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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769644

RESUMO

Efficient transfer of concepts and mechanistic insights from the cognitive to the health sciences and back requires a clear, objective description of the problem that this transfer ought to solve. Unfortunately, however, the actual descriptions are commonly penetrated with, and sometimes even motivated by, cultural norms and preferences, a problem that has colored scientific theorizing about behavioral control-the key concept for many psychological health interventions. We argue that ideologies have clouded our scientific thinking about mental health in two ways: by considering the societal utility of individuals and their behavior a key criterion for distinguishing between healthy and unhealthy people, and by dividing what actually seem to be continuous functions relating psychological and neurocognitive underpinnings to human behavior into binary, discrete categories that are then taken to define clinical phenomena. We suggest letting both traditions go and establish a health psychology that restrains from imposing societal values onto individuals, and then taking the fit between behavior and values to conceptualize unhealthiness. Instead, we promote a health psychology that reconstructs behavior that is considered to be problematic from well-understood mechanistic underpinnings of human behavior.


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento , Humanos , Psicologia
2.
Edumecentro ; 13(3): 253-270, jul.-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286265

RESUMO

RESUMEN Fundamento: el trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad en infantes afecta la adaptación y bienestar de sus cuidadores primarios, lo cual reclama la superación de los profesionales de la enfermería para su atención. Objetivo: determinar la efectividad de un curso de superación, dirigido a profesionales de enfermería sobre la atención a cuidadores primarios de infantes con déficit de atención e hiperactividad. Métodos: se realizó un estudio prexperimental, en el Policlínico Universitario "Chiqui Gómez Lubián" del municipio Santa Clara, en Villa Clara, de 2018 a 2020. Se utilizaron métodos teóricos: histórico-lógico, analítico-sintético, sistematización, inductivo-deductivo y sistémico-estructural; empíricos: análisis documental, cuestionario y entrevista abierta; y matemáticos-estadísticos. Resultados: se diseñó y aplicó el curso de superación dirigido a profesionales de la Enfermería, sustentado en la integración de fundamentos teóricos a partir de la identificación de necesidades de aprendizaje, y conformado por siete temas con sus objetivos, temáticas, materiales y medios de enseñanza y sistema de evaluación, el cual fue aprobado por el consejo científico de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Villa Clara. Conclusiones: el curso de superación implementado sobre la atención a cuidadores primarios de infantes con déficit de atención e hiperactividad se considera efectivo al producir cambios significativos en el nivel de conocimientos de los profesionales y la satisfacción expresada por ellos.


ABSTRACT Background: attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder in infants affects the adaptation and well-being of their primary caregivers, which demands the upgrading of nursing professionals for their care. Objective: to determine the effectiveness of an upgrading course, aimed at nursing professionals on the care of primary caregivers of infants with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Methods: a pre-experimental study was carried out at the "Chiqui Gómez Lubián" University Polyclinic of the Santa Clara municipality, in Villa Clara, from 2018 to 2020. Theoretical methods were used: historical-logical, analytical-synthetic, systematization, inductive-deductive and systemic-structural; empirical ones: documentary analysis, questionnaire and open interview; and mathematical-statistics. Results: an upgrading course aimed at nursing professionals was designed and applied, based on the integration of theoretical foundations from the identification of learning needs, and made up of seven topics with their objectives, topics, materials and teaching aids and evaluation system, which was approved by the scientific council of Villa Clara University of Medical Sciences. Conclusions: the upgrading course implemented on the care of primary caregivers of infants with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder is considered effective as it produces meaningful changes in the level of knowledge of the professionals and the satisfaction expressed by them.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Medicina do Comportamento , Cuidadores , Medicina Comunitária , Programa
3.
Ann Fam Med ; 19(4): 356-361, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264841

RESUMO

Interest and incentives are increasing around strategies whereby the health care sector can better identify and address patients' social and economic needs in the context of primary care delivery. This interest is likely to accelerate during the economic recession following the OVID-19 pandemic. Yet effective and sustainable strategies for integrating social care practices (eg, patient-facing social risk screening and activities to address identified needs) have not been clearly established. Lessons learned from more than 2 decades of research on behavioral health integration could be applied to efforts to integrate social care into primary care. In this article, we synthesize learnings from primary care and behavioral health care integration, and translate them into organizing principles with the goal of advancing social care integration practices to improve the health of both patients and communities.


