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1.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 155(5): 3090-3100, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717212

RESUMO

The perceived level of femininity and masculinity is a prominent property by which a speaker's voice is indexed, and a vocal expression incongruent with the speaker's gender identity can greatly contribute to gender dysphoria. Our understanding of the acoustic cues to the levels of masculinity and femininity perceived by listeners in voices is not well developed, and an increased understanding of them would benefit communication of therapy goals and evaluation in gender-affirming voice training. We developed a voice bank with 132 voices with a range of levels of femininity and masculinity expressed in the voice, as rated by 121 listeners in independent, individually randomized perceptual evaluations. Acoustic models were developed from measures identified as markers of femininity or masculinity in the literature using penalized regression and tenfold cross-validation procedures. The 223 most important acoustic cues explained 89% and 87% of the variance in the perceived level of femininity and masculinity in the evaluation set, respectively. The median fo was confirmed to provide the primary cue, but other acoustic properties must be considered in accurate models of femininity and masculinity perception. The developed models are proposed to afford communication and evaluation of gender-affirming voice training goals and improve voice synthesis efforts.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Acústica da Fala , Percepção da Fala , Qualidade da Voz , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Masculinidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminilidade , Adolescente , Identidade de Gênero , Acústica
2.
Am J Mens Health ; 18(3): 15579883241255830, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38819006

RESUMO

In this study, we formally examine the association between penis size dissatisfaction and gun ownership in America. The primary hypothesis, derived from the psychosexual theory of gun ownership, asserts that men who are more dissatisfied with the size of their penises will be more likely to personally own guns. To test this hypothesis, we used data collected from the 2023 Masculinity, Sexual Health, and Politics (MSHAP) survey, a national probability sample of 1,840 men, and regression analyses to model personal gun ownership as a function of penis size dissatisfaction, experiences with penis enlargement, social desirability, masculinity, body mass, mental health, and a range of sociodemographic characteristics. We find that men who are more dissatisfied with the size of their penises are less likely to personally own guns across outcomes, including any gun ownership, military-style rifle ownership, and total number of guns owned. The inverse association between penis size dissatisfaction and gun ownership is linear; however, the association is weakest among men ages 60 and older. With these findings in mind, we failed to observe any differences in personal gun ownership between men who have and have not attempted penis enlargement. To our knowledge, this is the first study to formally examine the association between penis size and personal gun ownership in America. Our findings fail to support the psychosexual theory of gun ownership. Alternative theories are posited for the apparent inverse association between penis size dissatisfaction and personal gun ownership, including higher levels of testosterone and constructionist explanations.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Masculinidade , Propriedade , Pênis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Estados Unidos , Pênis/anatomia & histologia , Adulto Jovem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Insatisfação Corporal/psicologia , Adolescente , Idoso
3.
Am J Mens Health ; 18(3): 15579883241255187, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38794958

RESUMO

Although several studies have reported an inverse association between masculine discrepancy stress-the perceived failure to conform to internalized normative expectations of masculinity-and well-being, researchers have yet to consider the potential moderating or buffering role of religiosity. Regression analyses of data collected from a national sample of men (n = 2,018), the 2023 Masculinity, Sexual Health, and Politics survey indicated that masculine discrepancy stress was consistently associated with lower levels of subjective well-being, including poorer self-reported mental health, less happiness, and lower life satisfaction. We also observed that these associations were attenuated or buffered among men who reported regular religious attendance and greater religious salience. Taken together, our findings suggest that different expressions of religiosity may help to alleviate the psychological consequences of masculine discrepancy stress. More research is needed to incorporate dimensions of religion and spirituality into studies of gender identity and subjective well-being.


