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1.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 36(5): 536-542, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486507

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Scientific reporting on major incidents, mass-casualty incidents (MCIs), and disasters is challenging and made difficult by the nature of the medical response. Many obstacles might explain why there are few and primarily non-heterogenous published articles available. This study examines the process of scientific reporting through first-hand experiences from authors of published reports. It aims to identify learning points and challenges that are important to address to mitigate and improve scientific reporting after major incidents. METHODS: This was a qualitative study design using semi-structured interviews. Participants were selected based on a comprehensive literature search. Ten researchers, who had published reports on major incidents, MCIs, or disasters from 2013-2018 were included, of both genders, from eight countries on three continents. The researchers reported on large fires, terrorist attacks, shootings, complex road accidents, transportation accidents, and earthquakes. RESULTS: The interview was themed around initiation, workload, data collection, guidelines/templates, and motivation factors for reporting. The most challenging aspects of the reporting process proved to be a lack of dedicated time, difficulties concerning data collection, and structuring the report. Most researchers had no prior experience in reporting on major incidents. Guidelines and templates were often chosen based on how easily accessible and user-friendly they were. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: There are few articles presenting first-hand experience from the process of scientific reporting on major incidents, MCIs, and disasters. This study presents motivation factors, challenges during reporting, and factors that affected the researchers' choice of reporting tools such as guidelines and templates. This study shows that the structural tools available for gathering data and writing scientific reports need to be more widely promoted to improve systematic reporting in Emergency and Disaster Medicine. Through gathering, comparing, and analyzing data, knowledge can be acquired to strengthen and improve responses to future major incidents. This study indicates that transparency and willingness to share information are requisite for forming a successful scientific report.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres , Planejamento em Desastres , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa , Terrorismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Editoração , Pesquisa Qualitativa
3.
GMS J Med Educ ; 38(4): Doc79, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34056068

RESUMO

Objectives: Floods, earthquakes and terror attacks in recent years emphasize the importance of disaster preparedness for the medical community. To best prepare doctors for providing optimal care in disaster situations, specific education and training should start at the medical school level. This study containes an online survey among German medical schools to evaluate the status quo of teaching disaster medicine and to reveal potential obstacles. Methods: The dean's offices of 36 German medical schools were contacted from April 2016 to May 2017. Via an e-mail link, recipients could anonymously and voluntarily access an online questionnaire (74 items, 42 with a four-point "Likert-like" scale, 12 yes/no questions and 20 with listed items to choose from). The answers were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 25 medical schools participated in the survey. Twenty respondents were in favor of expanding disaster medicine teaching at their institutions. Incorporating single topics ranging from triage (n=21) to accidents involving radioactive materials (n=4) into the curriculum varied widely. Only two schools had established a teaching coordinator for disaster medicine and only one e-learning course had been established. Twenty-one respondents regarded funding issues and 18 regarded organizational matters to be major hurdles in the future. Conclusion: Though most faculty representatives indicated that they favor expanding and implementing disaster medicine education, German medical schools still have a lot of room for enhancement in this field. The incorporation of e-learning tools could facilitate the expansion of disaster medicine teaching while simultaneously addressing the expressed concerns of the survey's participants and guarantee nationwide standardization.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres , Educação Médica , Currículo/tendências , Medicina de Desastres/educação , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(11): 1021-1026, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901040

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Disasters (both natural and man-made) are escalating worldwide, resulting in a significant increase in survivors with complex and long-term disabling injuries. Physical and rehabilitation medicine is integral in disaster management and should be included in all phases of the disaster management continuum, which comprise mitigation/prevention, preparation, response, and recovery phases. This Joel A. DeLisa Lecture was presented on February 11, 2021, at the Association of Academic Physiatrists Annual Scientific Meeting-"Physiatry 21." The lecture highlights the synergistic position of the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine and the Disaster Rehabilitation Committee, to provide crucial leadership and governance role in liaison and coordination with the World Health Organization (and other stakeholders), to provide rehabilitation input during future disasters.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres/tendências , Medicina Física e Reabilitação/tendências , Medicina de Desastres/métodos , Humanos , Agências Internacionais , Medicina Física e Reabilitação/métodos , Sociedades Médicas
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805225

