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2.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 32(3): 355-364, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217603

RESUMO

When considering medical emergencies that might affect an expedition, urologic emergencies are typically not included. However, the reality is that manageable and prevalent urologic disease processes can pose significant challenges for the wilderness medicine physician and warrant consideration. The purpose of this review is to identify and discuss the most commonly encountered urologic emergencies and diseases in the wilderness setting and to prepare the expedition medicine physician for management of these urgent conditions. A PubMed and Internet search for urologic emergencies and diseases in wilderness conditions was conducted. We also searched bibliographies for useful supplemental literature and material from leading mountain medicine and wilderness medicine societies as well as population-based studies for common urologic diseases. Urologic emergencies and diseases on expeditions and in wilderness conditions have been reported primarily with retrospective case series and case reports. The most commonly reported urologic emergencies in this setting include urologic trauma, renal calculi, and urinary retention. Parasitic infections in the urinary tract also have been reported to cause urinary symptoms and urinary retention in wilderness conditions. Although urologic diseases in such conditions are uncommon, significant morbidity and even potentially life-threatening sequelae to urologic emergencies were found to occur. Major genitourinary emergencies in expedition medicine are uncommon but involve both potentially manageable urgent conditions and serious life-threatening conditions best treated with urgent stabilization and occasionally medical evacuation. The opportunity exists for increased awareness for management strategies for urologic conditions in the often remote or extreme environments of an expedition.


Assuntos
Expedições , Medicina Selvagem , Emergências , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Meio Selvagem
4.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 32(3): 332-339, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172374

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Human activity in wilderness areas has the potential to affect aquatic ecosystems, including through the introduction of microorganisms associated with fecal contamination. We examined fecal microorganism contamination in water sources (lake outlets, snowmelt streams) in the popular Absaroka Beartooth Wilderness in the United States. Although the region is remote, increasing human visitation has the potential to negatively affect water quality, with particular concern about human-derived microorganism fecal contaminants. METHODS: We used standard fecal indicator bacterial assays that quantified total coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli concentrations, together with more specific polymerase chain reaction-based microbial assays that identified possible human sources of fecal microorganisms in these waters. RESULTS: Total coliforms were detected at all lake outlets (21 of 21 sites), and E coli was detected at 11 of 21 sites. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction assays revealed the presence of human feces-derived microorganisms, albeit at abundances below the limit of detection (<10 gene copies per milliliter of water) at all but 1 of the sampling sites. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest low prevalence of water-borne pathogens (specifically E coli and human-derived Bacteroides) in this popular wilderness area. However, widespread detection of total coliforms, Bacteroides, and E coli highlight the importance of purifying water sources in wilderness areas before consumption. Specific sources of total coliforms and E coli in these waters remain unknown but could derive from wild or domesticated animals that inhabit or visit the Absaroka Beartooth Wilderness. Hence, although contamination by human fecal microorganisms appears minimal, human visitation could indirectly influence fecal contamination through domesticated animals.


Assuntos
Microbiologia da Água , Meio Selvagem , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Escherichia coli , Fezes , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
6.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247536, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647057

RESUMO

Population assessments of wide-ranging, cryptic, terrestrial mammals rely on camera trap surveys. While camera trapping is a powerful method of detecting presence, it is difficult distinguishing rarity from low detection rate. The margay (Leopardus wiedii) is an example of a species considered rare based on its low detection rates across its range. Although margays have a wide distribution, detection rates with camera traps are universally low; consequently, the species is listed as Near Threatened. Our 12-year camera trap study of margays in protected broadleaf forest in Belize suggests that while margays have low detection rate, they do not seem to be rare, rather that they are difficult to detect with camera traps. We detected a maximum of 187 individuals, all with few or no recaptures over the years (mean = 2.0 captures/individual ± SD 2.1), with two-thirds of individuals detected only once. The few individuals that were recaptured across years exhibited long tenures up to 9 years and were at least 10 years old at their final detection. We detected multiple individuals of both sexes at the same locations during the same survey, suggesting overlapping ranges with non-exclusive territories, providing further evidence of a high-density population. By studying the sparse annual datasets across multiple years, we found evidence of an abundant margay population in the forest of the Cockscomb Basin, which might have been deemed low density and rare, if studied in the short term. We encourage more long-term camera trap studies to assess population status of semi-arboreal carnivore species that have hitherto been considered rare based on low detection rates.