Assuntos
Masculinidade , Estresse Psicológico , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Adulto Jovem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Idoso , Saúde Mental , Espiritualidade , Estresse Subjetivo
4.
Am J Mens Health ; 18(3): 15579883241253820, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38794957

RESUMO

Being a man has been recognized as a salient risk factor for suicide. Adopting uncompromised masculine perceptions (i.e., conforming to the masculine gender role norms) may restrict emotional expressiveness in men, which, in turn, may contribute to depression and somatization symptoms. We examined the moderating role of psychological flexibility and alexithymia in the relationship of masculinity with depression and somatization symptoms. A sample of 119 men completed measures of masculinity, alexithymia (difficulty identifying and delivering subjective feelings), psychological flexibility, depression, and somatization symptoms in a cross-sectional design study. Psychological flexibility levels moderated the relationship between masculinity and depression symptoms: Masculinity contributed as positively associated with depression symptoms when psychological flexibility was low, but no such association was found at moderate or high levels of psychological flexibility. As a cognitive factor promoting adaptive emotional regulation, psychological flexibility might reduce depression symptoms among inflexible masculine men. Clinical implications relate to diagnosing at-risk subgroups and their treatment.


Assuntos
Depressão , Masculinidade , Humanos , Masculino , Israel , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adaptação Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia
5.
Br J Community Nurs ; 29(Sup4): S27-S31, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578925

RESUMO

This initial article delves into the methodology, methods and theories, while the subsequent article will centre on the discoveries, discussion and conclusion. The study aimed to address the research question: how do men perceive their engagement in the self-management of non-cancer-related lymphoedema? An interpretivist qualitative methodology was employed, utilising an online survey based on the validated lymphoedema quality of life tool (LYMQoL). The data underwent inductive narrative inquiry. The study incorporated theories such as hegemonic masculinity and the health, illness, men and masculinities (HIMM) framework. The findings will be detailed in the second article in this series. This article has delineated the objective, methodologyand methods, employing a qualitative interpretivist approach through narrative inquiry. The study incorporated masculinity theories, including hegemonic masculinity and HIMM. The second article will present the findings and their significance within the broader literature.


Assuntos
Masculinidade , Qualidade de Vida , Masculino , Humanos , Reino Unido , Pesquisa Qualitativa
6.
Cien Saude Colet ; 29(4): e19402023, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38655966

RESUMO

In contemporary Brazil, the number of male fathers taking care of their sons and daughters and the initiatives to produce content about fatherhood on Instagram have been significant. This article aims to analyze the concepts that support the digital activism of homoparenting on Instagram, based on gender studies with men. To this end, a qualitative study was conducted using the life narrative method in a digital environment. The results were analyzed and divided into the following sections: parenting project, personal experience of fatherhood, articulation with LGBT political agenda when parenthood becomes a "business", and haters, criticism, and adverse reactions. It was concluded that the reflection on the experience of fatherhood/masculinity itself is crossed by the social marker of the difference in sexual orientation and the activism for rights that sustain content production. Thus, the uniqueness of each fatherhood is highlighted since the fact of being gay constructs the fatherhood experience for each man. Despite the initiatives brought forth in this study, changes are still in progress, as rights activism coexists with the advancement of conservative forces, which limit the expressions of sexual and gender otherness.


No Brasil contemporâneo tem sido expressivo tanto o número de homens-pais assumindo o cuidado de seus filhos e filhas, quanto das iniciativas de produção de conteúdo sobre paternidades no Instagram. Este artigo visa analisar as concepções que sustentam o ativismo digital da homoparentalidade no Instagram, a partir dos estudos de gênero com homens. Para tal, realizou-se um estudo qualitativo em ambiência digital, utilizando o método das narrativas de vida. Os resultados foram analisados e divididos nas seguintes seções: projeto de parentalidade; experiência pessoal de paternidade; articulação de agenda política LGBT; quando a paternidade vira um "negócio"; e haters, críticas e reações negativas. Conclui-se que a reflexão sobre a própria experiência de paternidade/masculinidade, atravessada pelo marcador social da diferença orientação sexual e o ativismo por direitos que sustentam a produção de conteúdo. Assim, ressalta-se a singularidade de cada paternidade, pois o fato de ser gay constrói a experiência de paternidade particular para cada homem. Apesar das iniciativas expostas, mudanças ainda são incipientes, visto que o ativismo por direitos coexiste com o avanço de forças conservadoras, que limitam as expressões das alteridades sexuais e de gênero.


