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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612409

RESUMO

Limonoids are extremely diversified in plants, with many categories of products bearing an intact, rearranged or fragmented oxygenated scaffold. A specific subgroup of fragmented or degraded limonoids derives from the tetranortriterpenoid prieurianin, initially isolated from the tree Trichilia prieuriana but also found in other plants of the Meliaceae family, including the more abundant species Aphanamixis polystachya. Prieurianin-type limonoids include about seventy compounds, among which are dregeanin and rohitukin. Prieurianin and analogs exhibit insecticidal, antimicrobial, antiadipogenic and/or antiparasitic properties but their mechanism of action remains ill-defined at present. Previous studies have shown that prieurianin, initially known as endosidin 1, stabilizes the actin cytoskeleton in plant and mammalian cells via the modulation of the architecture and dynamic of the actin network, most likely via interference with actin-binding proteins. A new mechanistic hypothesis is advanced here based on the recent discovery of the targeting of the chaperone protein Hsp47 by the fragmented limonoid fraxinellone. Molecular modeling suggested that prieurianin and, to a lesser extent dregeanin, can form very stable complexes with Hsp47 at the protein-collagen interface. Hsp-binding may account for the insecticidal action of the product. The present review draws up a new mechanistic portrait of prieurianin and provides an overview of the pharmacological properties of this atypical limonoid and its chemical family.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Limoninas , Meliaceae , Animais , Limoninas/farmacologia , Citoesqueleto de Actina , Actinas , Antiparasitários , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mamíferos
2.
Phytochemistry ; 222: 114092, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604323

RESUMO

Phytochemical study of the fruits of Chisocheton erythrocarpus (Hiern) allowed the identification of eight undescribed limonoids, namely erythrocarpines O - V (1-6, 7a and 7b), along with seven known compounds. The structures of these compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic and HRMS data, along with electronic circular dichroism to configure the absolute configuration. Erythrocarpines O and P are γ-hydroxybutenolide analogs of mexicanolide-type limonoids while erythrocarpine Q - V are phragmalin-type limonoids possessing a 1,29-oxymethylene bridge with either benzoyl or cinnamoyl moiety in their structures. Mosquito larvicidal activity revealed that crude DCM extract of C. erythrocarpus possessed a good larvicidal effect against Aedes aegypti larvae in 48 h (LC50 = 153.0 ppm). Subsequent larvicidal activity of isolated compounds indicated that erythrocarpine G (10) and 14-deoxyxyloccensin K (11) were responsible for the enhanced larvicidal effect of the extract, reporting LC50 values of 18.55 ppm and 41.16 ppm, respectively. Moreover, residual activity testing of the crude DCM extract revealed that the duration of its larvicidal effects is up to 14 days, where it maintained a 98 % larval mortality throughout the test period, under laboratory conditions.


Assuntos
Aedes , Frutas , Inseticidas , Larva , Limoninas , Meliaceae , Animais , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Limoninas/farmacologia , Limoninas/isolamento & purificação , Limoninas/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/isolamento & purificação , Frutas/química , Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Meliaceae/química , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
3.
Genes (Basel) ; 15(3)2024 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38540379

RESUMO

Toona ciliata is a deciduous or semi-deciduous tree species and belongs to the Toona genus of the Meliaceae family. Owing to low natural regeneration and over-exploitation, the species is listed as an endangered species at level II in China and its conservation has received increasing concern. Here, we sampled 447 individuals from 29 populations across the range-wide distribution of the T. ciliata complex in China and assessed their genetic variation using two chloroplast DNA markers. The results showed that the overall haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity per site were high at h = 0.9767 and π = 0.0303 for the psbA-trnH fragment and h= 0.8999 and π = 0.0189 for the trnL-trnL fragment. Phylogenetic analysis supported the division of the natural distribution of T. ciliata complex into western and eastern regions. The genetic diversity was higher in the western region than in the eastern region, showing significant phylogeographic structure. Genetic differentiation among populations was moderate (Φst=42.87%), and the effects of isolation by distance (IBD) were significant. A neutrality test and mismatch distribution analysis indicated that the distribution of the T. ciliata complex generally did not expand, although a few local populations could likely expand after bottleneck effects. The overall results were complementary to and consolidated previous studies using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers. We finally discussed strategies for the genetic conservation of the T. ciliata complex.


