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1.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 22(1): 9, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bletilla striata is the main medicine of many skin whitening classic formulas in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and is widely used in cosmetic industry recently. However, its active ingredients are still unclear and its fibrous roots are not used effectively. The aim of the present study is to discover and identify its potential anti-melanogenic active constituents by zebrafish model and molecular docking. METHODS: The antioxidant activities were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The anti-melanogenic activity was assessed by tyrosinase inhibitory activity in vitro and melanin inhibitory in zebrafish. The chemical profiles were performed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS). Meanwhile, the potential anti-melanogenic active constituents were temporary identified by molecular docking. RESULTS: The 95% ethanol extract of B. striata fibrous roots (EFB) possessed the strongest DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and tyrosinase inhibitory activities, with IC50 5.94 mg/L, 11.69 mg/L, 6.92 mmol FeSO4/g, and 58.92 mg/L, respectively. In addition, EFB and 95% ethanol extract of B. striata tuber (ETB) significantly reduced the melanin synthesis of zebrafish embryos in a dose-dependent manner. 39 chemical compositions, including 24 stilbenoids were tentatively identified from EFB and ETB. Molecular docking indicated that there were 83 (including 60 stilbenoids) and 85 (including 70 stilbenoids) compounds exhibited stronger binding affinities toward tyrosinase and adenylate cyclase. CONCLUSION: The present findings supported the rationale for the use of EFB and ETB as natural skin-whitening agents in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Melaninas/antagonistas & inibidores , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Preparações Clareadoras de Pele/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , China , Modelos Animais , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas , Tubérculos , Polissacarídeos/química , Preparações Clareadoras de Pele/química , Peixe-Zebra
2.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 36 Suppl 3: 3-11, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35014730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperpigmented spots are common issues in all ethnicities, involving multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors such as UVB exposure, hormone balance, inflammatory status and ageing. OBJECTIVES: To determine (i) melanocyte dendricity in multiple facial spot types, (ii) impact of High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1), and the combination of sucrose dilaurate and sucrose laurate (SDL) on melanogenesis and melanocyte dendricity, and (iii) SDL effect on facial spots in a human use test. METHODS: Facial spot and adjacent non-spot skin biopsies were collected from Chinese women (age 20-70). Histological assessment of melanocyte dendricity was performed for 3 spot types (solar lentigo, melasma and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation) by immunofluorescent staining for c-kit/MITF. Keratinocyte, melanocyte and melanocyte-keratinocyte co-culture models were used to assess HMGB1 release by UVB radiation, the effects of HMGB1 and SDL on melanin production, melanocyte dendricity and melanosome transfer. The effect of an SDL-containing moisturizer on appearance of facial hyperpigmented spots was assessed against a vehicle control in an 8-week human use test. RESULTS: Melanocytes in spot areas are more dendritic than melanocytes in adjacent non-spot skin across three investigated spot types. In cell culture models, a moderate UVB-radiation exposure caused release of HMGB1 from keratinocytes. HMGB1 did not alter melanin production in melanocytes, but enhanced melanocyte dendricity and melanosome transfer. SDL reduced HMGB1 release from keratinocytes, inhibited melanin production, reversibly suppressed melanocyte dendricity and reduced melanosome transfer. In the human use test, SDL-containing moisturizer reduced appearance of spots versus vehicle. CONCLUSION: Increased melanocyte dendricity was observed in multiple types of facial spots. Addition of HMGB1 protein increased melanocyte dendricity and melanosome transfer in cell cultures, implicating potential involvement in spot formation. SDL suppressed melanin production, melanocyte dendricity and melanosome transfer in vitro and reduced appearance of spots in the use test, suggesting SDL is an effective solution to address hyperpigmented spot concerns.