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento/métodos , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Apoio Social , Humanos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente
4.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 23(9): 48, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226989

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Behavioral medicine is a multidisciplinary field that has a key role in reducing risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this review is to describe the role of behavioral medicine for CVD prevention, using physical activity behaviors (e.g., sedentary behavior, daily physical activity, or exercise) as an exemplar. Application of behavioral medicine to improve dietary behaviors is also briefly discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Behavioral medicine interventions that address physical activity behaviors are associated with improved cardiovascular risk factors. Interventions framed in behavior change theory that integrate behavior change techniques to reduce sedentary behavior and promote daily physical activity and exercise have similarly been applied to improve certain dietary behaviors and show promise for reducing CVD risk factors. Behavioral medicine has an important role in improving various physical activity behaviors for all populations, which is essential for preventing or managing CVD. Further investigation into behavioral medicine interventions that address personal, environmental, and social factors that influence participation in physical activity behaviors, as well as the adoption of a more optimal dietary pattern, is warranted.


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário
5.
Public Health ; 196: 59-61, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147997

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the interaction between psychological factors, belief systems, and engagement around public health initiatives. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a longitudinal observational study, utilising convenience sampling to examine illness-related perception in the immediate and medium-term stages of the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in the UK. METHODS: Weekly questionnaires assessed our primary measure, illness-related perception, using The Health Anxiety Inventory. Other psychological measures included apathy, loneliness, depersonalisation, state anxiety, trait anxiety as well as personality traits. Multiple regressions were performed to determine which psychological factors predicted the variance of health anxiety every week using the enter method. RESULTS: A combination of psychological variables that varied over time and were modulated by external events predicted the evolution of illness-related perception and associated aversion to perceived threat. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight how in the face of a public health crisis, psychological factors play a determining role in the synthesis of beliefs as well as guiding human behaviour.


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento , COVID-19 , Ansiedade , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Transl Behav Med ; 11(8): 1635-1637, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048585

RESUMO

COVID-19 has caused drastic increases in family stress contributing to deleterious social and emotional ramifications. Before COVID-19, millions of Americans lacked access to mental health resources, and now in the midst of a global pandemic, resources are more limited in times of greater need. In March 2020, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act provided funding for mental health reforms; yet many barriers remained to receiving sufficient care. In February 2021, the Society of Behavioral Medicine recommended federal legislators expand Community Behavioral Healthcare Centers, increase funding for Federally Qualified Healthcare Centers and School Based Health Centers, incentivize providers to accept Medicaid, and institute more statewide licensing flexibilities to expand the reach of mental health care. In March 2021, the American Rescue Plan was signed into law and provided an additional ~$4 billion in funding for community mental health services, implementing substance abuse prevention and treatment programs, increasing the behavioral health workforce, promoting behavioral telehealth within primary care, increasing school-based mental health services, implementing suicide prevention programs, and improving services for traumatized families. This significant investment in parents and children's mental health is a tremendous step in the right direction and provides reassurance that relief is underway. Ongoing surveillance of the programmatic and clinical outcomes that result from these new policy reforms will be important for identifying areas that may need continual support as our nation recovers from COVID-19.


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento , COVID-19 , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Criança , Humanos , Pais , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Health Psychol ; 40(4): 227-229, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856829

RESUMO

The Editors are pleased to announce that Health Psychology has adopted the Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) Guidelines (Center for Open Science, 2021). We and the other core American Psychological Association (APA) journals are implementing these guidelines at the direction of the APA Publications and Communications Board. Their decision was made with the support of the APA Council of Editors and the APA Open Science and Methodology Committee. The TOP Guidelines were originally published in Science (Nosek et al. 2015) to encourage journals to incentivize open research practices. They are being implemented by a wide range of scientific publications, including some of the leading behavioral and medical research journals. The TOP guidelines for Health Psychology are outlined in our recently revised Instructions to Authors. We are implementing most of the standards at TOP Level 1, which means that adherence is required. We are implementing other standards at Level 2, which means that authors are encouraged to adhere to them and required to disclose whether and how they have done so. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento/métodos , Psicologia/métodos , Humanos
12.
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; (PB 8-21-01/02/03): 3-7, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666904