Assuntos
Pai , Homossexualidade Masculina , Poder Familiar , Masculino , Humanos , Brasil , Pai/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Masculinidade , Filmes Cinematográficos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Direitos Humanos , Adulto
7.
Soc Sci Med ; 348: 116874, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38608482

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the second most common cancer, with more than 2.31 million cases diagnosed worldwide in 2022. Cancer medicine subjects the body to invasive procedures in the hope of offering a chance of recovery. In the course of treatment, the body is pricked, burned, incised and amputated, sometimes shattering identity and often changing the way women perceive the world. In sub-Saharan Africa, incidence rates are steadily increasing and women are particularly young when they develop breast cancer. Despite this alarming situation, the scientific literature on breast cancer in sub-Saharan Africa is poor and largely dominated by medical literature. Using a qualitative approach and a theoretical framework at the intersection of the sociology of gender and the sociology of the body, we explore the discourse strategies of women with breast cancer in Mali regarding their relationship to the body and to others. Based on 25 semi-directive interviews, we analyse the experiences of these women. Using the image of the Amazon woman, whose struggle has challenged gender because of its masculine attributes, we explore whether these women's fight against their breast cancer could be an opportunity to renegotiate gender relations. The experience of these women is characterised by the deconstruction of their bodies, pain and suffering. The masculinisation of their bodies and their inability to perform certain typically female functions in society (such as cooking or sexuality) challenges their female identity. The resistance observed through the sorority, discreet mobilisation and display of their bodies does not seem to be part of a renegotiation of gender relations, but it does play an active role in women's acceptance of the disease and their reconstruction.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Mali , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Identidade de Gênero , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Masculinidade
8.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 92: 264-275, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increasing number of esthetic procedures emphasizes the need for effective evaluation methods of outcomes. Current practices include the individual practitioners' judgment in conjunction with standardized scales, often relying on the comparison of before and after photographs. This study investigates whether comparative evaluations influence the perception of beauty and aims to enhance the accuracy of esthetic assessments in clinical and research settings. OBJECTIVE: To compare the evaluation of attractiveness and gender characteristics of faces in group-based versus individual ratings. METHODS: A sample of 727 volunteers (average age of 29.5 years) assessed 40 facial photographs (20 male, 20 female) for attractiveness, masculinity, and femininity using a 5-point Likert scale. Each face was digitally edited to display varying ratios in four lip-related proportions: vertical lip position, lip width, upper lip esthetics, and lower lip esthetics. Participants rated these images both in an image series (group-based) and individually. RESULTS: Differences in the perception of the most attractive/masculine/feminine ratios for each lip proportion were found in both the group-based and individual ratings. Group ratings exhibited a significant central tendency bias, with a preference for more average outcomes compared with individual ratings, with an average difference of 0.50 versus 1.00. (p = 0.033) CONCLUSION: A central tendency bias was noted in evaluations of attractiveness, masculinity, and femininity in group-based image presentation, indicating a bias toward more "average" features. Conversely, individual assessments displayed a preference for more pronounced, "non-average" appearances, thereby possibly pointing toward a malleable "intrinsic esthetic blueprint" shaped by comparative context.


Assuntos
Beleza , Estética , Face , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Face/anatomia & histologia , Fotografação , Masculinidade , Feminilidade , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lábio/anatomia & histologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Horm Behav ; 162: 105540, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38652981

RESUMO

Sex/gender differences in personality associated with gender stereotyped behavior are widely studied in psychology yet remain a subject of ongoing debate. Exposure to testosterone during developmental periods is considered to be a primary mediator of many sex/gender differences in behavior. Extensions of this research has led to both lay beliefs and initial research about individual differences in basal testosterone in adulthood relating to "masculine" personality. In this study, we explored the relationships between testosterone, gender identity, and gender stereotyped personality attributes in a sample of over 400 university students (65 % female assigned at birth). Participants provided ratings of their self-perceived masculinity and femininity, resulting in a continuous measure of gender identity, and a set of agentic and communal personality attributes. A saliva sample was also provided for assay of basal testosterone. Results showed no compelling evidence that basal testosterone correlates with gender-stereotyped personality attributes or explains the relationship between sex/gender identity and these attributes, across, within, or covarying out sex assigned at birth. Contributing to a more gender diverse approach to assessing sex/gender relationships with personality and testosterone, our continuous measure of self-perceived masculinity and femininity predicted additional variance in personality beyond binary sex and showed some preliminary but weak relationships with testosterone. Results from this study cast doubt on the activational testosterone-masculinity hypothesis for explaining sex differences in gender stereotyped traits and within-sex/gender variation in attributes associated with agency and communality.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Personalidade , Testosterona , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Personalidade/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Estereotipagem , Adolescente , Masculinidade , Saliva/química , Saliva/metabolismo , Feminilidade , Autoimagem , Caracteres Sexuais
10.
Dev Psychol ; 60(6): 1097-1108, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38661664

