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1.
Indian J Med Ethics ; IX(2): 142-146, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755765

RESUMO

Government policies concerning access to menstrual hygiene primarily focus on adolescent girls and women, leaving out transgender individuals. Addressing access to menstrual hygiene for transgender persons will require two key steps: first, their inclusion in current policies, and second, framing additional policies to address specific needs. Due to the absence of specific studies on this subject, this commentary relies on personal narratives and international studies. Improving access to menstrual hygiene among transgender individuals will require the enhancing of the availability of menstrual hygiene products, mitigating of stigma and fear of harassment, sensitising of healthcare workers, and ensuring the availability of proper washrooms. In addition, addressing the menstrual injustice experienced by transgender persons involves addressing socioeconomic factors such as caste, poverty, and access to education. Using the lens of structural intersectionality, this article undertakes a review of oppressive systems causing menstrual injustice. This approach is intended to enable policymakers and researchers to consider the multifaceted identities of menstruators, fostering a holistic understanding that will inform their approach towards achieving menstrual equality.


Assuntos
Menstruação , Justiça Social , Estigma Social , Pessoas Transgênero , Humanos , Índia , Feminino , Masculino , Adolescente , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Higiene/normas
2.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 20: 17455057241251975, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38738597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While menstruation is a physiologic process, it remains highly stigmatized. Despite the sheer number of menstruators, menstruation is a highly individualized experience, with wide variation in duration, symptoms, and management. This wide variability lends itself to large disparities in access to menstruation management products and subsequently the lived experience of menstruators. OBJECTIVES: The research team sought to understand lived menstrual experiences, symptoms, management tactics, and commonly used and desired resources among 20 cisgendered women aged 18-45 years in Philadelphia. DESIGN: This project was a qualitative research study. METHODS: We used a collaborative, community-based participatory research approach with No More Secrets, a Philadelphia-based grassroots sexuality awareness and menstrual health hub. Semi-structured telephone interviews were used to gain insight into general menstruation-related experiences, communication, worries, and concerns, with subsequent thematic analysis via Key Words in Context approach. RESULTS: Four themes emerged following analysis: cycle characteristics, menstruation management, coping resources, and future resources. Participants largely spoke about their menses as a negative experience, asked for more comprehensive, verified sources of information and needed greater access to menstrual management supplies. CONCLUSION: Menstruation is a highly individualized experience with a large variety in knowledge, menstrual product use, and individual needs. Despite the individuality of menstruation, our community-based research shows that there is a dire need for interventions that promotes knowledge and access to menstrual care.


Assuntos
Menstruação , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Menstruação/psicologia , Philadelphia , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adaptação Psicológica , Entrevistas como Assunto
3.
BMJ Open ; 14(5): e078673, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724054

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the relationship between the COVID-19 pandemic and menstrual hygiene management (MHM) among adolescent girls in Ethiopia and to explore which girls were most affected by pandemic disruptions. DESIGN: Two rounds of data from surveys and interviews were collected with adolescent girls immediately prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The primary analysis is cross-sectional, controlling for pre-COVID-19 covariates. SETTING: The setting was three zones in two regions of Ethiopia: East Hararghe and East Shewa Zones in Oromia and South Gondar Zone in Amhara. Data were collected in December 2019-March 2020 and September 2020-February 2021. PARTICIPANTS: 742 adolescent girls, ages 11-25 years. OUTCOME MEASURES: Four primary outcomes were explored (1) the number of challenges girls experienced; (2) adolescent-identified challenges managing menstrual hygiene; (3) adolescent-identified difficulties accessing MHM products and (4) adolescent-identified difficulties accessing soap or water. RESULTS: Girls who were more vulnerable to COVID-19 were more likely to have worse MHM outcomes. An SD increase in household vulnerability to COVID-19 was associated with an 8.7 percentage point increase in the likelihood that the respondent had difficulty getting MHM products (p<0.001), a 6 percentage point increase in the likelihood that she reported facing a challenge managing her menstruation (p=0.003) and a 5.2 percentage point increase in the likelihood she lacked soap or water (p=0.001). Qualitative themes, used to triangulate the quantitative findings, suggest that mobility restrictions, shutdowns of the local market, disruptions in supply chains, poverty, stigma and fear about contracting COVID-19 affected girls' access to MHM supplies. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that MHM was left behind in the COVID-19 response. New programming and policy interventions need to address financial hardship and disruptions to supplies to manage menstruation as well as tackle the inequitable gender norms that stigmatise menstruation during emergencies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Higiene , Menstruação , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Feminino , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Transversais , Criança , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual/provisão & distribuição , Adulto , Pandemias , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(21): 30336-30352, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627349