Assuntos
Meliaceae , Humanos , Meliaceae/genética , Toona/genética , DNA de Cloroplastos/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Filogenia , Marcadores Genéticos
4.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; 26(7): 843-849, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38511479

RESUMO

A new seco-A tirucallane triterpenoid named excelxylin A (1), along with two known seco-A triterpenoids (2-3), were isolated from the n-hexane extract of Dysoxylum excelsum (Spreng.) Blume ex G.Don stem bark. The structure and stereochemistry configuration of compounds 1-3 was established by NMR, IR, and HR-ESI-MS spectroscopic data analyses and comparison of their NMR data with literatures. The compounds exhibited the carbon framework for seco-A ring tirucallane triterpenoid, first reported in the Dysoxylum genus. All compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against human cervical HeLa cells.


Assuntos
Meliaceae , Casca de Planta , Triterpenos , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Casca de Planta/química , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Meliaceae/química , Células HeLa , Caules de Planta/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 327: 118004, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432579

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Andiroba seed oil (Carapa guianensis Aubl.) is widely used by traditional populations in tropical countries, especially in the Brazilian Amazon, because of its anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, antiseptic, healing and antipyretic properties, among others, which makes it useful for the treatment, mainly, of skin afflictions and wounds. AIM OF THE STUDY: To describe the modulation of the immune system by andiroba oil (Carapa guianensis Aubl.) in inflammation and wound healing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A scoping review was performed, following the recommendations of the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) and PRISMA for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR). As inclusion criteria, in vitro, in vivo, ex vivo, and clinical studies were selected, in Portuguese, English, or Spanish, in thirteen databases of published studies, gray literature, and references of the included studies, which deal with immune modulation by andiroba oil in the context of the various therapeutic applications that make use of its anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties. The selection of information sources was carried out by two independent reviewers between November 2022 and January 2023. The process of data extraction and evidence analysis was conducted by four pairs of independent reviewers between January and February 2023. RESULTS: 22 sources of evidence were included in this scoping review, mostly scientific articles published between 2005 and 2021 with in vivo sampling. The evidence suggests that andiroba oil reduces inflammation and promotes the healing of wounds of multiple etiologies by reducing leukocyte infiltration, increasing phagocytic activity, enhancing interleukin and inflammatory cytokine activity, promoting fibroblast recovery, increasing growth factors, reducing apoptotic cells, promoting reepithelialization, as well as promoting angiogenesis, reducing edema, and stimulating the production of glucocorticoids that alleviate pain. Additionally, different formulations of the oil (such as nanoemulsions, films and gels) are more effective in modulating inflammation and wound healing compared to in natura oil. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence in the literature suggests that andiroba oil (Carapa guianensis Aubl.) has positive effects on immune modulation in inflammation and wound healing, which makes it a biocompound with high therapeutic potential.


Assuntos
Inflamação , Meliaceae , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Cicatrização , Sistema Imunitário
6.
J Nat Med ; 78(3): 558-567, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38517622

RESUMO

A total of five new mexicanolides (1-5), namely alliaxylines A-E, together with two known limonoids 6 and 7, were isolated and identified from Dysoxylum alliaceum (Blume) Blume ex. A.Juss. (Meliaceae). The structures of these compounds were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analyses, including HR-ESI-MS, UV, IR, 1D, and 2D NMR, as well as theoretical stimulation of NMR shifts with the DP4 + algorithm. Consequently, this study aimed to examine cytotoxic activities of these compounds against MCF-7 and A549 cell lines. The results implied that compound 2 was the most potent against the two tested cells, with IC50 values of 34.95 ± 0.21 and 44.39 ± 1.03 µM.


