal to genes than those without gene fragments, indicating they are preferentially retained in gene-poor regions. This study has identified a broadly dispersed, novel DNA transposon, and the first plant DNA transposon with an integrase-related transposase, suggesting the possibility of de novo formation of Gypsy-like elements in plants.


Assuntos
Briófitas/genética , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Evolução Molecular , Lycopodiaceae/genética , Transposases/genética , Animais , Integrases , Filogenia , Plantas
12.
Fitoterapia ; 139: 104366, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629868

RESUMO

Phytochemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of Lycopodiastrum casuarinoides (Spring) Holub (Lycopodiaceae) led to the isolation of nine compounds, including two new serratene triterpenoids, serrat-14-en-3α,21α-diol (1), 26-nor-8-oxo-21-one-α-onocerin (6), one new abietane diterpenoid, lycocasuarinone A (7), one new sesquiterpene acid, 7, 9-diene-1,4-epoxy-2-hydroxy-10-carboxylic acid (8) and one new chromone derivative, 5,7-dihydroxy-2-methyl esterchromone (9), together with four known serratene triterpenoids (2-5). Abietane diterpenoid (7) and sesquiterpene acid (8) from Lycopodiastrum casuarinoides are reported for the first time. Their structures and stereochemistry were unambiguously elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with known ones. All the compounds were tested for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrocholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitory activities. Bioactivity assays revealed that compound 6 exhibited the most potent AChE inhibitory effect.


Assuntos
Abietanos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Lycopodiaceae/química , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Abietanos/isolamento & purificação , China , Inibidores da Colinesterase/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
13.
J Plant Res ; 132(6): 719-721, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595362

RESUMO

The past quarter-century has witnessed a revolution in our understanding of the phylogenetics, systematics, and ecology of pteridophytes (ferns and lycophytes), particularly due to the rapid accumulation of plastid sequence data and a renewed interest in the ecology of the sexual phase of the life cycle. We here compile 19 papers recently published in the Journal of Plant Research dealing with the biology of pteridophytes, grouped into six categories: (1) breeding systems, (2) species complexes and polyploidization, (3) fossil taxa, (4) gametophyte ecology, (5) systematics, (6) biodiversity. We hope this collection of papers will be of value to researchers interested in this fascinating group of plants.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Gleiquênias/fisiologia , Traços de História de Vida , Lycopodiaceae/fisiologia , Selaginellaceae/fisiologia , Evolução Molecular , Gleiquênias/classificação , Gleiquênias/genética , Lycopodiaceae/classificação , Lycopodiaceae/genética , Selaginellaceae/classificação , Selaginellaceae/genética
14.
J Plant Res ; 132(6): 723-738, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529289

RESUMO

The fern and lycophyte flora of Japan comprising 721 native taxa (including subspecies and varieties) plus 371 interspecific hybrids was reassessed using a nearly comprehensively sampled distribution map at 10 km resolution vouchered by 216,687 specimens, up-to-date cytotaxonomic information covering 74% of the taxa, and an rbcL sequence dataset covering 97.9% of the taxa. Spatial distribution of species richness and phylogenetic diversity was visualized. Apomixis was observed in 11.0% of the native taxa whose reproductive modes are known. The number of sexually reproducing polyploid taxa (n = 199) is less than sexual diploids (n = 241), and 30 of them are evidently allopolyploid, in contrast with the low number of possible autopolyploids (n = 4). Apomictic taxa were found to have smaller latitudinal ranges than sexual taxa or taxa with multiple reproductive modes. A morphological character dataset in Lucid format is provided for taxonomic identification of the native taxa.