Assuntos
Proteína HMGB1 , Hiperpigmentação , Melanócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanossomas/efeitos dos fármacos , Sacarose/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Humanos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Melaninas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sacarose/análogos & derivados , Adulto Jovem
3.
Phytochemistry ; 195: 113059, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34933209

RESUMO

Bletilla striata is a precious traditional Chinese medical herb with a wide range of applications in pharmacological and cosmetic fields. Because of the shortage of resources, Bletilla ochracea and Bletilla formosanare are also used as the substitutes. To distinguish the differences and homologies, the typical morphologic and microscopic characteristics of them were compared, and a UPLC fingerprint analysis coupled with chemometric methods were developed for characterization and quality evaluation of Bletillae Rhizoma. Gastrodin, protocatechuic acid, gymnoside V, blestrianol A, coelonin, gymnosides Ⅸ and batatasin II were identified as the potential chemical markers for comprehensive quality evaluation by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). The anti-melanogenic activities of the three species were also compared for the first time in vivo using the zebrafish model, the results suggested that B. striata and its two substitutes had obvious anti-melanogenic activities, and they were not-toxic at depigmenting doses. Molecular docking studies revealed batatasin III, blestrianol A, coelonin, and gastrodin were possible multitarget compounds associated with melanogenesis suppression, which are important for their potential future medical application.


Assuntos
Melaninas , Orchidaceae , Animais , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Rizoma , Peixe-Zebra
4.
Phytomedicine ; 95: 153876, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34923233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In traditional Chinese medicine, the skin reflects the health of body organs. A skin whitening agent, named seven whitening creams (also called Chi-Bai-San), has been used since ancient times in China. Chi-Bai-San reduces melanin and helps to reduce wrinkles. PURPOSE: We aimed to determine the skin-whitening ability and safe dose of the seven compounds in Chi-Bai-San. STUDY DESIGN: A common use for Chinese medicine is decocted in water. To mimic the function of Chi-Bai-San apply in clinical, we boiled all seven compound in water, respectively. These single recipe extractions and a mixture of these seven items were used in zebrafish embryo and B16F10 melanoma cell to identify the anti-melanogenesis function. METHODS: Chi-Bai-San comprises Bai-Lian (Ampelopsis japonica), Bai-Ji (Bletilla striata), Bai-Zhi (Angelica dahurica), Bai-Zhu (Atractylodes macrocephala), Bai-Shau (Paeonia lactiflora), Fu-Ling (Wolfiporia cocos), and Jen-Ju-Fen (Pearl powder). All components were extracted by heating in distilled water. The supernatant was collected after centrifugation. The extracted components were introduced into zebrafish embryos at different doses to determine the safe dose. B16F10 melanoma cells were treated with the final dose of each component and the component mixture. Melanin content and tyrosinase activity were assessed in zebrafish and B16F10 cells. Chi-Bai-San and its components were exposed to α MSH-induced B16F10 cells, and detected for mechanism of anti-melanogenesis pathway. RESULTS: Most compounds were not toxic at a low dose (0.1 mg/ml), except A. macrocephala, which resulted in a survival rate of only 30% at 72 hpf. The final dose of A. dahurica, P. lactiflora, W. cocos, and pearl was 1 mg/ml; that of A. japonica was 0.5 mg/ml; and that of A. macrocephala and B. striata was 0.1 mg/ml. Chi-Bai-San markedly decreased melanin content 37.47% in zebrafish embryos. Further, Chi-Bai-San abolished tyrosinase activity and MITF-mediated tyrosinase expression by down regulating the upstream transcription factors ZEB2, ß-catenin, and CREB2 in α MSH-induced B16F10 cells. Additionally, Chi-Bai-San might reduce melanosome secretion from melanocytes. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that safety and efficacy of heat-extracted Chi-Bai-San, which can reduce αMSH-induced melanin production by inhibiting the key role of melogenic-related transcription factor and promote the synergic effect of seven types of traditional Chinese herbal medicines.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Melanoma Experimental , Animais , Carbonato de Cálcio , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Melaninas , Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Peixe-Zebra
5.
Dermatol Surg ; 48(1): 131-134, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34904579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melasma is a common relapsing hyperpigmentation disorder, which is often difficult to treat. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a novel modality often used to treat acne scars, androgenic alopecia, chronic wounds, and skin rejuvenation. Recently, it has had a promising role in the treatment of melasma. OBJECTIVE: To review the published evidence on the efficacy and safety of PRP in the treatment of melasma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review was performed. A meta-analysis could not be performed because of methodological differences across studies and data heterogeneity. RESULTS: Seven studies were fulfilled and analyzed. Most studies used intradermal injections of PRP and have shown significant improvement in melasma. Microneedling mediated delivery of PRP has been tried in melasma with good results. A single study showed no additional benefit of PRP in patients treated with topical tranexamic acid. Another study showed no benefit of intense pulsed light in patients treated with intradermal PRP. CONCLUSION: Platelet-rich plasma inhibits the melanin synthesis through its various components acting through several mechanisms. It demonstrates a moderate grade of recommendation according to the Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine 2011 standards.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue Autóloga/métodos , Melaninas/antagonistas & inibidores , Melanose/terapia , Plasma Rico em Plaquetas , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Administração Cutânea , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Melaninas/biossíntese , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Pele/metabolismo , Pigmentação da Pele , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0262029, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972183