Assuntos
Limoninas , Meliaceae , Casca de Planta , Humanos , Meliaceae/química , Casca de Planta/química , Limoninas/química , Limoninas/farmacologia , Limoninas/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Células MCF-7 , Células A549 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5166, 2024 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431750

RESUMO

In seed plants, growth of shoots and roots is indeterminate, while leaves are typically determinate organs that cease to grow after a certain developmental stage. This is due to the characteristics of the leaf meristem, where cell proliferation activity is retained only for a limited period. However, several plants exhibit indeterminacy in their leaves, exemplified by the pinnate compound leaves of Guarea and Chisocheton genera in the Meliaceae family. In these plants, the leaf meristem at the tip of the leaf retains meristematic activity and produces leaflets over years, resulting in a single leaf that resembles a twig. The molecular mechanism underlying the indeterminate leaf meristem of these plants has not been examined. In this research, we used Guarea glabra as a model to investigate the development of indeterminate pinnate leaves. Transcriptome analyses revealed that the gene expression profile in leaf apex tissue differed from that in the shoot apex. However, a class 1 KNOTTED-LIKE HOMEOBOX (KNOX1) gene which is lost in Brassicaceae was highly expressed in both tissues. We established an in situ hybridisation system for this species using Technovit 9100 to analyse the spatial expression patterns of genes. We revealed that the leaf meristematic region of G. glabra expresses KNOX1, LEAFY and ANGUSTIFORIA3 simultaneously, suggesting the involvement of these genes in the indeterminacy of the leaf meristem.


Assuntos
Meliaceae , Meristema , Meliaceae/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Genes Homeobox , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
8.
Fitoterapia ; 174: 105862, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354823

RESUMO

Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition is currently a common method for the treatment and control of hypertension. In this study, four new (1-4) and one known (5) cycloartane triterpenoids were isolated from the leaves of Swietenia macrophylla by chromatographic techniques and identified by their spectroscopic data and a comprehensive comparison of published data. The triterpenoids were evaluated for their ACE inhibitory potential using in vitro inhibition assays and in silico methods. The inhibition assay and enzyme kinetics results showed that the most active triterpenoid, compound 4, inhibited ACE in a mixed-type manner with an IC50 value of 57.7 ± 6.07 µM. Computer simulations revealed that compound 4 reduces the catalytic efficiency of ACE by competitive insertion into the active pocket blocking the substrate, and the binding activity occurs mainly through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. The study showed that S. macrophylla can be a source of bioactive material and the ACE inhibitory triterpenoid could be a potential antihypertensive agent.


Assuntos
Meliaceae , Triterpenos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/química , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Meliaceae/química , Angiotensinas
9.
Steroids ; 205: 109390, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38367679

RESUMO

The Genus Dysoxylum (Meliaceae) consists of approximately 80 species that are abundant in structurally diverse triterpenoids. The present study focused on isolating new triterpenoids from the bark of Dysoxylum malabaricum, one of the predominant species of Dysoxylum present in India. The methanol-dichloromethane bark extract was subjected to LCMS profiling followed by silica gel column chromatography and HPLC analysis to target new compounds. Two new ring A-modified cycloartane-type triterpenoids (1 and 2) were isolated from the bark extract. Spectroscopic methods like NMR, HRESIMS data, and electronic circular dichroism calculations elucidated the structuresandabsolute configurations of the isolated compounds. These compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic potential against breast cancer cells and displayed notable cytotoxicity. Compound 1 exhibited the highest cytotoxicity against the MDA-MB-231 cells and induced apoptotic cell death. Also, it was able to inhibit glucose uptake and increase nitric oxide production in breast cancer cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos , Neoplasias da Mama , Meliaceae , Triterpenos , Humanos , Feminino , Estrutura Molecular , Casca de Planta/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Triterpenos/química , Meliaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/química
10.
Phytochemistry ; 221: 114039, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38417722

RESUMO

Steroids are farnesyl diphosphate-derived triterpene derivatives widely distributed in Meliaceae plants that can have several health benefits due to their biological activities. This literature survey on chemical and pharmacological studies of steroids from the Meliaceae plants indicates that 157 distinct steroids classified into six subclasses including (in decreasing number): pregnane-, stigmastane-, ergostane-, cholestane-, androstane- and ecdysterone-type steroids have been reported from a total of 49 plant species. This review aims to provide a reference document compiling information about the occurrence, chemistry and biological activities of meliaceous steroids for the period from 1988 to July 2023. In particular, generalities about the chemistry of steroids with unusual skeletons and underlying biosynthetic pathways are highlighted. In addition, some structural relationships between different compound types and their biological activities are presented. The information used during the writing of this paper was collected from the online libraries PubMed, Google Scholar and Scifinder using the keywords steroids and Meliaceae with no language restriction. This review points out new avenues for further investigations of steroids from plants of the Meliaceae family.