RESUMO

A growing body of literature shows that adherence to some aspects of Western masculinity norms, including the suppression of emotional vulnerability, avoidance of seeking support from others, and exaggerated physical toughness, is associated with poorer psychological and social outcomes. While existing research suggests that parental gender beliefs and caregiving behaviors might influence the development of children's gendered behaviors, little is known about the developmental origins of individual differences in adherence to masculinity norms. The current study aims to address this gap and presents a longitudinal investigation of how parental gender beliefs and maternal sensitivity during infancy contribute to children's adherence to masculinity norms during middle childhood. Data were drawn from a mixed-method 9-year longitudinal study of 374 urban Chinese families (48.40% with daughters). Parental gender beliefs were assessed at 24 months, maternal sensitivity was assessed with mother-child interaction observations at 14 and 24 months, and children's self-reported adherence to masculinity norms were assessed at age 10 years. Results indicate that while parental gender beliefs had no associations with children's adherence to masculinity norms, maternal sensitivity predicted children's adherence to masculinity norms (ß = -.18, p = .008) above and beyond parental gender beliefs and parental education level; moreover, there was a significant interaction of sex on the effect of maternal sensitivity on children's adherence to masculinity (ß = -.23, p = .025), and the association was significant only for boys. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Masculinidade , População Urbana , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , China , Relações Mãe-Filho , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Adulto , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Lactente , Poder Familiar/psicologia , População do Leste Asiático
11.
Am J Mens Health ; 18(2): 15579883241236223, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581228

RESUMO

Mental ill-health and suicide represent a significant proportion of the burden of global disease among men. Connell's relational theory of masculinities provides a useful framework to explore how mental health literacy, mental health stigma, and delayed help-seeking and help-offering behaviors are associated with mental ill-health among men, particularly within male-dominated industries. To address the high incidences of mental ill-health in male-dominated industries, several workplace interventions targeting these outcomes have been implemented. No review to date has examined the current state of evidence for these interventions or identified the behavior change techniques used. This review was restricted to empirical, quantitative research reporting on psychosocial interventions targeting mental health literacy, stigma, and help-seeking and help-offering behaviors in male-dominated industries. Quality appraisal was completed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project and a narrative synthesis was conducted. Twelve articles were included for review which reported on four distinct interventions. The methodological quality of two articles was strong, three moderate and seven weak. The strongest evidence of intervention effects related to mental health literacy and help-seeking intentions. There was less evidence relating to help-offering and help-seeking behaviors and mental health stigma. Sixteen behavior change techniques were identified across interventions that are discussed in relation to the wider men's health literature. The evidence on psychosocial interventions in male-dominated industries is limited due to methodological and conceptual issues. Recommendations for future research include standardized reporting of intervention descriptions, the use of theory to guide intervention development, and utilizing validated and reliable outcome measures.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Local de Trabalho , Estigma Social , Masculinidade
12.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 392, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38632293

RESUMO

The Towards Gender Harmony (TGH) project began in September 2018 with over 160 scholars who formed an international consortium to collect data from 62 countries across six continents. Our overarching goal was to analyze contemporary perceptions of masculinity and femininity using quantitative and qualitative methods, marking a groundbreaking effort in social science research. The data collection took place between January 2018 and February 2020, and involved undergraduate students who completed a series of randomized scales and the data was collected through the SurveyMonkey or Qualtrics platforms, with paper surveys being used in rare cases. All the measures used in the project were translated into 22 languages. The dataset contains 33,313 observations and 286 variables, including contemporary measures of gendered self-views, attitudes, and stereotypes, as well as relevant demographic data. The TGH dataset, linked with accessible country-level data, provides valuable insights into the dynamics of gender relations worldwide, allowing for multilevel analyses and examination of how gendered self-views and attitudes are linked to behavioral intentions and demographic variables.