RESUMO

Various phenolic compounds have been screened against Ganoderma boninense, the fungal pathogen causing basal stem rot in oil palms. In this study, we focused on the effects of salicylic acid (SA) on the growth of three G. boninense isolates with different levels of aggressiveness. In addition, study on untargeted metabolite profiling was conducted to investigate the metabolomic responses of G. boninense towards salicylic acid. The inhibitory effects of salicylic acid were both concentration- (P < 0.001) and isolate-dependent (P < 0.001). Also, growth-promoting effect was observed in one of the isolates at low concentrations of salicylic acid where it could have been utilized by G. boninense as a source of carbon and energy. Besides, adaptation towards salicylic acid treatment was evident in this study for all isolates, particularly at high concentrations. In other words, inhibitory effect of salicylic acid treatment on the fungal growth declined over time. In terms of metabolomics response to salicylic acid treatment, G. boninense produced several metabolites such as coumarin and azatyrosine, which suggests that salicylic acid modulates the developmental switch in G. boninense towards the defense mode for its survival. Furthermore, the liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS) analysis showed that the growth of G. boninense on potato dextrose agar involved at least four metabolic pathways: amino acid metabolism, lipid pathway, tryptophan pathway and phenylalanine pathway. Overall, there were 17 metabolites that contributed to treatment separation, each with P<0.005. The release of several antimicrobial metabolites such as eudistomin I may enhance G. boninense's competitiveness against other microorganisms during colonisation. Our findings demonstrated the metabolic versatility of G. boninense towards changes in carbon sources and stress factors. G. boninense was shown to be capable of responding to salicylic acid treatment by switching its developmental stage.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/microbiologia , Ganoderma/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/química , Carboidratos/química , Carbono/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Análise por Conglomerados , Cumarínicos/química , Meios de Cultura , Técnicas In Vitro , Íons , Lipídeos/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Melaninas/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fenilalanina/química , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/química , Triptofano/química
7.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(23): 8715-8725, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724081

RESUMO

All eukaryotes have lysosomes that contain hydrolytic enzymes, such as protease, that degrade waste materials and cellular fragments. As a cellular organelle, lysosomes function as the digestive system of the cell, serving both to degrade material taken up from outside the cell and to digest obsolete components of the cell itself. In a previous study, melanin compounds were bleached using lysosome-related organelle extract (LOE) in which glutathione peroxidase (GPX) contributed decisively to melanin decolorization. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered to overproduce GPX, which increases the melanin color reduction activity of LOE. In addition, the peroxidase activity of the recombinant yeast was measured for each compartment. In spite of the modification to overexpress the GPX protein, with the peroxidase activity of the lysosome fraction specifically higher, the overall peroxidase activity of the cells remained constant. The overexpression of GPX2 among the GPX present in S. cerevisiae increased both the melanin-decolorization activity and the peroxidase activity of LOE. These results indicate that the peroxidase activity is related to the melanin decomposition and antioxidant enzymes such as GPX. In an artificial skin tissue test, the LOE extracted from the recombinant yeast was efficient in reducing the melanin. These results confirmed the enzyme's ability to penetrate corneous tissue, and they suggest the possibility of further development as a new whitening cosmetic. KEY POINTS: • Modification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to overexpress glutathione peroxidase (GPX). • The lysosome fraction of the recombinant strain enhanced the decolorizing function. • The LOE penetrates the skin barrier and works effectively on artificial skin tissue.