Assuntos
Meliaceae , Meliaceae/química , Esteroides/farmacologia , Esteroides/química , Pregnanos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
11.
Phytochemistry ; 220: 114009, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342289

RESUMO

Seven previously undescribed preurianin-type limonoids, namely paraxylines A-G, and three known analogs were isolated from stem bark of Dysoxylum parasiticum. The structures, including absolute configurations, were established through spectroscopic analyses, quantum chemical calculations using the density functional theory method, as well as the DP4+ algorithm. Paraxylines A-G were identified as the first preurianin-type with full substitution at C, D-rings, leading to the highly oxygenated seco-limonoids skeleton. The secreted alkaline phosphate assay against an engineered human and murine TLR4 of HEK-Blue cells was performed to evaluate the immune regulating effects. Among them, paraxyline B was found to be a remarkable TLR4 agonist whereas two analogs (toonapubesins A and B) were found to antagonise lipopolysaccharide stimulation of the TLR4 pathway. Paraxylines A and C-E acted either as agonists or antagonists depending on the origin of the TLR4 receptor (human or mouse). The effect of these selected compounds on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 of the NF-κB signaling pathway were examined in macrophage cell lines, revealing dose-dependent effects. Additionally, paraxylines A, C, D, and G also presented modest cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 23.1 to 43.5 µM.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos , Antineoplásicos , Limoninas , Meliaceae , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Limoninas/farmacologia , Limoninas/química , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Células HeLa , Casca de Planta/química , Estrutura Molecular , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Meliaceae/química
12.
Org Biomol Chem ; 22(11): 2182-2186, 2024 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38390690

RESUMO

Three novel phragmalin-type limonoids, swieteliacates S-U (1-3), were isolated from Swietenia macrophylla leaves, alongside four previously identified limonoids (4-7). The structures, encompassing absolute configurations, were delineated through 1D and 2D NMR analyses, high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS), and NMR and ECD calculations. Swieteliacate S (1) is a distinctive cryptate comprising a tricyclo[4.2.110,30.11,4]decane fragment and an additional five-membered oxygen ring. Compounds 3 and 5 exhibited inhibition rates of 26.08 ± 2.26% and 15.42 ± 3.66%, respectively, on triglyceride (TG) production in Hep G2 cells at 40 µM.


Assuntos
Limoninas , Meliaceae , Limoninas/química , Limoninas/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Meliaceae/química
13.
Molecules ; 29(3)2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338394

RESUMO

Eight vilasinin-class limonoids, including the unusually chlorinated rubescins K-M (1-3), the 2,3-epoxylated rubescin N (4), and rubescins O-R (5-8), were newly isolated from Trichilia rubescens. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined through spectroscopic and spectrometric analyses, as well as ECD calculations. The natural occurrence of chlorinated limonoids 1-3 was confirmed by chemical methods and HPLC analysis of a roughly fractionated portion of the plant extract. Eight selected limonoids, including previously known and new compounds, were evaluated for antiproliferative activity against five human tumor cell lines. All tested limonoids, except 8, exhibited significant potency, with IC50 values of <10 µM; in particular, limonoid 14 strongly inhibited tumor cell growth, with IC50 values of 0.54-2.06 µM against all tumor cell lines, including multi-drug-resistant cells.


Assuntos
Limoninas , Meliaceae , Humanos , Limoninas/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Meliaceae/química , Estrutura Molecular
14.
Phytochemistry ; 220: 113997, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38244960

RESUMO

Aphanapolystachones A-C (1-3), three undescribed sesquiterpene-diterpene heterodimers, were obtained from the fruits of Aphanamixis polystachya. Their structures and absolute configurations were identified by extensive analysis of HR-ESI-MS, NMR, experimental and TD-DFT calculated ECD spectra. The biosynthetic pathway of them was also proposed, which is produced by key intermolecular Diels-Alder [4 + 2]-cycloaddition reaction between a guaiane sesquiterpene and an acyclic diterpene. Compounds 1-3 inhibited NO production in LPS activated RAW 264.7 cells with the IC50 values of 1.7 ± 0.2, 3.0 ± 0.3, 5.3 ± 0.3 µM, respectively, lower than that of the positive control L-NMMA (31.5 ± 2.6 µM). In addition, compounds 1-3 significantly reduced IL-6 secretion at diluted concentration of 0.4 µM.


