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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10884, 2024 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740864

RESUMO

Maladaptive personality traits, such as 'dark personalities' are found to result in a diverse set of negative outcomes, including paraphilic interests and associated (illegal) behaviors. It is however unclear how these are exactly related, and if related, if then only those individuals higher on dark personality traits and higher impulsivity engage in paraphilic behaviors. In the current study, 50 participants were recruited to investigate the relationship between Dark Tetrad personality traits (i.e., narcissism, psychopathy, Machiavellianism and everyday sadism), paraphilic interests (arousal and behavior) and the moderating role of impulsivity. Personality and paraphilic interests were investigated through self-report questionnaires. Impulsivity was measured both through self-reported dysfunctional impulsivity and the P3 event related potential using electroencephalography during the Go/No-Go task (i.e. response inhibition). The results showed that there was a positive association between psychopathy, sadism and paraphilic interests. Whereas everyday sadism was associated with paraphilic (self-reported) arousal, psychopathy was associated with paraphilic behavior. Although P3 amplitude was not associated with paraphilic interests, self-reported dysfunctional impulsivity was associated with paraphilic behavior specifically. However, there was no moderating role of dysfunctional impulsivity and response inhibition (P3) in the relationship between psychopathy and paraphilic behavior. Findings indicate that the relation between specific dark personalities and paraphilic interests may be more complex than initially thought. Nevertheless, risk assessment and intervention approaches for paraphilia and related behavior both may benefit from incorporating Dark Tetrad and impulsivity measurements.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Eletroencefalografia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Maquiavelismo , Narcisismo , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem , Sadismo/psicologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Transtornos Parafílicos/psicologia , Transtornos Parafílicos/fisiopatologia , Autorrelato
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11507, 2024 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769333

RESUMO

Research into relationships between victim-generated content, abuse received, and observer characteristics when considering Twitter abuse has been limited to male victims. We evaluated participant perceptions of female celebrity victims and abuse received on Twitter. We used a 3 (Initial Tweet Valence; negative, neutral, positive) × 2 (Abuse Volume; low, high) repeated measures design and online survey method. Participants were shown tweets generated by six female celebrities, counterbalanced such that each participant saw each celebrity in one Valence-Volume condition. Stimuli were presented across six 'lists' such that celebrity 'victims' could be rotated across Valence-Volume pairings. Participants rated-per target stimulus-the level of blame attributable to the victim and the perceived severity of the incident. Furthermore, participants were asked to complete a Dark Tetrad scale-measuring their Machiavellianism, Narcissism, Psychopathy, and Sadism. Analyses determined that victim-blaming was influenced by victim Initial Tweet Valence (greater victim-blaming associated with more-negative content) and observer Machiavellianism. Perceived severity was influenced by victim Initial Tweet Valence, Volume of Abuse received, and observer Machiavellianism. Results were consistent with previous research involving male celebrity victims. Further research is needed to understand the contributions of participants' hostile and benevolent sexism, as well as the role of victim attractiveness.


Assuntos
Pessoas Famosas , Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Masculino , Maquiavelismo , Adulto Jovem , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Narcisismo , Percepção Social/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9905, 2024 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38688968