Assuntos
Feminilidade , Masculinidade , Estereotipagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Atitude , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Papel de Gênero , Autoimagem
13.
Am J Mens Health ; 18(2): 15579883241241090, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38606788

RESUMO

Gender-responsive healthcare is critical to advancing men's health given that masculinities intersect with other social determinants to impact help-seeking, engagement with primary healthcare, and patient outcomes. A scoping review was undertaken with the aim to synthesize gender-responsive approaches used by healthcare providers (HCPs) to engage men with primary healthcare. MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases were searched for articles published between 2000 and February 2024. Titles and abstracts for 15,659 citations were reviewed, and 97 articles met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted and analyzed thematically. Thirty-three approaches were synthesized from across counseling/psychology, general practice, social work, nursing, psychiatry, pharmacy, and unspecified primary healthcare settings. These were organized into three interrelated themes: (a) tailoring communication to reach men; (b) purposefully structuring treatment to meet men's health needs, and (c) centering the therapeutic alliance to retain men in care. Strength-based and asset-building approaches focused on reading and responding to a diversity of masculinities was reinforced across the three findings. While these approaches are recommended for the judicious integration into health practitioner education and practice, this review highlighted that the evidence remains underdeveloped, particularly for men who experience health inequities. Critical priorities for further research include intersectional considerations and operationalizing gender-responsive healthcare approaches for men and its outcomes, particularly at first point-of-contact encounters.


Assuntos
Masculinidade , Saúde do Homem , Masculino , Humanos , Comunicação , Pessoal de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde
14.
Am J Mens Health ; 18(2): 15579883241247173, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38679967

RESUMO

Men historically consume more meat than women, show fewer intentions to reduce meat consumption, and are underrepresented among vegans and vegetarians. Eating meat strongly aligns with normative masculinities, decisively affirming that "real men" eat meat and subordinating men who choose to be veg*n (vegan or vegetarian). The emergence of meat alternatives and increasing environmental concerns may contest these long-standing masculine norms and hierarchies. The current scoping review addresses the research question what are the connections between masculinities and men's attitudes and behaviors toward meat consumption and veg*nism? Using keywords derived from two key concepts, "men" and "meat," 39 articles were selected and analyzed to inductively derive three thematic findings; (a) Meat as Masculine, (b) Veg*n Men as Othered, and (c) Veg*nism as Contemporary Masculinity. Meat as Masculine included how men's gendered identities, defenses, and physicalities were entwined with meat consumption. Veg*n Men as Othered explored the social and cultural challenges faced by men who adopt meatless diets, including perceptions of emasculation. Veg*nism as Contemporary Masculinity was claimed by men who eschewed meat in their diets and advocated for veg*nism as legitimate masculine capital through linkages to physical strength, rationality, self-determination, courage, and discipline. In light of the growing concern about the ecological impact of meat production and the adverse health outcomes associated with its excessive consumption, this review summarizes empirical connections between masculinities and the consumption of meat to consider directions for future men's health promotion research, policy, and practice.


Assuntos
Masculinidade , Carne , Humanos , Masculino , Dieta Vegana , Saúde do Homem , Dieta Vegetariana/psicologia
15.
Am J Mens Health ; 18(2): 15579883241239552, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567927

RESUMO

Type II diabetes is increasingly becoming a problem in Latin American countries such as Peru. People living with diabetes must incorporate several behavioral changes in their everyday lives, which are done outside the purview of medical professionals. Support from friends and family members is essential to the successful management of any chronic condition. Our study discusses the role of family involvement in supporting the management of diabetes among Peruvian men and examines how masculine norms play a role in the way such support is received and perceived, and their influence in motivation to adhere to treatment recommendations. In-depth interviews with 20 men from a low socioeconomic status, aged 27 to 68 with a diagnosis of Type II diabetes were conducted. Our analysis suggests the importance of the close, complex, and integrated experience that connects family members and patients with a chronic condition. Participant accounts demonstrate they receive multiple forms of support from a diverse range of social relationships. The overwhelming majority of the people giving the support were female and were especially significant in supporting management practices. The participants' accounts were able to demonstrate how living with a chronic condition, such as diabetes, affects the whole family-physically, mentally, and emotionally-and they experience the disease as one unit. Our study demonstrates the need for a family health experience approach that considers masculine gender norms around health and provides relevant insights to inform family-based treatments and therapies to allow for more and better targeted health care for men.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Apoio Familiar , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Peru , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Doença Crônica , Percepção , Masculinidade
16.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299288, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38478486