Assuntos
Diterpenos , Meliaceae , Sesquiterpenos , Animais , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Frutas/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Meliaceae/química , Diterpenos/química , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Estrutura Molecular
15.
J Nat Med ; 78(1): 68-77, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37690111

RESUMO

Ceramicines are a series of limonoids which were isolated from the barks of Malaysian Chisocheton ceramicus (Meliaceae), and were known to show various biological activity. Six new limonoids, ceramicines U-Z (1-6), with a cyclopentanone[α]phenanthrene ring system with a ß-furyl ring at C-17 were isolated from the barks of C. ceramicus. Their structures were determined on the basis of the 1D and 2D NMR analyses, and their absolute configurations were investigated by CD spectroscopy. Ceramicine W (3) exhibited potent antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain with IC50 value of 1.2 µM. In addition, the structure-antimalarial activity relationship (SAR) of the ceramicines was investigated to identify substituent patterns that may enhance activity. It appears that ring B and the functional groups in the vicinity of rings B and C are critical for the antimalarial activity of the ceramicines. In particular, bulky ester substituents with equatorial orientation at C-7 and C-12 greatly increase the antimalarial activity.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Limoninas , Meliaceae , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Limoninas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Meliaceae/química , Estrutura Molecular
16.
Fitoterapia ; 173: 105765, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38042506

RESUMO

A phytochemical study on the bark of Chisocheton erythrocarpus Hiern (Meliaceae) has led to the isolation of six new phragmalin-type limonoids named erythrocarpines I - N (1-6) along with one known limonoid, erythrocarpine F (7). Their structures were fully characterized by spectroscopic methods. The pre-treatment of NG108-15 cells with 1-5, 7 (2 h) demonstrated low to good protective effects against H2O2 exposure; 1 (83.77% ± 1.84 at 12.5 µM), 2 (69.07 ± 2.01 at 12.5 µM), 3 (80.38 ± 2.1 at 12.5 µM), 4 (62.33 ± 1.95 at 25 µM),5 (58.67 ± 1.85 at 50 µM) and 7 (66.07 ± 2.03 at 12.5 µM). Interestingly, 1 and 3 demonstrated comparable protective effects to positive control epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) with similar cell viability capacity (≈ 80%), having achieved that at lower concentration (12.5 µM) than EGCG (50 µM). Collectively, the results suggested the promising use of 1 and 3 as potential neuroprotective agents against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity in neuronal model.


Assuntos
Limoninas , Meliaceae , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Estrutura Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Limoninas/farmacologia , Limoninas/química , Meliaceae/química
17.
Afr J Pharm Res Dev (AJOPRED) ; 16(1): 39-49, 2024. figures, tables
Artigo em Inglês | AIM (África) | ID: biblio-1553329

RESUMO

The burden of epilepsy in developing countries made medicinal plants like Xylopia aethiopica fruit; Khaya grandifoliola, Alstonia boonei etc an alternative source in epilepsy management in the south-western part of Nigeria. The aim of the study was to provide pharmacological rationale for the ethnomedicinal use of the plants in epilepsy management. The oral medial lethal dose of methanol stem bark extracts of Alstonia boonei (MEAB) and Khaya grandifoliola (MEKG) and methanol fruit extract of Xylopia aethiopica (MEXAF) were done in accordance with the Organization for Economic Cooperation Development guideline. Quantitative and qualitative phytochemical profiling of the extracts was done. Anticonvulsant screening was carried out on the extracts (doses: 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg) using the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure and maximum electroshock tests (MEST). Results showed that the MEXAF has the highest amount of phytochemicals except for saponins in MEKG; and MEAB with the least amount (but higher alkaloid) than MEKG. The TLC showed different bands of spots of the extracts. In the PTZ test, MEXAF showed 100 % protection against mortality at 300 mg/kg; MEAB with 66.67 % protection at 75 mg/kg and MEKG 0 % protection. MEAB, MEKG and MEXAF nonsignificantly increased the onset of seizure and latency to death. In the MEST, MEXAF, MEKG and MEAB at 75 mg/kg protected 50, 33.3 and 16.67% of the animals against tonic hind limb extension respectively and nonsignificantly (p˃0.05) decreased the recovery time at a dose of 75 mg/kg. It was concluded that the extracts possess anticonvulsant activities hence, the pharmacological credence for the ethnomedicinal use of these plants in treating epilepsy.