RESUMO

There is inconsistency in the training of military medical providers on the regulations and procedures outlining US Army-specific psychiatric readiness related competencies. These competencies are necessary to ensure the appropriate categorization of a soldier's psychiatric readiness. There exists a need for a formal, comprehensive training curriculum accessible to all providers that is time- and cost-effective. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, there is are additional barriers of social distancing, remote virtual healthcare delivery, and geographic dispersion of healthcare personnel. To address these concerns, we developed a curriculum to target these competencies and deliver them virtually. The curriculum was developed and executed based on Kern's six-step approach to curriculum development, and the objective was to train military behavioral health providers on temporary duty limitations, administrative separations, and medical board referrals based on current US Army policies and procedures. The training was implemented virtually and conducted over the course of 3-hour training sessions to two separate groups. Evaluation of training objectives was conducted via a survey of paired before and after questions, analyzing the change in perceived confidence among learners. Among the 58 respondents, training resulted in statistically significant improvement in confidence in recognizing when a US Army soldier needs a temporary profile, writing a temporary e-profile, deciding when it is critical to contact a US Army soldier's commander, executing administrative separation, deciding when a US Army soldier is at medical retention determination point (MRDP), and in referring a US Army soldier to medical board. Results show the feasibility of virtual training to enhance medical readiness-related competencies of healthcare providers at the enterprise-level to help improve medical readiness. Limitations included immediate and subjective aspects of our results. It is unclear whether our training or similar training sessions resulted in changes in behaviors such as increased profiling or medical board referrals.


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento/educação , Competência Clínica , Currículo , Educação à Distância , Medicina Militar/educação , Psiquiatria/educação , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Humanos , Distanciamento Físico , Autoimagem , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Int J Behav Med ; 28(2): 159-161, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765214

RESUMO

Translational sleep science has become a critical and fundamental focus in the field of behavioral medicine. This is the second issue in the special series of the International Journal of Behavioral Medicine focused on the physiological, psychological, social, and environmental concomitants of sleep and human health. The articles included in this issue draw further attention to the range and significance of sleep as a marker of health status and as a target of behavioral intervention. The research included in this series highlights the pervasive manner in which sleep health is intrinsically connected to health risk, behavior, and outcomes. The next decade promises to further behavioral medicine approaches to improving the provision of care and the overall public health through the implementation of translational sleep science research.


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Sono
14.
Psychol Psychother ; 94(3): 541-557, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586283

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In the field of psychotherapy, verbal creativity has been suggested as an important aspect in psychotherapists' training. In the present study, the effects of a mindfulness and compassion-based intervention (MCBI) on verbal creativity are analysed in students of clinical and health psychology (N = 90). DESIGN: Students were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 37), in which an MCBI was applied, and a waiting list group (n = 26) with no intervention. We also assessed a non-randomized active control group (n = 27), in which students received training in basic psychotherapy skills. METHODS: Verbal creativity (fluency, flexibility, and originality) was evaluated in a pre-, post-, and follow-up assessment. RESULTS: Results indicated a significant increase in fluency (p = .001, d = .64), flexibility (p = .017, d = .67), and originality (p = .004, d = .72) in the experimental group, relative to the waiting list group, in the post-assessment. Fluency (p = .010, d = .64) and flexibility (p = .033, d = .62) were also found to be higher in the follow-up assessment. In addition, results indicated a significant increase in flexibility (p = .034, d = .74) in the experimental group, relative to the active control group, in the follow-up assessment. CONCLUSIONS: Introducing MCBI in the university education of psychotherapists seems to be a useful strategy to improve their verbal creativity, which could positively influence their ability to explore and appropriately respond to their patients' needs. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Mindfulness and compassion-based interventions (MCBIs) could be a useful strategy to improve verbal creativity in the university education of psychotherapists. After the MCBI, students of clinical and health psychology increased the number of ideas they produced when facing a specific situation, as well as their variety and originality.


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento , Atenção Plena , Criatividade , Empatia , Humanos , Estudantes
15.
J Perinat Neonatal Nurs ; 35(1): 29-36, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528185

RESUMO

The objective of this evaluation was to evaluate the integration of behavioral health services at a freestanding birth center. Program evaluation included (1) retrospective health record reviews and (2) provider and client evaluation of satisfaction. In May 2017, an urban freestanding birth center initiated grant-funded integrated behavioral health services. Participants included women receiving perinatal care from May 2016 to April 2018 (n = 831). Clients (n = 414) and providers (n = 9) were surveyed through e-mail, with 166 (40%) and 7 (78%) responses, respectively. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Screening and treatment of depression were identified from health records. The on-site therapist saw 21% of women who birthed during the program's first year. Compared with the year before the program began, in the program's first year, more women were screened for depression at least once (401/415 (96.6%) vs 413/415 (99.5%), P = .002) and more women with an indication received treatment (62.5% [105/168] vs 34.5% [38/110], P < .001). Provider and client satisfaction was high. The on-site therapist provided services easily integrated into the freestanding birth center practice, resulting in increased depression screening and treatment, with overwhelming client and provider satisfaction.