RESUMO

This study aimed to develop the Global Assessment of Active Trolling and Passive Bystanderism (GAATPB) scale and investigate the influence of personality traits on trolling behaviors. Focusing on the Dark Tetrad (DT) traits and agreeableness, the present study examined their associations and predictive utility on active trolling and passive bystanderism. Participants were recruited from social networking sites (SNSs), and eligibility criteria included active SNS usage and engagement in online interactions. A total of 797 healthy adult students participated in the study, with data from 300 used for the initial exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and the remaining 497 (Mage = 22.25 years, SD = 3.37) for the subsequent analyses. Results indicated a significant correlation between DT traits and agreeableness across both active trolling and passive bystanderism, revealing a shared personality profile. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that narcissism, Machiavellianism, and trait sadism were predictors of active trolling, with psychopathy being the strongest predictor. However, psychopathy did not emerge as a predictor for passive bystanderism. The study also highlighted that DT traits mediated the relationship between lower agreeableness and overall trolling behavior, suggesting that trolling manifests from lower agreeableness through the instigation of callous-unemotional, manipulative, and self-centered traits inherent in DT.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Personalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Maquiavelismo , Adolescente , Narcisismo , Estudantes/psicologia
4.
Psicothema ; 36(2): 195-204, 2024 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38661166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Short Dark Tetrad (SD4) is a recently developed instrument for assessing the "dark" personality traits of psychopathy, narcissism, Machiavellianism, and sadism. We aimed to examine the SD4's psychometric properties, adapting it into Spanish and exploring its structure, gender invariance, reliability, concurrent validity, and nomological network. METHOD: A sample of 668 adults (Mage = 26.36, SD = 10.64, 69.2% females) completed the SD4 and other self-report questionnaires. RESULTS: The results demonstrated sound indices of reliability and concurrent validity, an adequate four-factor structure, and support for gender invariance. Furthermore, most of the findings about the nomological network were in line with prior hypotheses: All four SD4 scales were associated with low levels of agreeableness and antagonism; psychopathy was also related to low conscientiousness, disinhibition and impulse-control problems; narcissism was positively associated with extraversion and negatively associated with internalizing symptoms; Machiavellianism was uncorrelated with impulsivity-related problems, which made it distinct from the psychopathy profile; finally, sadism showed a similar pattern of associations to psychopathy, albeit less strongly linked to impulsivity problems and externalizing behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the SD4 presents sound psychometric properties, although the overlap between psychopathy and sadism warrants some caution.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Maquiavelismo , Narcisismo , Psicometria , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Sadismo/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha , Adolescente , Personalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato
5.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0302257, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38683821

RESUMO

According to biobehavioral synchronicity model, empathy-a fundamental requirement for reciprocal and prosocial behavior-is at the core of rebound from stress, an essential feature of resilience. However, there are also reports on antagonistic traits-characterized by empathic deficit-bolstering immunity to stress. In the literature there is also inconclusive evidence regarding gender-related differences in resilience. In separate female and male subsamples we analyzed the network constellation entailing resilience (assessed as rebound from stress), empathic (cognitive empathy, affective resonance, and affective dissonance) and antagonistic personality traits (Machiavellianism, grandiose- and vulnerable narcissism). For both genders, Machiavellian agency instigated by narcissistic admiration occupied the central position in the network indicating that personality's resources for proactivity and control are essential for successful rebound. Empathy, and in particular its affective component, occupied only a peripheral position in the network. Machiavellian antagonism in men and grandiose narcissism in females bridged prosocial mechanism of resilience with antagonistic nodes of the network. In the female subsample both types of malign narcissism (rivalry and vulnerable narcissism) directly thwarted rebound. This process was not detected in the male subsample network dominated by antagonism. That is, gender-related differences were associated with the avoidance strategies rather than with the proactive strategies. Thus, resilience assessed as rebounding from stress primarily involves personality resources which modulate proactive- and prosocial- but not necessarily reciprocal behavior.


Assuntos
Empatia , Maquiavelismo , Narcisismo , Resiliência Psicológica , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Empatia/fisiologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
6.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 799, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38481212

RESUMO

In the present study, we investigated the relationship between personality and motivation for physical activity while introducing perceived parental support and social physical anxiety in adolescent girls (N = 318, Mage: 16.19 ± 0.51 years). The present study was a retrospective correlational study that was conducted to analyze of a path model. Dark triad traits: Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy, student's motivation for physical activity, social physique anxiety, and participants' perceptions of parents' behaviors were measured. The findings indicated that psychopathy and Machiavellianism were directly and indirectly associated with motivation for physical activity, but Narcissism could only directly predict the motivation for physical activity. Also, need-thwarting (the most), need-supportive and social physical anxiety could predict motivation for physical activity. This model of the result suggests that among adolescent girls, dark triad personality could, directly and indirectly, predict motivation with need-supportive and need-thwarting and also social physical anxiety. It seems that the sense of importance and more attention to oneself in adolescent girls, which exists in the narcissistic personality, can directly lead to more motivation for physical activity. Also, the duplicitous ways of Machiavellian people in pursuing their motives were confirmed in this research.