Assuntos
Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/métodos , Florestas , Panthera/fisiologia , Meio Selvagem , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Belize , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Feminino , Longevidade , Masculino
7.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 368(3)2021 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507263

RESUMO

Empirical evidence supports selection of soil microbial communities by edaphic properties across large spatial scales; however, less is known at smaller spatial scales. The goal of this research was to evaluate relationships between ecosystem characteristics and bacterial community structure/function at broad taxonomic resolutions in soils across small spatial scales. We employed 16S rRNA gene sequencing, community-level physiological profiling and soil chemical analysis to address this goal. We found weak relationships between gradients in soil characteristics and community structure/function. Specific operational taxonomic units did not respond to edaphic variation, but Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Nitrospirae shifted their relative abundances. High metabolic diversity within the bacterial communities was observed despite general preference of Tween 40/80. Carbon metabolism patterns suggest dominance of functional specialists at our times of measurement. Pairwise comparison of carbon metabolism patterns indicates high levels of functional redundancy. Lastly, at broad taxonomic scales, community structure and function weakly covary with edaphic properties. This evidence suggests that stochasticity or unmeasured environmental gradients may be influential in bacterial community assembly in soils at small spatial scales.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Carbono/metabolismo , Microbiota/fisiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Solo/química , Texas , Meio Selvagem
8.
Microb Ecol ; 81(1): 253-266, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803364

RESUMO

Habitats are changing rapidly around the globe and urbanization is one of the primary drivers. Urbanization changes food availability, environmental stressors, and the prevalence of disease for many species. These changes can lead to divergence in phenotypic traits, including behavioral, physiological, and morphological features between urban and rural populations. Recent research highlights that urbanization is also changing the gut microbial communities found in a diverse group of host species. These changes have not been uniform, leaving uncertainty as to how urban habitats are shaping gut microbial communities. To better understand these effects, we investigated the gut bacterial communities of White-Crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys) populations along an urbanization gradient in the San Francisco Bay area. We examined how gut bacterial communities vary with the local environment and host morphological characteristics. We found direct effects of environmental factors, including urban noise levels and territory land cover, as well as indirect effects through body size and condition, on alpha and beta diversity of gut microbial communities. We also found that urban and rural birds' microbiomes differed in which variables predicted their diversity, with urban communities driven by host morphology, and rural communities driven by environmental factors. Elucidating these effects provides a better understanding of how urbanization affects wild avian physiology.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Pardais/microbiologia , Urbanização , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Masculino , Ruído/efeitos adversos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , São Francisco , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Selvagem
9.
J Environ Manage ; 277: 111392, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069152

RESUMO

In light of current trends of land abandonment across Europe, the rewilding of abandoned land is increasingly discussed as a future land management option. Since many of the regions affected by rewilding developments will be located in vicinity to densely populated areas, it is imperative to better understand public's attitudes towards an expansion of wilderness. Prior research on wilderness attitudes has typically been descriptive and rarely explored the underlying processes that lead to differences in wilderness attitudes. Taking the Theory of Planned Behaviour as our framework of analysis, we examine public attitudes towards wilderness in the context of people's beliefs of wilderness, and to what extent these beliefs can explain differences in wilderness attitudes between social groups. Results of a questionnaire survey (n = 858) in the mountain region of South Tyrol in the Central Alps show that wilderness attitudes are significantly influenced by three dimensions of wilderness beliefs, corresponding to 1) respondents' general wilderness representations, 2) perceived extent of wilderness areas, and 3) expected consequences of wilderness expansion. In addition, significant differences in wilderness attitudes are found between age groups, user groups, and groups with varying degrees of interest in wildlife watching. Our results indicate that these differences are partly related to contradictory views of wilderness, suggesting that it is not only conflicting interests that may lead to differences in wilderness attitudes between social groups. We conclude that participatory processes are needed to consider the plurality of people's wilderness representations and their perception of risks and benefits for the design and implementation of socially-just rewilding initiatives.