Assuntos
Melaninas , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Glutationa , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Lisossomos , Extratos Vegetais , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
8.
Hautarzt ; 72(12): 1025-1038, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735593

RESUMO

Optoacoustic imaging (OAB) has developed steadily in recent years. By means of partly pulsed light, in a wide variety of wavelengths, different colour carriers (chromophores) are excited to form sound waves. These in turn are detected by the newly developed systems and converted into three-dimensional images by means of various algorithms. The technique is characterised by a good ratio between contrast and penetration depth and can create macro-, meso- and microscopic images due to its scalability. Optoacoustic macroscopy broadly irradiates the area to be examined with laser light. This can produce images with a high penetration depth, but only with a moderate resolution. Clinically interesting fields of application are for example the results of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) examined ex vivo using macroscopic optoacoustics. Due to the ability of OAB to visualise melanin, the detection rate of metastases was superior to previous methods, but not to histology. The ability to visualise dermal and epidermal structures, especially vessels, with good resolution makes optoacoustic mesoscopy useful in the examination of inflammatory skin diseases and could contribute to the verification of the success of therapy, e.g., with biologics for psoriasis vulgaris or atopic eczema (AE), in the future. Optoacoustic microscopy, which has so far been limited mainly to preclinical in vivo research, could be used in the future to detect even finer vascular structures and their changes. The clinical possibilities of OAB seem to be of great benefit and continue to be the subject of intensive research.


Assuntos
Técnicas Fotoacústicas , Psoríase , Algoritmos , Humanos , Melaninas , Microscopia
9.
Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg ; 16(12): 2129-2135, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797512

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Development and performance measurement of a fully automated pipeline that localizes and segments the locus coeruleus in so-called neuromelanin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging data for the derivation of quantitative biomarkers of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. METHODS: We propose a pipeline composed of several 3D-Unet-based convolutional neural networks for iterative multi-scale localization and multi-rater segmentation and non-deep learning-based components for automated biomarker extraction. We trained on the healthy aging cohort and did not carry out any adaption or fine-tuning prior to the application to Parkinson's disease subjects. RESULTS: The localization and segmentation pipeline demonstrated sufficient performance as measured by Euclidean distance (on average around 1.3mm on healthy aging subjects and 2.2mm in Parkinson's disease subjects) and Dice similarity coefficient (overall around [Formula: see text] on healthy aging subjects and [Formula: see text] for subjects with Parkinson's disease) as well as promising agreement with respect to contrast ratios in terms of intraclass correlation coefficient of [Formula: see text] for healthy aging subjects compared to a manual segmentation procedure. Lower values ([Formula: see text]) for Parkinson's disease subjects indicate the need for further investigation and tests before the application to clinical samples. CONCLUSION: These promising results suggest the usability of the proposed algorithm for data of healthy aging subjects and pave the way for further investigations using this approach on different clinical datasets to validate its practical usability more conclusively.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Doença de Parkinson , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Locus Cerúleo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Melaninas , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
J Biotechnol ; 342: 114-127, 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757047

RESUMO

Hair graying is processed by the inactivation of tyrosinase caused by the accumulation of oxidative stress and a decrease in the number of melanocytes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SIRT1 gene knockout using the CRISPR/Cas9 system on the protein and gene expressions related to melanogenesis. In this study, the mutation in the SIRT1 knockout(KO) gene was verified by T7EI assay and Sanger DNA sequencing. Furthermore, the expression levels of SIRT1 protein and gene in KO cells were remarkably decreased compared with normal cells. Therefore, the SIRT1 gene KO cell line was successfully established for further study. The KO cells also increased SA-ß-galactosidase and decreased melanin production and the scavenging activity of hydrogen peroxide. In particular, the down-regulation of p38 and c-kit as well as the up-regulation of ERK resulted in the inactivation of MITF in the KO cells. Thus, KO cells reduced the expressions of Tyrosinase, Tyrosine hydroxylase, TRP-1 and TRP-2 through the negative modulation of MITF. Furthermore, SIRT1 gene KO cells negatively modulated antioxidant proteins such as Catalase, MnSOD, MsrA and MsrB3 through FOXO1 and Keap1. Therefore, it is suggested that SIRT1 could play a positive role in melanogenesis via MITF and FOXO1.