RESUMO

Gender expression may be associated with exercise self-efficacy and outcome expectations for exercise in the general population. Exercising for challenge and enjoyment are associated with the instrumental traits typically held by individuals with masculine gender expressions. Conversely, exercising for weight loss to receive validation from others are in line with the expressive traits most commonly held by individuals with feminine gender expressions. Moreover, possessing neither dominant nor expressive traits (undifferentiated gender expressions) have been linked to poorer psychological outcomes. Exercise is important after stroke, but gender differences in psychosocial factors for exercise in this population were unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore whether gender expression differences exist in exercise self-efficacy and outcome expectations for exercise post-stroke. Gender expression (masculine, feminine, androgynous, undifferentiated) was assessed using the Bem Sex-Role Inventory-12 (BSRI-12) in 67 individuals with stroke. Self-efficacy and outcomes expectations for exercise were assessed using the Self-Efficacy for Physical Activity Scale and Short Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scale, respectively. One-way analysis of covariance models were conducted, adjusting for biological sex, age, and time post-stroke. There were differences in exercise self-efficacy across the four gender expression groups (F(3,60) = 4.28, p<0.01), where individuals with masculine gender expressions had higher self-efficacy than those with undifferentiated gender expressions (adjusted mean: 3.56 [SE: 0.17] vs. 2.72 [SE:0.18], p<0.01). There were no differences in outcome expectations for exercise (F(3,57) = 1.08, p = 0.36) between gender expressions. In our pairwise comparisons, we found that individuals with masculine gender expressions had higher exercise self-efficacy than individuals possessing undifferentiated gender expressions. Strategies to enhance exercise self-efficacy after stroke are needed, particularly for individuals with undifferentiated gender expression. There were no associations between gender expression and outcome expectations for exercise after stroke. Clinicians may continue reinforcing the positive expectations towards exercise across all gender expressions.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Autoeficácia , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Motivação , Masculinidade , Feminilidade , Exercício Físico
17.
Crisis ; 45(3): 234-241, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441130

RESUMO

Background: Men account for three-quarters of suicide deaths in Australia. Self-reliant masculine norms may act as barriers to men's help-seeking and contribute to suicidal ideation. Men who seek help may be less likely to experience suicidal ideation. Aim: We evaluated the association between help-seeking intentions and suicidal ideation in Australian adult men using data from Wave 2 of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men). Method: Using scores on the General Help-Seeking Questionnaire, we explored the association between informal help-seeking intentions (e.g., friend, family), formal help-seeking intentions (e.g., psychologist), overall help-seeking intentions (all sources), and new-onset suicidal ideation. We conducted logistic regression analyses using a sample of 7,828 men aged 18-60 years. Results: Increased overall help-seeking intentions and informal help-seeking intentions were significantly associated with lower odds of new-onset suicidal ideation, whereas formal help-seeking intentions were not significantly associated. Limitations: The cross-sectional design limits inferences about causality. Conclusion: Men who have greater informal help-seeking intentions may be less likely to experience a new onset of suicidal ideation; however, more longitudinal research is needed.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Intenção , Ideação Suicida , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Austrália , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Estudos Longitudinais , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Masculinidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Aggress Behav ; 50(2): e22142, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38450835