Assuntos
Atitude , Meio Selvagem , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Opinião Pública
11.
Vet Rec ; 187(10): 375, 2020 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188092
13.
Nature ; 586(7828): 217-227, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028996

RESUMO

Humanity will soon define a new era for nature-one that seeks to transform decades of underwhelming responses to the global biodiversity crisis. Area-based conservation efforts, which include both protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, are likely to extend and diversify. However, persistent shortfalls in ecological representation and management effectiveness diminish the potential role of area-based conservation in stemming biodiversity loss. Here we show how the expansion of protected areas by national governments since 2010 has had limited success in increasing the coverage across different elements of biodiversity (ecoregions, 12,056 threatened species, 'Key Biodiversity Areas' and wilderness areas) and ecosystem services (productive fisheries, and carbon services on land and sea). To be more successful after 2020, area-based conservation must contribute more effectively to meeting global biodiversity goals-ranging from preventing extinctions to retaining the most-intact ecosystems-and must better collaborate with the many Indigenous peoples, community groups and private initiatives that are central to the successful conservation of biodiversity. The long-term success of area-based conservation requires parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity to secure adequate financing, plan for climate change and make biodiversity conservation a far stronger part of land, water and sea management policies.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Mapeamento Geográfico , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/estatística & dados numéricos , Ecologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ecologia/tendências , História do Século XXI , Meio Selvagem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0227239, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064724

RESUMO

Species of the genus Flavivirus are widespread in Brazil and are a major public health concern. The country's largest city, São Paulo, is in a highly urbanized area with a few forest fragments which are commonly used for recreation. These can be considered to present a potential risk of flavivirus transmission to humans as they are home simultaneously to vertebrate hosts and mosquitoes that are potential flavivirus vectors. The aim of this study was to conduct flavivirus surveillance in field-collected mosquitoes in the Capivari-Monos Environmental Protection Area (EPA) and identify the flavivirus species by sequence analysis in flavivirus IFA-positive pools. Monthly mosquito collections were carried out from March 2016 to April 2017 with CO2-baited CDC light traps. Specimens were identified morphologically and grouped in pools of up to 10 individuals according to their taxonomic category. A total of 260 pools of non-engorged females were inoculated into C6/36 cell culture, and the cell suspensions were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) after the incubation period. IFA-positive pools were tested by qRT-PCR with genus-specific primers targeting the flavivirus NS5 gene to confirm IFA-positive results and sequenced to identify the species. Anopheles cruzii (19.5%) and Wyeomyia confusa (15.3%) were the most frequent vector species collected. IFA was positive for flaviviruses in 2.3% (6/260) of the sample pools. This was confirmed by qRT-PCR in five pools (83.3%). All five flavivirus-positive pools were successfully sequenced and the species identified. DENV serotype 2 (DENV-2) was detected in Culex spp. and Culex vaxus pools, while ZIKV was identified in An. cruzii, Limatus durhamii and Wy. confusa pools. To the best of our knowledge, detection of flavivirus species of medical importance has never previously been reported in these species of wild-caught mosquitoes. The finding of DENV-2 and ZIKV circulating in wild mosquitoes suggests the existence of an enzootic cycle in the area. In-depth studies of DENV-2 and ZIKV, including investigation of mosquito infection, vector competence and infection in sylvatic hosts, are needed to shed light on the transmission dynamics of these important viruses and the potential risk of future outbreaks of DENV-2 and ZIKV infections in the region.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anopheles/virologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Culex/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Feminino , Vigilância da População , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Meio Selvagem , Zika virus/genética
16.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 31(3): 374-375, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758399
17.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 31(1): 110-115, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734896