RESUMO

The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 placed human health at the centre of disaster risk reduction, calling for the global community to enhance local and national health emergency and disaster risk management (Health EDRM). The Health EDRM Framework, published in 2019, describes the functions required for comprehensive disaster risk management across prevention, preparedness, readiness, response, and recovery to improve the resilience and health security of communities, countries, and health systems. Evidence-based Health EDRM workforce development is vital. However, there are still significant gaps in the evidence identifying common competencies for training and education programmes, and the clarification of strategies for workforce retention, motivation, deployment, and coordination. Initiated in June 2020, this project includes literature reviews, case studies, and an expert consensus (modified Delphi) study. Literature reviews in English, Japanese, and Chinese aim to identify research gaps and explore core competencies for Health EDRM workforce training. Thirteen Health EDRM related case studies from six WHO regions will illustrate best practices (and pitfalls) and inform the consensus study. Consensus will be sought from global experts in emergency and disaster medicine, nursing, public health and related disciplines. Recommendations for developing effective health workforce strategies for low- and middle-income countries and high-income countries will then be disseminated.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres , Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Emergências , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Humanos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922145

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) and its partners established the WHO Thematic Platform for Health Emergency and Disaster Risk Management Research Network (HEALTH EDRM RN) in 2016 to respond to the increasing burden of recent health emergencies and disasters. The mission of the HEALTH EDRM RN, whose secretariat is located at the WHO Kobe Centre (WKC), is to promote global research collaboration and strengthen research activities to inform policies and programs by generating new evidence to manage health risks associated with all types of emergencies and disasters. With the strong support and involvement of all WHO regional offices, the HEALTH EDRM RN now works with more than 200 global experts and partners to pursue its mission. The first Core Group Meetings of the HEALTH EDRM RN were held on 17-18 October 2019, and concluded with the HEALTH EDRM RN-activity priorities to (1) promote operational research to better meet the needs of emergency- and disaster-exposed individuals and communities and efforts to translate science to policies and programs and (2) strengthen the research capacity of the Health EDRM community. In collaboration with the Japanese Association for Disaster Medicine, the WKC held a workshop on 21 February 2020, in which 20 Japanese experts from different research fields participated to further discuss these two points. This paper summarizes the discussion at the workshop.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres , Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Emergências , Humanos , Japão , Gestão de Riscos
7.
Am J Emerg Med ; 48: 148-155, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Communication failures secondary to damaged infrastructure have caused difficulties in coordinating disaster responses. Two-way radios commonly serve as backup communication for hospitals. However, text messaging has become widely adopted in daily life and new technologies such as wireless mesh network (WMN) devices allow for text messaging independent of cellular towers, Wi-Fi networks, and electrical grids. OBJECTIVE: To examine the accuracy of communication using text-based messaging transmitted over WMN devices (TEXT-WMN) compared to voice transmitted over two-way radios (VOICE-TWR) in disaster simulations. Secondary outcomes were patient triage accuracy, perceived workload, and device preference. METHODS: 2 × 2 Latin square crossover design: 2 simulations (each involving 15 min of simulated hospital-wide disaster communication) by 2 modalities (TEXT-WMN and VOICE-TWR). Physicians were randomized to one of two sequences: VOICE-TWR first and TEXT-WMN second; or TEXT-WMN first and VOICE-TWR second. Analyses were conducted using linear mixed effects modeling. RESULTS: On average, communication accuracy significantly improved with TEXT-WMN compared to VOICE-TWR. Communication accuracy also significantly improved, on average, during the second simulation compared to the first. There was no significant change in triage accuracy with either TEXT-WMN or VOICE-TWR; however, triage accuracy significantly improved, on average, during the second simulation compared to the first. On average, perceived workload was significantly lower with TEXT-WMN compared to VOICE-TWR, and was also significantly lower during the second simulation compared to the first. Most participants preferred TEXT-WMN to VOICE-TWR. CONCLUSION: TEXT-WMN technology may be more effective and less burdensome than VOICE-TWR in facilitating accurate communication during disasters.