Assuntos
Gleiquênias/fisiologia , Lycopodiaceae/fisiologia , Selaginellaceae/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , DNA de Plantas , Evolução Molecular , Gleiquênias/classificação , Gleiquênias/genética , Japão , Lycopodiaceae/classificação , Lycopodiaceae/genética , Selaginellaceae/classificação , Selaginellaceae/genética
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 495-504, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001457

RESUMO

Abstract Forest edges typically exhibit higher luminosity and lower humidity than the forest interior, resulting in an abiotic gradient. However, the degree of abiotic difference can be affected from the type of the matrix, influencing the selection of species. We compared the floristic and phytosociological structure of understory communities of ferns and lycophytes of the edge and interior of three forest sites influenced by different types of surrounding matrices (natural field, Pinus plantation, and cultivation of crops). In the region of Araucaria Forest, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, twelve 10 × 10 m plots were selected at the edge and interior of each site, totaling 72 plots and to evaluate the phytosociological contrast, using as a parameter coverage and species richness per plot to evaluate this contrast. We recorded a total of 38 species in the studied areas, distributed in 15 families. The results show that the edge effect acts at different intensities in the analyzed sites. In the site with unnatural matrix, the composition was more homogeneous both in the edges and in the interiors and presented lower richness, showing a more pronounced and deep impact. Already in the site with natural matrix surroundings, although the border also presents low richness, the interior was about 3x richer. Based on our results, we concluded that fern conservation efforts should focus on fragments of Araucaria Forest inserted in the natural field, because the conversion of natural field into Pinus planting and cultivation of crops decreases ferns species both in the edges and forest interiors of the studied fragments, besides altering the phytosociological structure leading the communities to simplification.


Resumo Bordas florestais tipicamente exibem maior luminosidade e menor umidade que o interior florestal, resultando em um gradiente abiótico. Entretanto, o grau de diferença abiótica pode ser afetado a partir do tipo da matriz, influenciando a seleção de espécies. Comparamos a composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica das comunidades de samambaias e licófitas na borda e interior de três sítios influenciados por diferentes matrizes (campo natural, plantio de Pinus e cultivo de olerícolas). Na região de Floresta com Araucária no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, foram sorteadas doze parcelas de 10 × 10 m na borda e no interior de cada sítio, totalizando 72 parcelas para avaliar o contraste fitossociológico, utilizando como parâmetro cobertura e riqueza das espécies por parcela para avaliar esse contraste. Registramos um total de 38 espécies nas áreas estudadas, distribuídas em 15 famílias. Os resultados mostraram que o efeito de borda atua em intensidades distintas nos sítios analisados. Nos sítios com matriz antropizada, a composição foi mais homogênea tanto nas bordas, quanto nos interiores e apresentou menor riqueza, demonstrando impacto mais pronunciado e profundo. Já no sítio com matriz de entorno natural, apesar da borda também apresentar baixa riqueza, o interior foi cerca de 3x mais rico. Sugerimos que os esforços de conservação de samambaias e licófitas em fragmentos com araucária, devem se concentrar em sítios inseridos em campo natural, pois, a conversão destes em plantio de Pinus e cultivo de olerícolas, diminui a diversidade dessas plantas, tanto nas bordas quanto nos interiores da floresta, além de alterar a estrutura fitossociológica levando as comunidades à simplificação.


Assuntos
Florestas , Gleiquênias , Lycopodiaceae , Biota , Brasil
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 245: 112130, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376517