RESUMO

We developed an elective course titled Medicine in Extreme Environments (MEE) at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center for first- and second-year medical students. This course covered physiology, research, clinical practice, and career guidance regarding the fields of wilderness, space, hyperbaric, combat, and exercise medicine. The primary aim was to generate interest in and awareness of these seldom covered fields of medicine by exposing medical students to these disciplines during their preclinical years. A postcourse questionnaire was implemented to investigate whether the MEE course increased awareness of, interest in, and knowledge in the fields of medicine included in the curriculum. Through 2 iterations of the class, a total of 67 students enrolled in the course, and 38 students completed the questionnaire. After course completion, 95% felt they better understood the work and lifestyle of the fields covered, 100% learned more about concepts of each field, and 74% agreed that the elective influenced the direction of their future careers to include some part of the fields emphasized. Although only a limited number of students enrolled in this course, these initial findings suggest that the MEE curriculum may have some utility in promoting awareness of and interest in these medical disciplines among students who attend the course. With continued student and faculty support, this course will likely be continued annually at our institution. We believe that certain aspects of this course may be useful in helping develop similar courses at other medical schools.


Assuntos
Medicina Aeroespacial/educação , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Terapia por Exercício/educação , Ambientes Extremos , Oxigenação Hiperbárica , Medicina Militar/educação , Medicina Selvagem/educação , Conflitos Armados , Humanos , Meio Selvagem
19.
Nature ; 583(7817): 567-571, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669711

RESUMO

Recent assessments of Earth's dwindling wilderness have emphasized that Antarctica is a crucial wilderness in need of protection1,2. Yet human impacts on the continent are widespread3-5, the extent of its wilderness unquantified2 and the importance thereof for biodiversity conservation unknown. Here we assemble a comprehensive record of human activity (approximately 2.7 million records, spanning 200 years) and use it to quantify the extent of Antarctica's wilderness and its representation of biodiversity. We show that 99.6% of the continent's area can still be considered wilderness, but this area captures few biodiversity features. Pristine areas, free from human interference, cover a much smaller area (less than 32% of Antarctica) and are declining as human activity escalates6. Urgent expansion of Antarctica's network of specially protected areas7 can both reverse this trend and secure the continent's biodiversity8-10.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Meio Selvagem , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Atividades Humanas/história
20.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(8): 878-887, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496098

RESUMO

Objective: Wilderness therapy (WT) is a complementary/integrative approach for treating struggling adolescents by using outdoor adventure activities to foster personal and interpersonal growth/well-being. Empirical support for the effectiveness of traditional WT is growing, but evidence supporting trauma-informed WT (TIWT) is lacking. This pilot study addresses that gap. Method: Between 2009 and 2019, 816 adolescents (Ages 13-17, Mage = 15.36, SD = 1.25; 41.1% female) completed the Youth-Outcome Questionnaire-SR 2.0 at intake and discharge (M = 75.02 days, SD = 28.77). Three-hundred seventy-eight adolescents also completed the Family Assessment Device-General Functioning (FAD-GF), and 253 adolescents completed two, 2.5-min segments of heart-rate-variability biofeedback (one while resting and one while using a coping skill). One-hundred eighty-nine caregivers completed the Youth-Outcome Questionnaire 2.01, and 181 caregivers completed the FAD-GF. Between 25 and 99 adolescents and caregivers also completed psychological and family measures at 6 months and 1 year postdischarge. Results: Adolescents reported experiencing improvements in psychological and family functioning. They also exhibited improvement in psychophysiological functioning (heart-rhythm coherence). Caregivers reported improvements in family functioning and their child's psychological functioning. Caregivers observed more persisting benefits in their child's psychological functioning, whereas adolescents reported more persisting benefits in family functioning. Changes in psychological and family functioning were related. There were very few differential effects on the basis of demographic factors, trauma exposure, or past and current treatment factors. Conclusion: Results of this pilot study suggest TIWT is a promising complementary/integrative intervention for improving the psychological, family, and psychophysiological functioning of struggling adolescents. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares/métodos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Tratamento Domiciliar/métodos , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático/terapia , Meio Selvagem , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Terapias Complementares/psicologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
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