RESUMO

This research examined the roles of organization contexts factors and dark personality traits in men's (N = 600) self-reports of sexually harassing behaviors toward women in the workplace. Four organization context factors (a permissive climate, a masculinized job/gender context, male/female contact, and Masculinity Contest Culture [MCC] Norms) and four dark personality traits (psychopathy, narcissism, Machiavellianism, and sadism) were examined. While only one organizational context factor, MCC Norms correlated with men's admissions of sexually harassing behaviors at work, all four dark personality traits evidenced significant correlations. In a multiple regression analysis, MCC Norms emerged again as the single organizational context predictor and psychopathy as the single personality predictor of men's admissions of sexually harassing behaviors at work. Moderation analyses showed that a masculinized job/gender context interacted with psychopathy to produce more admissions of sexually harassing behaviors. Mediation analyses showed that psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism had indirect relationships with admissions of sexually harassing behaviors through MCC Norms. Higher levels on these traits were related to higher levels of these workplace norms which, in turn, predicted more admissions of sexually harassing behavior. This research sheds new light on how both organizational contexts and enduring personal characteristics of men are related to sexual harassment in the workplace.


Assuntos
Homens , Assédio Sexual , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Masculinidade , Sadismo , Personalidade
19.
Psychooncology ; 33(3): e6333, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520671

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Masculinities have been explored in men with testicular cancer (TC), though limited contemporary research is available on traditional masculine norms important to masculine self-perception. The purpose of this research was to explore the discourse of TC experience in relation to masculine self-perception. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study was conducted consisting of semi-structured interviews with 21 men. Men were aged between 31 and 47 (Mage = 35.7). Most men were diagnosed with Stage 1 cancer (66.6%), all men had finished active treatment and time since diagnosis ranged from 17.3 to 71.8 months (M = 47.2). Independent coding was conducted by two researchers and was refined in coding meetings with authors. Themes were developed in a predominantly deductive manner, and analysis of themes was undertaken using a reflexive analysis approach. RESULTS: Traditional masculine norms showed differing relationships to masculine self-perception. Two main themes were identified [1] Maintained or enhanced masculine self-perception and [2] threats to masculine self-perception. Subthemes demonstrated that maintaining emotional control, strength and 'winning' was important to men, and reduced physical competencies (i.e., strength, sexual dysfunction, virility) challenged self-perception. Strict adherence to traditional norms in response to threatened self-perception related to psychological distress. CONCLUSION: Leveraging traditionally masculine norms such as physical strength and control and developing flexible adaptations of masculinities should be encouraged with men with TC to retain self-perception and potentially enable better coping. Masculine self-perception of gay/bisexual men may centre around sexual functioning, though further research is required.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas , Neoplasias Testiculares , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculinidade , Comportamento Sexual , Autoimagem
20.
J Aging Stud ; 68: 101206, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458725

RESUMO

This paper takes the co-construction of age and gender over the course of a life as a starting point and expands this perspective by looking at the intersectional interplay of institutional, spatial, and bodily materiality in the setting of a nursing home. Nursing homes are often perceived as a female space, both socially and physically. Moreover, they are institutional spaces that are primarily oriented towards the deficits of aging and bodies in need of care so that age and aging are reproduced in a narrative of decline, and gender hardly has space to be constructed. This interweaving of institutional spaces, bodies in need of care, and gender poses the question: How are age and gender produced through the space(s) of the nursing home and its materiality, and vice versa? On this basis, the influence on the construction of masculinities in the context of materialism is discussed. This paper draws on two case studies, Walter Probst (age 93) and Günther Schiffke (age 78), based on biographical interviews, to focus on the perspective of very old men in need of care and work out the interplay between the material nature of the institutional space and the body in need of care. It will be shown how closely the performance of age, gender, and masculinities is determined by spatial materiality in the nursing home and the increasing dependence of bodies in need of care, as well as how these bodies produce the spaces in turn. On the basis of the case studies, three aspects of materiality of care home spaces are highlighted. The first aspect of this materiality shows how the body can be increasingly perceived and treated as a material object. The second aspect is defined by the body situated in space, and its relationship to objects and aids. As a third aspect, the possibilities of interacting in communal and private spaces of the nursing home are explored. The article thus contributes to linking the (re-) construction of biographic narratives more strongly to spatial materiality and to embedding the construction and performance of age and gender in spatial and institutional structures, thus demonstrating that spaces and environments shape age, gender, and masculinities in a reciprocal way.


Assuntos
Enquadramento Interseccional , Casas de Saúde , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Idoso , Masculinidade , Envelhecimento
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