Assuntos
Motivação , Personalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Maquiavelismo , Exercício Físico , Pais , Ansiedade
7.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 245: 104222, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502994

RESUMO

This study explored demographic, ideological, self-rating and personality traits correlates of the Dark Tetrad (DT4) which measures Narcissism (Special), Machiavellianism (Crafty), Psychopathy (Wild), and Sadism (Mean) traits. In total, 447 adults completed three tests: a bright-side, work-related, personality test (HPTI: High Performance Type Indicator), a dark-side test (Short Dark Tetrad) and a number of self-ratings. Correlations and regressions showed that all four dark traits were associated with low Adjustment (Neuroticism), but also with high Risk-Taking and Competitiveness (low Agreeableness). The various measures accounted for a third of the variance in explaining the Mean (Sadistic) score, and 40 % for Special (Narcissism). Trait Competitiveness was most closely associated with all four dark traits.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Maquiavelismo , Adulto , Humanos , Sadismo , Cognição , Neuroticismo , Personalidade
8.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0298880, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38394098

RESUMO

This study presents and validates the Italian adaptation of the Dark Tetrad at Work (DTW) scale, an instrument for assessing four socially aversive personality traits (narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy and sadism) in the context of the workplace. A total of 300 Italian-speaking participants (50% female, M age = 32 years ± 9.2) and 253 English-speaking participants (38% female, M age = 39 years ± 12.1) were recruited via an online survey platform. The Italian-speaking sample was used to test the factorial structure, reliability and criterion-related validity of the Italian version of the DTW, whereas the English-speaking sample was used to test cross-language measurement invariance. Results from confirmatory factor analysis showed that the original four-factor model provided the best fit to the data. The Italian DTW scale demonstrated acceptable internal consistency, with reliability coefficients of ω = .77 for narcissism, ω = .80 for Machiavellianism, and ω = .81 for both psychopathy and sadism. Concurrent associations between the DTW scales and negative and positive workplace outcomes supported the criterion validity of the scale. Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and sadism positively correlated with counterproductive work behaviors and workplace bullying, and negatively with organizational citizenship behaviors and affective organizational commitment. In contrast, narcissism exhibited a unique pattern: It correlated positively with positive workplace behaviors and negatively with counterproductive behaviors toward the organization, but it was also found to be a significant predictor of workplace bullying. This finding may reflect multidimensional nature of narcissism, but a note of caution is warranted in interpreting this result, as all measurements relied on self-report instruments, introducing the possibility of socially desirable associations influencing the outcomes. Finally, the comparison with the English sample established configural, full metric and partial scale invariance, allowing for valid cross-language comparisons between Italian and English-speaking populations in the future. Preliminary Italian normative data were provided to offer a benchmark for the interpretation of DTW values. This study provides a reliable and valid instrument tailored to the Italian workforce, enhancing our understanding of dark personality traits within organizational contexts and providing organizations with an effective means to address and manage dark personality traits for a healthier workplace culture.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Estresse Ocupacional , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Maquiavelismo , Narcisismo , Itália , Personalidade
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4667, 2024 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38409247

RESUMO

This study analyzed the effects of the Dark Tetrad (narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, sadism) and self-concealment on social appearance anxiety. Empirical investigations on which personality traits influence social appearance anxiety are yet missing. In this study, a sample of N = 1186 Chinese students performed a questionnaire-based survey assessing different personality facets and social appearance anxiety tendencies. Measures included the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale, the Machiavellian Personality Scale, the Short Sadistic Impulse Scale, the Self-concealment Scale, and the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale. The results of the multiple regression analysis showed that psychopathy, Machiavellianism, sadism, and self-concealment positively predicted social appearance anxiety and narcissism negatively predicted social appearance anxiety. Machiavellianism, psychopathy, sadism, and self-concealment were positive predictors of social appearance anxiety, whereas narcissism was a negative predictor. These findings provide insight into the complex nature of the Dark Tetrad and their influence on social appearance anxiety.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Personalidade , Humanos , Maquiavelismo , Transtornos da Personalidade , Narcisismo , Ansiedade
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4443, 2024 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38396168