Assuntos
Redes de Comunicação de Computadores , Sistemas de Comunicação entre Serviços de Emergência , Medicina de Emergência Pediátrica , Rádio , Treinamento por Simulação , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Comunicação , Estudos Cross-Over , Medicina de Desastres , Planejamento em Desastres , Humanos , Distribuição Aleatória , Triagem , Tecnologia sem Fio , Carga de Trabalho
8.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 253(3): 159-170, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762509

RESUMO

The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) has renewed the paradigm of disaster medicine. The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (TJEM) widened its scope to include the disaster science from the health perspectives. TJEM has been accumulating 76 articles related with "disaster" or "pandemic" out of which 69 were published after 2011. Tohoku University established the International Research Institute of Disaster Science (IRIDeS) that took initiative to impact the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (Sendai Framework) to include health aspect. Sendai Framework provided the platform for collaboration of different sectors, including the terminology that defines the concept of disaster, risk, hazard & exposure, vulnerability and coping capacity. Disaster medicine covers the diverse causes and damages of disasters by various hazards in this globalized and rapidly changing world. TJEM articles range the physical and mental health damage after the GEJE and other disasters with approved ethical consideration of investigations from the view point of affected area, mechanisms of hazard to affect human health including the radiation, virus or hazardous materials, proposal of refinement of health system to cope with disasters such as mental health support, risk communication, disaster medical coordination and hospital business continuity plan and future perspectives with reconstruction including Tohoku Medical Megabank Project. TJEM scope on disaster medicine had been widened during the 10 years after GEJE and IRIDeS can be the bridging hub not only between the health sector and other sectors, but also between disaster medicine and other medical disciplines.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres/tendências , Terremotos , Planejamento em Desastres , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Japão , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Terminologia como Assunto , Tsunamis
9.
MedEdPORTAL ; 17: 11119, 2021 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33768151

RESUMO

Introduction: Emergency medicine (EM) physicians serve at the frontline of disasters in our communities. The 2016 Model of Clinical Practice according to the American Board of EM identifies disaster management as an integral task of EM physicians. We described a low-cost and feasible tabletop exercise to implement such training for EM residents. Methods: The exercise took place during 2 hours of resident didactic time. A lecture introduced the incident command system (ICS) and triage concepts, followed by a tabletop scenario with a map of a disaster scene or emergency department. Facilitators presented situational prompts of tasks for residents to address during the exercise. These exposed residents to challenges in disaster scenarios, such as surge and limited resources. The exercise concluded with a debrief and short lecture reviewing scenario-specific topics and challenges. Residents completed an online pre- and postexercise assessment, evaluating knowledge and perceptions of disaster scenario management. Results: Eighteen residents participated in this exercise. The response rates to the pre- and postsurvey were 76% and 72% respectively. Using a Mann Whitney U test, no statistically significant difference was demonstrated on the medical knowledge component of the survey. There was, however, a statistically significant increase in perceived confidence of the residents' ability to manage disaster incidents. Discussion: We developed a simple exercise that is an easily adaptable and practical option for introduction to disaster preparedness training. These concepts are difficult to teach and assess among learners, however it remains an important component of education for EM physicians-in-training.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres , Desastres , Medicina de Emergência , Internato e Residência , Currículo , Medicina de Desastres/educação , Medicina de Emergência/educação , Humanos , Estados Unidos
10.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 36(2): 202-210, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602368