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The most speciose subfamily Huperzioideae (Lycopodiaceae, Lycopodiophyta) contains about 276 species, and some (ca. 20 species) have traditionally been used for the treatment of e.g., dementia, rheumatism and traumatic injury. Ethnopharmacological studies have also contributed to the development of huperzine A as a drug lead, a compound first isolated from the club moss Huperzia serrata (Thunb. ex Murray) Trevis. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review, with a phylogenetic and chemosystematic perspective, intends to highlight plant identification challenges in these taxa with examples from club moss phytochemical and ethnopharmacological studies, as these lead to data inconsistency and confusion. We suggest that future studies should include more details on plant identification including for example plant specimen images and DNA barcoding data. An integrative approach combining DNA barcoding and chemical fingerprinting is also introduced. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Literature concerning ethnopharmacology and chemosystematics of Huperzioideae club mosses was searched from databases, e.g. PubMed, Web of Science, SciFinder, etc. Plant names were retrieved from original publications, and compared with up-to-date taxonomic and phylogenetic status. Ethnobotanical uses and herbal preparations were summarized. Production of certain pharmaceutically interesting compounds, such as the alkaloid huperzine A, was explored in a phylogenetic context. RESULTS: Most traditionally used club mosses are associated with psychoactivity, followed by medicinal uses against rheumatism and traumatic injury. Herbs are often prepared as infusions, decoctions or tinctures, and this implies importance of water- or aqueous-alcohol-soluble substances, such as alkaloids. Most ethnopharmacological papers on club mosses need to update or correct plant names according to recent taxonomic nomenclature, and there are still a number of unidentified species with traditional use. Advanced LC-MS chemical profiling techniques, enable distinction of genotypes of the same species as well as annotation of potential chemotaxonomic markers. In combination with DNA barcoding, chemosystematics could also help us select plant taxa with higher pharmaceutical potential. Caution should be taken when interpreting bioassay results, in terms of compounds or extract preparation and bioassay standardization. CONCLUSION: Huperzioideae club mosses have interesting pharmaceutical potential supported by ethnopharmacological investigations. Bioprospecting of these plants should be preceded by careful plant identification to produce consistent and reproducible data. We expect that DNA barcoding and LC-MS-based chemical fingerprinting could facilitate and improve ethnopharmaceutical studies in selection of club moss taxa.


Assuntos
Lycopodiaceae , Etnofarmacologia , Lycopodiaceae/química , Lycopodiaceae/genética , Filogenia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise
17.
Plant Physiol ; 181(2): 565-577, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358684

RESUMO

Fungi and plants have engaged in intimate symbioses that are globally widespread and have driven terrestrial biogeochemical processes since plant terrestrialization >500 million years ago. Recently, hitherto unknown nutritional mutualisms involving ancient lineages of fungi and nonvascular plants have been discovered, although their extent and functional significance in vascular plants remain uncertain. Here, we provide evidence of carbon-for-nitrogen exchange between an early-diverging vascular plant (Lycopodiella inundata) and Mucoromycotina (Endogonales) fine root endophyte fungi. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the same fungal symbionts colonize neighboring nonvascular and flowering plants. These findings fundamentally change our understanding of the physiology, interrelationships, and ecology of underground plant-fungal symbioses in modern terrestrial ecosystems by revealing the nutritional role of Mucoromycotina fungal symbionts in vascular plants.


Assuntos
Endófitos/fisiologia , Lycopodiaceae/microbiologia , Endófitos/ultraestrutura , Isótopos , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Simbiose
18.
Fitoterapia ; 136: 104181, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145984

RESUMO

The plants of Lycopodiaceae family, distributed across China, India and also Southeast Asia, have been used as folk medicines. The phytochemical constitutent studies of this family was widely reported. Serratene trierpenoids is one of phytochemical constitutent type, which have been mainly isolated from this plant family. To date, more than 100 serratene-type triterpenoids have been reported and several of them have been shown promising biological activities, especially cytotoxicity and chemopreventive activity. This review covers the structural classification, biological activities and hypotheses about biosynthetic pathways of serratene-type triterpenes.


Assuntos
Lycopodiaceae/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Triterpenos/química
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20.
Fitoterapia ; 134: 474-480, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923010

RESUMO

Lycocasuarines I-Q (1-9), nine new lycodine-type Lycopodium alkaloids were isolated from the aerial parts of Lycopodiastrum casuarinoides (Spring) Holub ex R.D.Dixit. Their structures were unambiguously determined via extensive spectroscopic analyses, including HRESIMS, NMR, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD). The new alkaloids were evaluated for their in vitro inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Compounds 3, 5-8 exhibited marginal or weak activities with IC50 values ranging from 97.2 to 171.9 µM.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Lycopodiaceae/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , China , Inibidores da Colinesterase/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química
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