RESUMO

The Dark Tetrad (DT) is composed of the traits of Narcissism, Machiavellianism, Psychopathy, and Sadism. Most studies analyzing the DT have employed a variable-centered approach, analyzing the traits separately. In the present study, we treat DT as a whole, adopting a person-centered approach. We analyzed different homogeneous subgroups of individuals characterized by specific DT profiles, aiming to examine their relationship with Big Five personality factors. A sample of 1149 participants (50.1% women, 18-79 years) completed The Short Dark Triad and the Assessment of Sadistic Personality instrument to assess DT, while the Mini-IPIP was used to assess the Big Five personality factors. Cluster analysis yielded five groups: Narcissism, Machiavellianism, Mean DT, Low DT, and High DT group. The main results showed that the High DT group was distinguished by higher levels of extraversion and lower levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness (compared with the Low DT group). Moreover, the Narcissism group was characterized by higher scores on emotional stability, openness to experience, and extraversion. Finally, distribution according to gender varied across DT groups (more men than women in the High DT group and the opposite in the Low DT group). Limitations and future lines of research are discussed.


Assuntos
Maquiavelismo , Personalidade , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Sadismo , Narcisismo
11.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 34(1): 54-65, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38240129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cyberbullying perpetration and victimisation have been associated with psychological distress, including depression and suicidal ideation. Prior studies have shown that the 'Dark Triad' personality traits (narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy) are associated with greater likelihood of perpetration, yet there is a research gap regarding potential mediators of this relationship. AIMS: To test whether functional and dysfunctional impulsivity act as mediators between Dark Triad traits and cyberbullying perpetration. METHODS: A cross-sectional online study was conducted, in which a sample of 141 university students (63% male) from Malaysia were recruited by online and local poster advertising inviting them to complete a questionnaire containing a series of psychometric scales, including measures of 'Dark Triad' personality traits, impulsivity and cyberbullying perpetration. RESULTS: A relationship between cyberbullying perpetration and higher psychopathy scale scores was mediated by dysfunctional, but not functional, impulsivity. The relationship between cyberbullying and narcissism scores was not mediated by impulsivity. Higher Machiavellianism scores were similarly associated with cyberbullying, but there was no correlation at all between Machiavellianism and impulsivity scores. CONCLUSION: Our findings add to the literature by showing that not only Dark Triad scale scores are associated with cyberbullying, but that difficulty in refraining from or controlling impulsive behaviours (dysfunctional impulsivity) may be a key component in this relationship. Given that our sample was of generally well-functioning people, our findings may not extend to those with serious cyberbullying problems. Yet, they provide avenues for identifying people at risk of such behaviours before problems become well-established and call for more nuanced approaches towards understanding and intervening with problematic cyberbullying.


Assuntos
Cyberbullying , Comportamento Impulsivo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Maquiavelismo , Narcisismo
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 311, 2024 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38172254