Assuntos
Fator de Transcrição Associado à Microftalmia , Sirtuína 1 , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Regulação para Baixo , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch , Melaninas/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição Associado à Microftalmia/genética , Fator de Transcrição Associado à Microftalmia/metabolismo , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/genética
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638544

RESUMO

Oculocutaneous albinism type 3 (OCA3) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the TYRP1 gene. Tyrosinase-related protein 1 (Tyrp1) is involved in eumelanin synthesis, catalyzing the oxidation of 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid oxidase (DHICA) to 5,6-indolequinone-2-carboxylic acid (IQCA). Here, for the first time, four OCA3-causing mutations of Tyrp1, C30R, H215Y, D308N, and R326H, were investigated computationally to understand Tyrp1 protein stability and catalytic activity. Using the Tyrp1 crystal structure (PDB:5M8L), global mutagenesis was conducted to evaluate mutant protein stability. Consistent with the foldability parameter, C30R and H215Y should exhibit greater instability, and two other mutants, D308N and R326H, are expected to keep a native conformation. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis of the purified recombinant proteins confirmed that the foldability parameter correctly predicted the effect of mutations critical for protein stability. Further, the mutant variant structures were built and simulated for 100 ns to generate free energy landscapes and perform docking experiments. Free energy landscapes formed by Y362, N378, and T391 indicate that the binding clefts of C30R and H215Y mutants are larger than the wild-type Tyrp1. In docking simulations, the hydrogen bond and salt bridge interactions that stabilize DHICA in the active site remain similar among Tyrp1, D308N, and R326H. However, the strengths of these interactions and stability of the docked ligand may decrease proportionally to mutation severity due to the larger and less well-defined natures of the binding clefts in mutants. Mutational perturbations in mutants that are not unfolded may result in allosteric alterations to the active site, reducing the stability of protein-ligand interactions.


Assuntos
Albinismo Oculocutâneo/genética , Melaninas/biossíntese , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Oxirredutases/genética , Biologia Computacional , Humanos , Ligantes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Dobramento de Proteína , Estabilidade Proteica , Quinoxalinas/metabolismo
13.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 167: 106029, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601069

RESUMO

The co-penetration of micellar vehicles and the encapsulated drugs into the skin layers, as well as the mechanisms underlying the penetration enhancement have not been clearly elucidated. We developed licochalcone A (LA)-loaded glycyrrhiza acid (GA) (GA+LA) micelles for topical delivery of LA into the epidermis. The in vitro co-penetration, penetration pathways, mechanism of interaction between skin and the micelles, and the in vitro and in vivo whitening effect of GA+LA micelles were evaluated. Co-penetration and penetration pathways were visualized on the abdominal skin of rats model with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) using a nile blue A-labeled GA (GA-NB). We found that GA significantly increased the transport of LA into the skin predominantly via the hair follicles and GA mainly accumulated in the SC and epidermis, while LA was localized in the epidermis and dermis. Moreover, 73.4% of the LA deposited into the epidermis within 12 h and approximately 9.32% of the LA permeated across the SC in the form of entire micelles within 24 h. GA-NB+LA micelles disaggregated and accumulated in the specific skin layers, and the LA released from the carrier penetrated into deeper layers. Moreover, the GA+LA micelles promoted drug penetration via intracellular or intercellular routes by loosening the skin surface and enhancing fluidization through lipid distortion and keratin denaturation. Furthermore, GA+LA micelles exhibited synergistic whitening effect on B16 cells and UVB-exposed C57BL/6 mice. Collectively, GA micelles can enhance penetration of LA to the epidermis mainly via the hair follicles following topical application, and reduce skin pigmentation.


Assuntos
Glycyrrhiza , Micelas , Animais , Chalconas , Portadores de Fármacos , Ácido Glicirrízico , Melaninas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ratos , Pele
14.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684753

RESUMO

Angelica polymorpha Maxim. (APM) is used in traditional medicine to treat chronic gastritis, rheumatic pain, and duodenal bulbar ulcers. However, it is not known whether APM has epidermis-associated biological activities. Here, we investigated the effects of APM flower absolute (APMFAb) on responses associated with skin wound healing and whitening using epidermal cells. APMFAb was obtained by solvent extraction and its composition was analyzed by GC/MS. Water-soluble tetrazolium salt, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation, Boyden chamber, sprouting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and immunoblotting were used to examine the effects of APMFAb on HaCaT keratinocytes and B16BL6 melanoma cells. APMFAb contained five compounds and induced keratinocyte migration, proliferation, and type IV collagen synthesis. APMFAb also induced the phosphorylations of ERK1/2, JNK, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and AKT in keratinocytes. In addition, APMFAb decreased serum-induced B16BL6 cell proliferation and inhibited tyrosinase expression, melanin contents, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor expression in α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-stimulated B16BL6 cells. These findings demonstrate that APMFAb has beneficial effects on skin wound healing by promoting the proliferation, migration, and collagen synthesis of keratinocytes and on skin whitening by inhibiting melanin synthesis in melanoma cells. Therefore, we suggest that APMFAb has potential use as a wound healing and skin whitening agent.