Assuntos
Convulsões , Extratos Vegetais , Alstonia , Diagnóstico , Epilepsia , Xylopia , Anticonvulsivantes , Plantas Medicinais , Prevalência , Meliaceae , Compostos Fitoquímicos
18.
Nat Prod Res ; 38(1): 152-157, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921334

RESUMO

Glioma is a common malignant tumor with a high incidence rate but a low cure rate. In this paper, one previously undescribed limonoid (1), along with two known cipadesin-type limonoids 2 and 3, were isolated from Cipadessa baccifera. Their structures were established based on a comprehensive analysis of NMR and MS spectra. Compound 1 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against U251 and BT-325 cells with IC50 values of 7.32 ± 0.21 and 13.25 ± 0.35 µM, suggesting that 1 might be a promising leading compound for the treatment of glioma.


Assuntos
Glioma , Limoninas , Meliaceae , Humanos , Limoninas/farmacologia , Limoninas/química , Estrutura Molecular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Meliaceae/química
19.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 95(suppl 2): e20221015, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38055442

RESUMO

Pollen grain morphology and the characterization of additional structures related to pollen dispersion can help to understand the strategies presented by species as well as their taxonomic circumscription. This work investigates the morphology of pollen grains and orbicules of Cedrela fissilis Vell. and Cedrela odorata L., two threatened species of the genus Cedrela P. Browne (Meliaceae A. Juss.) in Brazil. Observations of pollen grains and orbicules of the species were carried out pre- and post-chemical treatment of the samples, under light and scanning electron microscopy, aiming at recognizing structures, detailing morphological characterizations and taking measurements, the last of which were submitted to statistical treatment. The results demonstrate that the pollen grains of the two species are medium in size (measuring between 25 and 50µm), radially symmetrical, isopolar, prolate-spheroidal and 4,5-colporate with subcircular to subquadrangular amb and psilate ornamentation; the orbicules also have a smooth surface and measure about 7 to 10µm. Variation was observed in the size of pollen grains, which presented high coefficient of variation and in the orbicules, as well as in the number of apertures.


Assuntos
Cedrela , Meliaceae , Animais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Especificidade da Espécie , Pólen/anatomia & histologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
20.
Sci Data ; 10(1): 832, 2023 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38007506

RESUMO

Mahogany species (family Meliaceae) are highly valued for their aesthetic and durable wood. Despite their economic and ecological importance, genomic resources for mahogany species are limited, hindering genetic improvement and conservation efforts. Here we perform chromosome-scale genome assemblies of two commercially important mahogany species: Swietenia macrophylla and Khaya senegalensis. By combining 10X sequencing and Hi-C data, we assemble high-quality genomes of 274.49 Mb (S. macrophylla) and 406.50 Mb (K. senegalensis), with scaffold N50 lengths of 8.51 Mb and 7.85 Mb, respectively. A total of 99.38% and 98.05% of the assembled sequences are anchored to 28 pseudo-chromosomes in S. macrophylla and K. senegalensis, respectively. We predict 34,129 and 31,908 protein-coding genes in S. macrophylla and K. senegalensis, respectively, of which 97.44% and 98.49% are functionally annotated. The chromosome-scale genome assemblies of these mahogany species could serve as a vital genetic resource, especially in understanding the properties of non-model woody plants. These high-quality genomes could support the development of molecular markers for breeding programs, conservation efforts, and the sustainable management of these valuable forest resources.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Meliaceae , Cromossomos , Meliaceae/genética
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