RESUMO

Dark personality traits (Machiavellianism, Narcissism, Psychopathy, and Sadism) have been associated with aversive, unethical, and criminal conduct. Concise measurement tools such as the Short Dark Tetrad (SD4) are popular, because they lend themselves as screening instruments. As such, the scores on these scales are used in various decision-making contexts, and they can have considerable effects on the lives of people who display an unfortunate scoring pattern. The present study explored to what extent high SD4 scores are actually predictive of deceptive behaviour in a matrix puzzle task, in a general community sample (N = 751). Results indicated that 9.9% of participants lied, that is, exaggerated their performance on the matrix task, hoping to increase their likelihood of financial reward. These cheating participants scored higher on all four dark traits. Nonetheless, the overlap between SD4 distributions made it impossible to determine cut-off scores in an attempt to consider scores as actual predictors of deception proneness. When framed in likelihoods, some scores can be diagnostic of deception proneness. Particularly in the context of statement validity assessment, characterized by tools with modest to poor accuracy, SD4 scores may add to diagnostic accuracy.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Maquiavelismo , Humanos , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Sadismo , Narcisismo , Enganação , Personalidade
13.
Curr Opin Psychol ; 55: 101752, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38065004

RESUMO

Misinformation poses a significant concern, promoting false beliefs and eroding trust in media. People differ in their susceptibility to believe and to share misinformation. In this article, we reviewed recent research on relationships between personality traits and belief in and sharing of misinformation. Findings show that more extroverted and less conscientious and agreeable people tend to be more susceptible to believing in and sharing misinformation. Additionally, the Dark Triad personality traits of narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism tend to be positively associated with sharing of misinformation, and narcissism and psychopathy are associated with greater belief in misinformation. Understanding these individual differences can inform interventions to reduce the effects of misinformation.


Assuntos
Maquiavelismo , Personalidade , Humanos , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Narcisismo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças
14.
J Pers ; 92(2): 584-600, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37249010

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the specific links that the Dark Triad traits have with subjective and psychological well-being through a meta-analysis of the existing literature. BACKGROUND: Over the past few years, associations between the Dark Triad traits and well-being have been a stimulating but understudied topic in personality research. METHOD: Cross-sectional, correlational studies examining these relationships were searched in the PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science databases. Meta-analyses were performed at the dimension- and facet-level to account for the multidimensional structure of the Dark Triad traits. RESULTS: A total of 55 studies were included (n = 26,252). In general, grandiose narcissism and boldness/dominance related to higher well-being, while vulnerable narcissism, antagonism, disinhibition, and Machiavellianism related to lower levels of well-being. Age and gender moderated few of these associations. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend including multidimensional measures of the Dark Triad traits as an essential step to move the field forward.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Bem-Estar Psicológico , Humanos , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Personalidade/fisiologia , Maquiavelismo , Narcisismo
15.
Aggress Behav ; 50(1): e22116, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37769036

RESUMO

Previous studies have established relationships between the Dark Tetrad traits and sexual violence and its acceptance through myths about this type of violence. Sexual violence is positively associated with machismo, with sexist beliefs having been found to be linked with the Dark Tetrad and with the acceptance of sexual violence. Using a community sample comprising 362 adults between the ages of 18 and 70 (M = 35.6, SD = 14.3) and three self-report measures, this cross-sectional study aimed to explore the mediating role of sexual machismo in the relationship between each of the Dark Tetrad traits and the acceptance of sexual violence, both in the overall sample and by gender, as well as whether a significant variance in this acceptance is explained by the "dark" traits, sexual machismo, and gender. In the regression, sexual machismo (the male) gender, and only Machiavellianism were uniquely associated with the acceptance of sexual violence, and sexual machismo partially mediated the associations between the Dark Tetrad and the acceptance of sexual violence. These findings indicate that being male and higher in sexism is more closely linked with the acceptance of sexual violence than most Dark Tetrad traits. Moreover, the associations between the Dark Tetrad, sexual machismo, and the acceptance of sexual violence were stronger in men, consistent with the notion that these traits facilitate a "male" exploitive mating strategy, which likely also extends to victim-blaming and positive attitudes about sexual violence more broadly. Lastly, the results emphasize the pervasiveness of beliefs about male superiority over women and its relationship with victim-blaming even in women.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Identidade de Gênero , Maquiavelismo
16.
Scand J Psychol ; 65(1): 26-31, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37464474