Assuntos
Angelica/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Flores/metabolismo , Humanos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Melaninas/biossíntese , Melaninas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo
15.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684787

RESUMO

The production of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), a peptide hormone composed of 13 amino acids, is attempted by recombinant expression using E. coli as the host. To achieve this aim, a synthetic gene containing eight tandem repeats of msh gene (8msh) was designed for ribosomal synthesis of 8 α-MSH. The merit of the strategy is to diminish the peptide toxicity against the host cell and to achieve a higher production yield. Pepsin cleavage sites are introduced between the peptides for enzymatic proteolysis to obtain the monomeric peptide of α-MSH. The constructed plasmid was transformed into different strains of E. coli hosts, and E. coli XL1-Blue with gene 8msh revealed the highest yield of 8 α-MSH. Although 8 α-MSH was fractionalized in the insoluble pellets after cell lysis, pepsin cleavage was able to produce soluble α-MSH peptide, as analyzed and confirmed by mass spectrometry and peptide activity assays. The production of α-MSH was quantified using HPLC with a yield of 42.9 mg/L of LB culture. This study demonstrates the feasibility of producing α-MSH using recombinant expression of tandem repeat gene. The production procedure involves minimal post-treatment and processing and can be scaled up for industrial application.


Assuntos
alfa-MSH/biossíntese , alfa-MSH/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/biossíntese , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Genes Sintéticos , Melaninas/biossíntese , Melanoma Experimental , Camundongos , Pepsina A/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Sequências de Repetição em Tandem/genética , alfa-MSH/administração & dosagem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682308

RESUMO

Pigments are compounds of importance to several industries, for instance, the food industry, where they can be used as additives, color intensifiers, and antioxidants. As the current trend around the world is shifting to the use of eco-friendly commodities, demand for natural dyes is increasing. Melanins are pigments that are produced by several microorganisms. Pseudomonas putida ESACB 191, isolated from goat cheese rind, was described as a brown pigment producer. This strain produces a brown pigment via the synthetic Müeller-Hinton Broth. This brown compound was extracted, purified, analyzed by FTIR and mass spectrometry, and identified as eumelanin. The maximum productivity was 1.57 mg/L/h. The bioactivity of eumelanin was evaluated as the capacity for scavenging free radicals (antioxidant activity), EC50 74.0 ± 0.2 µg/mL, and as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, with IC50 575 ± 4 µg/mL. This bacterial eumelanin did not show cytotoxicity towards A375, HeLa Kyoto, HepG2, or Caco2 cell lines. The effect of melanin on cholesterol absorption and drug interaction was evaluated in order to understand the interaction of melanin present in the cheese rind when ingested by consumers. However, it had no effect either on cholesterol absorption through an intestinal simulated barrier formed by the Caco2 cell line or with the drug ezetimibe.


Assuntos
Queijo , Melaninas , Acetilcolinesterase , Bactérias , Células CACO-2 , Humanos
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639057

RESUMO

Ferula penninervis Regel & Schmalh. is a perennial plant used in Kazakh traditional folk medicine to treat epilepsy, neurosis, rheumatism, gastroduodenal ulcers, dyspepsia, wounds, abscesses or tumors. The aim of this work was to isolate series of sesquiterpene lactones from a crude methanolic root extract and investigate their in vitro cytotoxic potential against androgen-dependent prostate cancer LNCaP and epithelial prostate PNT2 cells, as well as to evaluate their melanin production inhibitory effects in murine melanoma B16F10 cells stimulated with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (αMSH). Two new (penninervin P and penninervin Q) and five known (olgin, laferin, olgoferin, oferin and daucoguainolactone F) guaiane-type sesquiterpene lactones were isolated with the use of a simple and fast liquid-liquid chromatography method. Olgin and laferin showed the most promising cytotoxic effects in LNCaP cells (IC50 of 31.03 and 23.26 µg/mL, respectively). Additionally, olgin, laferin, olgoferin, and oferin (10 µg/mL) potently impaired melanin release (40.67-65.48% of αMSH + cells) without influencing the viability of B16F10 cells. In summary, our findings might indicate that guaiane-type sesquiterpene lactones from F. penninervis could be regarded as promising candidates for further research in discovering new therapeutic agents with anti-prostate cancer and skin depigmentation properties.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida , Ferula/química , Lactonas/isolamento & purificação , Lactonas/farmacologia , Melaninas/antagonistas & inibidores , Sesquiterpenos de Guaiano/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos de Guaiano/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Lactonas/química , Melanoma Experimental , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Sesquiterpenos de Guaiano/química , Análise Espectral
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639063