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Case reports are commonly used to report the health outcomes of mass gatherings (MGs), and many published reports of MGs demonstrate substantial heterogeneity of included descriptors. As such, it is challenging to perform rigorous comparisons of health services and outcomes between similar and dissimilar events. The degree of variation in published reports has not yet been investigated. OBJECTIVE: Examine patterns of post-event medical reporting in the existing literature and identify inconsistencies in reporting. METHODS: A systematic review of case reports was conducted. Included were English studies, published between January 2009 and December 2018, in Prehospital and Disaster Medicine (PDM) or Current Sports Medicine Reports (CSMR). Analysis of each paper was used to develop a list of 27 categories of data. RESULTS: Seventy-five studies were initially reviewed with 54 publications meeting the inclusion criteria. Forty-two were full case reports (78%) and 12 were conference proceedings (22%). Of the 27 categories of data studied, only 13 were consistently reported in more than 50% of publications. Reporting patterns included inconsistent use of terminology/language and variable retrievability of reports. Reporting on event descriptors, hazard and risk analysis, and clinical outcomes were also inconsistent. DISCUSSION: Case reports are essential tools for researchers and event team members such as medical directors and event producers. The authors found that current case reports, in addition to being inconsistent in content, were generally descriptive rather than explanatory; that is, focused on describing the outcomes as opposed to exploring possible connections between context and health outcomes. CONCLUSION: This paper quantifies and demonstrates the current state of heterogeneity in MG event reporting. This heterogeneity is a significant impediment to the functional use of published reports to further the science of MG planning and to improve health outcomes. Future work based on the insights gained from this analysis will aim to align and standardize reporting to improve the quality and value of event reporting.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Aglomeração , Previsões , Humanos , Registros Médicos
11.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607672

RESUMO

Disaster medicine faces complex challenges and will play an increasing role in the future. Disaster medicine is dominated by a phased imbalance of available and required resources. Various factors, such as a possible hazard for the rescue forces, inaccessible terrain or even destroyed infrastructure increase the complexity enormously. For casualties, this can mean a concentration of medical care on life-threatening conditions. The primary goal of emergency planning is to ensure standard or contingency care and to avoid crisis care.Hospitals and the preclinical emergency organizations must prepare for possible major emergencies or disasters. Easy-to-understand and just as easy to apply emergency plans are an important prerequisite for successful emergency management. These plans can only be guiding structures; the adaptation to the actual circumstances of the incident and the situation-adapted interpretation of the plans is the responsibility of the operational commanders. A clear leadership structure is essential for both preclinical and clinical operations. In this article, we describe important basic principles of disaster medicine mission planning and management.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres , Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitais
12.
Nurs Adm Q ; 45(2): 142-151, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587412

RESUMO

Whether natural or human-induced, disasters are a global issue that impact health care systems' operations, especially in the acute care setting. The current COVID-19 pandemic is a recent illustration of how health care systems and providers, especially nurses, respond to a rapidly evolving crisis. Nurse leaders in the acute care setting are pivotal in responding to the multifactorial challenges caused by a disaster. A quality improvement project was developed to increase nurse leaders' knowledge and confidence in disaster management during the COVID-19 pandemic at 2 Magnet-designated acute care hospitals within the John Muir Health system in Northern California. A total of 50 nurse leaders initially participated in this project, with 33 participants completing the postintervention survey. Results indicated significant improvement in perceived knowledge and confidence in disaster management after the intervention. Qualitative responses from project participants highlighted the need to annualize educational opportunities to sustain knowledge and consistently review emergency management operations plans. This quality improvement project provided an approach to educating nurse leaders in disaster management to promote resilience, support of employees, and optimal patient outcomes during disasters.


Assuntos
COVID-19/enfermagem , Medicina de Desastres/educação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Liderança , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Medicina de Desastres/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/educação , Pandemias , Melhoria de Qualidade , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 30(3): 289-292, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877307

RESUMO

Women have historically faced gendered patterns of disadvantage during times of emergency. Evidence demonstrates differences in gendered exposures and inequities during acute crises such as natural disasters and pandemics, including Covid-19, and longer-term emergencies such as climate change. These patterns, without intervention, may be perpetuated in future crises. Threats to women's health in times of emergency can arise from restricted access to health care, economic disadvantages, and harmful social norms. During crises, women face additional barriers to accessing maternal, contraceptive, and abortion care, likely exacerbating existing inequities in reproductive health outcomes. Gendered inequalities in financial and economic stability can become even more stark. Globally, women perform the majority of health care and unpaid caregiving work, but face barriers to affording costs of living and obtaining health insurance due to over-representation in low-wage jobs. Finally, gendered expectations of social roles contribute to increased vulnerabilities, such as displacement and poverty. Violence against women rises in times of emergency and pathways to escaping trauma can be limited. In addition to directly addressing women's unique barriers and providing support in times of emergency through bolstering health care access, economic, and social support systems, thoughtful solutions such as trauma-informed care, increasing the number of women in leadership roles, educational initiatives, and advocacy from health professionals are needed to protect and advance women's health.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Medicina de Desastres , Emergências , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva , Saúde da Mulher , Mudança Climática , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2 , Normas Sociais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 15(1): 99-104, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928571