RESUMO

The Dark Tetrad personality traits (i.e., narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and sadism) have been continuously linked to various deficits in affective reactivity. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of the Dark Tetrad and processing of emotional pictures. A total of 144 participants (56.9% female, Mage = 22.18, SDage = 2.26) completed measures of the Dark Tetrad, and rated pictures selected form the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), classified in accordance with their norms into highly arousing positive and negative. Affective processing measures included participants' valence and arousal ratings, while cognitive processing was measured my means of the response latency for each response. The results showed that the dark traits were related only to valence, but not arousal ratings. Higher narcissism and lower sadism were associated with more positive valence ratings of positive pictures, and higher sadism was associated with more positive ratings of negative pictures. Moreover, higher Machiavellianism predicted faster assessment of valence and arousal of both positive and negative pictures, and higher sadism predicted slower assessment of negative pictures' valence. Obtained results indicate that deficiencies in affective processing are more pronounced in sadism compared to other dark traits, while Machiavellianism is associated with advantages in cognitive processing, highlighting their significance and uniqueness in the Dark Tetrad constellation.


Assuntos
Emoções , Maquiavelismo , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Sadismo/psicologia , Nível de Alerta
17.
Scand J Psychol ; 65(2): 331-338, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37905377

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly altered global social dynamics through extensive containment measures. Understanding how individuals perceive the virus, distinguishing between realistic and symbolic threats, and considering the influence of personality traits is essential for effective public health messaging and interventions. This study explores the linkage between personality traits and perceived COVID-19 threats, mediated by conspiracy mentality, across diverse international contexts. Online survey data were collected in June 2021 from 13,645 participants across seven European countries, the US, and Colombia. The study explores how individuals with different Dark Triad traits perceive the threat of COVID-19, and whether conspiracy mentality mediates these perceptions. The findings reveal distinct associations. Machiavellianism and narcissism were linked to lower perceived COVID-19 threat, while psychopathy was associated with greater perceived threat. Additionally, individuals with higher conspiracy mentality endorsed greater perceived threat related to COVID-19. This study highlights the influence of Dark Triad personality traits on how individuals perceive the threats posed by COVID-19, with conspiracy mentality mediating this relationship. Understanding these associations provides valuable insights into psychological factors affecting COVID-19 perception, informing future research and public health strategies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , Maquiavelismo , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 36(2): 195-204, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-VR-43

RESUMO

Background: The Short Dark Tetrad (SD4) is a recently developed instrument for assessing the “dark” personality traits of psychopathy, narcissism, Machiavellianism, and sadism. We aimed to examine the SD4’s psychometric properties, adapting it into Spanish and exploring its structure, gender invariance, reliability, concurrent validity, and nomological network. Method: A sample of 668 adults (Mage = 26.36, SD = 10.64, 69.2% females) completed the SD4 and other self-report questionnaires. Results: The results demonstrated sound indices of reliability and concurrent validity, an adequate four-factor structure, and support for gender invariance. Furthermore, most of the findings about the nomological network were in line with prior hypotheses: All four SD4 scales were associated with low levels of agreeableness and antagonism; psychopathy was also related to low conscientiousness, disinhibition and impulse-control problems; narcissism was positively associated with extraversion and negatively associated with internalizing symptoms; Machiavellianism was uncorrelated with impulsivity- related problems, which made it distinct from the psychopathy profile; finally, sadism showed a similar pattern of associations to psychopathy, albeit less strongly linked to impulsivity problems and externalizing behavior. Conclusions: Overall, the SD4 presents sound psychometric properties, although the overlap between psychopathy and sadism warrants some caution.(AU)