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento/métodos , Centros de Assistência à Gravidez e ao Parto/organização & administração , Depressão Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Mães/psicologia , Assistência Perinatal/organização & administração , Adulto , Depressão Pós-Parto/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Gravidez , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
17.
Int J Behav Med ; 28(1): 1-5, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569758

RESUMO

The consideration of sleep and circadian rhythms in the context of health is a relatively recent development in the history of the field of behavioral medicine. This special issue of the International Journal of Behavioral Medicine recognizes that sleep and circadian rhythms are fundamental to appreciating physiological, psychological, social, and environmental factors in the health and well-being of the population. The articles included in this issue draw attention to the breadth and saliency of sleep as a marker of health status and as a target of behavioral intervention to promote health. Such research highlights the diversity of participants, research methods, and clinical significance of translational sleep science allowing us to recognize the role of sleep in the context of health in new ways. These studies also illustrate progress in integrating theory, employing prospective and longitudinal designs and multimodal and integrative assessments. This introduction to the special issue concludes by discussing challenges and opportunities in the field of behavioral sleep medicine, including those posed by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the need to more effectively provide sleep disorder treatment among underserved populations.


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento , COVID-19 , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Ritmo Circadiano , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Sono
18.
Transl Behav Med ; 11(6): 1292-1294, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598698

RESUMO

Federal nutrition assistance programs, especially the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), are an important safety net for households in the USA. Although few immigrant households are eligible for SNAP, those who need the program are less likely to participate than nonimmigrant households. Documented barriers to participation include language challenges and anti-immigrant rhetoric. However, previous research indicates that when immigrant households do participate in SNAP, their young children experience less food insecurity and the household as a whole makes fewer tradeoffs between food and other necessities. The Public Charge Rule limits ability to obtain a green card based on participation in public assistance programs. A recent change to this rule added programs to include some noncash programs, including SNAP. Although the vast majority of immigrants who are subject to the Public Charge Rule are not eligible for SNAP, misunderstanding of the rule and fear threaten to reduce SNAP enrollment and consequently increase food insecurity in immigrant families. Spillover effects may occur for families not targeted by changes in the Public Charge Rule as well as decreasing access to other safety net programs that are not impacted by the proposed changes, such as The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and school meals programs. In order to support the food security of immigrant families in the USA, we recommend that the Department of Homeland Security and the Department of State remove all non-cash safety net programs from the Public Charge Rule.


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Assistência Alimentar , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Características da Família , Feminino , Segurança Alimentar , Humanos , Lactente
19.
Transl Behav Med ; 11(6): 1286-1288, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410489

RESUMO

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death and disability in the world with the majority of deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The financial implications of disease and disability due to NCDs, combined with the costs of long-term management, are major causes of impoverishment and serve as barriers to socio-economic development. The transition from infectious diseases to NCDs as leading causes of mortality in LMICs is driven by several factors, primarily increasing globalization, urbanization, ageing of populations and economic development. Responding to these challenges will require local and comprehensive primary and secondary prevention efforts. The World Health Organization's Global Action Plan provides a road map and an array of policy options to achieve nine voluntary global targets by 2025. The primary responsibility of governments in responding to the challenge of NCDs includes international scientific cooperation to support national and local efforts. The implementation of such efforts to prioritize the prevention of NCDs will create an environment in which the rising trend of the NCD burden could be potentially halted and reversed. When developing NCD policies, stakeholders should consider evidence-based strategies which can be implemented by multidisciplinary teams that are led or have the participation of behavioral medicine scientists. Behavioral medicine strategies should be incorporated into the policy and intervention framework developed to target NCDs in LMICs.


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Países em Desenvolvimento , Saúde Global , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Pobreza
20.
Transl Behav Med ; 11(2): 664-668, 2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098423

RESUMO

Health behavior researchers should refocus and retool as it becomes increasingly clear that the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic surpass the direct effects of COVID-19 and include unique, drastic, and ubiquitous consequences for health behavior. The circumstances of the pandemic have created a natural experiment, allowing researchers focusing on a wide range of health behaviors and populations with the opportunity to use previously collected and future data to study: (a) changes in health behavior prepandemic and postpandemic, (b) health behavior prevalence and needs amidst the pandemic, and (c) the effects of the pandemic on short- and long-term health behavior. Our field is particularly challenged as we attempt to consider biopsychosocial, political, and environmental factors that affect health and health behavior. These realities, while daunting, should call us to action to refocus and retool our research, prevention, and intervention efforts.


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento/métodos , COVID-19/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
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