RESUMO

Simulation is an effective teaching tool in disaster medicine education, and the use of simulated patients (SPs) is a frequently adopted technique. Throughout this article, we critically analyzed the use and the preparation of SPs in the context of simulation in disaster medicine. A systematic review of English, French, and Italian language articles was performed on PubMed and Google Scholar. Studies were included if reporting the use of SPs in disaster medicine training. Exclusion criteria included abstracts, citations, theses, articles not dealing with disaster medicine, and articles not using human actors in simulation. Eighteen papers were examined. All the studies were conducted in Western countries. Case reports represent 50% of references. Only in 44.4% of articles, the beneficiaries of simulations were students, while in most of cases were professionals. In 61.1% of studies SPs were moulaged, and in 72.2%, a method to simulate victim symptoms was adopted. Ten papers included a previous training for SPs and their involvement in the participants' assessment at the end of the simulation. Finally, this systematic review revealed that there is still a lack of uniformity about the use of SPs in the disaster medicine simulations.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres , Competência Clínica , Medicina de Desastres/educação , Humanos
19.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 15(3): 316-324, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115009

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge (K), attitude (A), and readiness to practice (rP) levels regarding disaster medicine and preparedness among health profession students at Qatar University. METHODS: A survey-based study was carried out to assess medical, pharmacy, and health sciences students' KArP levels using pretested and validated questionnaire. Student's t-test, analysis of variance, correlation, and linear regression were used with an alpha level of 0.05. RESULTS: The difference in the mean KArP level between genders was not significant (P > 0.05). Students from the College of Health Sciences had significantly higher KArP levels than those from the College of Pharmacy (101.5 vs 90.0; P = 0.033). Overall, Qatari students had better knowledge, attitude, and readiness to practice scores and total KArP scores than non-Qatari students. Moreover, students who were born in Qatar also had better knowledge, attitude, and readiness to practice scores and total KArP scores than students who were born outside Qatar. Significant direct moderate correlations were found among the 3 KArP parameters (P < 0.001). Knowledge and attitudes were indicated to be significant predictors of readiness to practice (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Students from the health colleges at Qatar University have moderate disaster medicine preparedness.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde , Medicina de Desastres/educação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
20.
Postgrad Med J ; 97(1148): 368-379, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518075

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify pandemic and disaster medicine-themed training programmes aimed at medical students and to assess whether these interventions had an effect on objective measures of disaster preparedness and clinical outcomes. To suggest a training approach that can be used to train medical students for the current COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: 23 studies met inclusion criteria assessing knowledge (n=18, 78.3%), attitude (n=14, 60.9%) or skill (n=10, 43.5%) following medical student disaster training. No studies assessed clinical improvement. The length of studies ranged from 1 day to 28 days, and the median length of training was 2 days (IQR=1-14). Overall, medical student disaster training programmes improved student disaster and pandemic preparedness and resulted in improved attitude, knowledge and skills. 18 studies used pretest and post-test measures which demonstrated an improvement in all outcomes from all studies. CONCLUSIONS: Implementing disaster training programmes for medical students improves preparedness, knowledge and skills that are important for medical students during times of pandemic. If medical students are recruited to assist in the COVID-19 pandemic, there needs to be a specific training programme for them. This review demonstrates that medical students undergoing appropriate training could play an essential role in pandemic management and suggests a course and assessment structure for medical student COVID-19 training. REGISTRATION: The search strategy was not registered on PROSPERO-the international prospective register of systematic reviews-to prevent unnecessary delay.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Medicina de Desastres/educação , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Currículo , Humanos
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