RESUMO

Autophagy is involved in the degradation of melanosomes and the determination of skin color. TLR4 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling upregulates NF-kB expression, which is involved in the upregulation of mTOR. The activation of mTOR by UV-B exposure results in decreased autophagy, whereas radiofrequency (RF) irradiation decreases TLR4 and TNF receptor (TNFR) expression. We evaluated whether RF decreased skin pigmentation by restoring autophagy by decreasing the expression of TLR4 or TNFR/NF-κB/mTOR in the UV-B-irradiated animal model. UV-B radiation induced the expressions of TNFR, TLR, and NF-κB in the skin, which were all decreased by RF irradiation. RF irradiation also decreased phosphorylated mTOR expression and upregulated autophagy initiation factors such as FIP200, ULK1, ULK2, ATG13, and ATG101 in the UV-B-irradiated skin. Beclin 1 expression and the expression ratio of LC3-I to LC3-II were increased by UV-B/RF irradiation. Furthermore, melanin-containing autophagosomes increased with RF irradiation. Fontana-Masson staining showed that the amount of melanin deposition in the skin was decreased by RF irradiation. This study showed that RF irradiation decreased skin pigmentation by restoring melanosomal autophagy, and that the possible signal pathways which modulate autophagy could be TLR4, TNFR, NF-κB, and mTOR.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos da radiação , Melaninas/biossíntese , Melanossomas/metabolismo , Ondas de Rádio , Pigmentação da Pele/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Biomarcadores , Células Cultivadas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/genética , Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Pigmentação da Pele/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639184

RESUMO

Glycoprotein non-metastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein that plays an important role in cancer metastasis and osteoblast differentiation. In the skin epidermis, GPNMB is mainly expressed in melanocytes and plays a critical role in melanosome formation. In our previous study, GPNMB was also found to be expressed in skin epidermal keratinocytes. In addition, decreased GPNMB expression was observed in the epidermis of lesional skin of patients with vitiligo. However, the exact role of keratinocyte-derived GPNMB and its effect on vitiligo is still unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that GPNMB expression was also decreased in rhododendrol-induced leukoderma, as seen in vitiligo. The extracellular soluble form of GPNMB (sGPNMB) was found to protect melanocytes from cytotoxicity and the impairment of melanogenesis induced by oxidative stress. Furthermore, the effect of rGPNMB was not altered by the knockdown of CD44, which is a well-known receptor of GPNMB, but accompanied by the suppressed phosphorylation of AKT but not ERK, p38, or JNK. In addition, we found that oxidative stress decreased both transcriptional GPNMB expression and sGPNMB protein expression in human keratinocytes. Our results suggest that GPNMB might provide novel insights into the mechanisms related to the pathogenesis of vitiligo and leukoderma.


Assuntos
Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Melaninas/metabolismo , Melanócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/patologia , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanócitos/patologia , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Fosforilação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
20.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(9): 3370-3376, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658224

RESUMO

We examined the distribution of melanin during the development of the larvae of Schizothorax o'connori except the eyes with histological method. The results showed that after hatching, the appearance sequence of melanin in different organs were following an order of the outer membrane of neurocranium, the pericardial cavity and the dorsal skin, and the peritoneum and the spinal cord. Specifically, melanin appeared in the outer membrane of neurocranium around 5 DAH (days after hatching), in the pericardial cavity and the back skin at 7 DAH, and in the peritoneum and the spinal cord at 10 DAH. Melanin was found in the skin and internal organs (the outer membrane of neurocranium, the pericardial cavity, the peritoneum, the spinal cord) of S. o'connori at 10 DAH, which was mainly distributed on the back. The appearance and distribution of melanin in the postembryonic development of S. o'connori might be related to the high ultraviolet radiation. Our results could provide reference for further research on the UV protection mechanism of melanin for fish and provide theoretical support for the optimization of rearing conditions for larvae in the plateau.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Melaninas , Animais , Larva , Raios Ultravioleta
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