Antecedentes: El Short Dark Tetrad (SD4) es un instrumento recientemente desarrollado para evaluar los rasgos “oscuros” de personalidad de psicopatía, narcisismo, maquiavelismo y sadismo. Nuestro objetivo fue profundizar en las propiedades psicométricas del SD4 adaptando el instrumento al español, y examinar su estructura, invariancia de género, fiabilidad, validez concurrente y red nomológica. Método: Una muestra de 668 adultos (Medad = 26,36, SD = 10,64, 69,2% mujeres) completaron el SD4 y otros cuestionarios. Resultados: Encontramos índices apropiados de fiabilidad y validez concurrente, una estructura de cuatro factores, y apoyo a la invariancia de género. Además, los hallazgos sobre la red nomológica estuvieron mayoritariamente en línea con las hipótesis prerregistradas: las cuatro escalas SD4 se asociaron con baja amabilidad y antagonismo; la psicopatía se relacionó con baja responsabilidad, desinhibición y problemas de impulsividad; el narcisismo se asoció con extraversión y negativamente con síntomas de interiorización; el maquiavelismo no correlacionó con problemas de impulsividad, por lo que mostró un perfil diferenciado al de psicopatía; el sadismo mostró un patrón de asociaciones similar a psicopatía, aunque menos vinculado a problemas de impulsividad y comportamientos externalizantes. Conclusiones: En general, el SD4 presenta buenas propiedades psicométricas, aunque el solapamiento entre psicopatía y sadismo justifica cierta precaución.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Sadismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Psicometria , Personalidade , Maquiavelismo , Narcisismo
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37372723

RESUMO

The main objective of this study is to assess moderation effects of online behaviors between personality traits and addiction to Internet. To this end, four instruments were validated for Portuguese version through confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory factor analysis (Study 1) Multiple regression analysis was applied to examine the personality predictors of specific online behaviors while controlling for gender and age; and moderation effects were assessed (Study 2). Results showed good psychometric properties for the four validated scales. Machiavellianism is positively associated with all the dimensions of this study. Psychopathy is positively associated with total Cyberstalking, Cyberstalking Control, Flaming and Trolling. Narcissism is positively associated with all the dimensions, except Online Harassment and Flaming. Machiavellianism is positively associated with Addiction to Internet through Cyberstalking, Flaming and Trolling. Psychopathy is positively associated with Addiction to Internet through Cyberstalking Control and Flaming. Narcissism is also positively associated with Addiction to Internet through Cyberstalking and Trolling. This study demonstrates that dimensions of the dark triad of personality play an important role in Internet addiction through online behaviors. The results of this study have theoretical and practical implications: on the one hand, they reinforces the findings of other studies showing that dimensions of the dark personality triad play an important role in Internet and social network addition, contributing to the literature; and, on the other hand, on a practical level, they allow to conduct awareness campaigns in communities, schools, and work to understand that one can be exposed to unpleasant situations due to behaviors that some people with personality traits of Machiavellianism, narcissism and/or psychopathy that may cause problems affecting the mental, emotional and psychological health of others.


Assuntos
Maquiavelismo , Personalidade , Humanos , Portugal , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Emoções
20.
Scand J Psychol ; 64(5): 679-692, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37096738

RESUMO

Miller et al. (2010) previously suggested that borderline pathology, vulnerable narcissism, and Factor 2 psychopathy share a common "Vulnerable Dark Triad" (VDT) core. The present study (N = 1,023 community participants) aims to test that hypothesis using exploratory and confirmatory bifactor analyses. We found support for a bifactor model that obtained satisfactory fits and other adequate validity indices, which included a general VDT factor and three group factors (Reckless, Entitled, Hiding). The general VDT factor was mostly saturated with borderline symptoms items reflecting self-hatred and worthlessness, which did not form a group factor; these results add to previous research suggesting that features of borderline pathology may represent the core of personality pathology. The three group factors had distinctive relationships with Dark Triad traits, pathological trait domains, and aggression. In contrast with the three group factors, the general VDT factor more strongly incremented the prediction of negative affectivity and hostility; the group factors more strongly incremented the prediction of grandiosity, egocentrism, callousness, Machiavellianism, and direct (physical/verbal) aggression. Alignment of the retained bifactor model with influent models of personality pathology and conceptual/methodological implications of the present results for research on the hypothesized VDT are discussed, as well as some clinical implications of the findings.


Assuntos
Maquiavelismo , Personalidade , Humanos , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Narcisismo , Agressão
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