RESUMO

With ever-improving social and medical awareness about menstrual hygiene in India, the demand for sanitary napkins has increased significantly. The utilization of high-quality and environment-friendly raw materials to produce these pads is further supporting the growth of the market. However, with improving demand and usage, the need for proper disposal techniques becomes more relevant, since all of these pads get contaminated with human blood which makes them a biohazard and can cause significant damage to human health and the environment. One sanitary pad takes around 800 years to degrade naturally and the plastic and super absorbent polymers (SAPs) in sanitary pads are non-biodegradable and can take multiple decades to degrade. Waste management technologies such as pyrolysis, gasification, and resource recovery can be adopted to manage tons of sanitary waste. Currently, sanitary waste treatment mainly focuses on landfilling, incineration, and composting, where biohazard wastes are mixed with tons of solid waste. Disposable sanitary pads have a high carbon footprint of about 5.3 kg CO2 equivalent every year. Innovative solutions for sanitary pad disposal are discussed in the manuscript which includes repurposing of derived waste cellulose and plastic fraction into value-added products. Future aspects of disinfection strategies and value addition to waste cellulose recovered from napkins were systematically discussed to promote a circular economy.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Índia , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Humanos , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual , Resíduos Sólidos
5.
Reprod Health ; 21(1): 56, 2024 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38649934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite being integral to women's well-being, achieving good menstrual health (MH) remains a challenge. This study examined MH services uptake (including information, analgesics, and a choice of MH products - the menstrual cup and reusable pads) and sustained use of MH products within an integrated sexual and reproductive health intervention for young people in Zimbabwe. METHODS: This mixed-methods study was nested within a cluster randomised trial of integrated sexual and reproductive health services (CHIEDZA) for youth in three provinces (Harare, Mashonaland East, and Bulawayo). The study collected qualitative and quantitative data from 27,725 female clients aged 16-24 years, who accessed CHIEDZA from April 2019 - March 2022. Using a biometric (fingerprint recognition) identification system, known as SIMPRINTS, uptake of MH information, products, and analgesics and other services was tracked for each client. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to investigate MH service uptake and product choice and use over time, and the factors associated with these outcomes. Thematic analysis of focus group discussions and interviews were used to further explore providers' and participants' experiences of the MH service and CHIEDZA intervention. RESULTS: Overall, 36,991 clients accessed CHIEDZA of whom 27,725 (75%) were female. Almost all (n = 26,448; 95.4%) took up the MH service at least once: 25433 took up an MH product with the majority (23,346; 92.8%) choosing reusable pads. The uptake of cups varied across province with Bulawayo province having the highest uptake (13.4%). Clients aged 20-24 years old were more likely to choose cups than reusable pads compared with those aged 16-19 years (9.4% vs 6.0%; p < 0.001). Over the implementation period, 300/1819 (16.5%) of clients swapped from the menstrual cup to reusable pads and 83/23346 (0.4%) swapped from reusable pads to the menstrual cup. Provision of the MH service encouraged uptake of other important SRH services. Qualitative findings highlighted the provision of free integrated SRH and MH services that included a choice of MH products and analgesics in a youth-friendly environment were key to high uptake and overall female engagement with SRH services. CONCLUSIONS: High uptake demonstrates how the MH service provided much needed access to MH products and information. Integration of MH within an SRH intervention proved central to young women accessing other SRH services.


Assuntos
Analgésicos , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual/provisão & distribuição , Menstruação , Saúde Reprodutiva , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Sexual , Zimbábue
6.
Contraception ; 134: 110415, 2024 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431257

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate menstrual cup use and intrauterine device (IUD) expulsion. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a secondary analysis of a 3-year contraceptive efficacy trial comparing two copper 380 mm2 IUDs. Investigators randomized participants approximately 1:4 to the TCu380A or NTCu380-Mini IUD. Approximately 12 months after enrollment began, we advised participants against menstrual cup use due to observed IUD expulsions in cup users. We evaluated IUD expulsion (including spontaneous partial and complete expulsion and accidental self-removal) at 12 and 36 months. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate IUD expulsion by age, baseline menstrual volume, body mass index, IUD type, menstrual cup use, parity, and uterine length. RESULTS: This analysis included 1046 participants (203 TCu380A and 843 NTCu380-Mini), with 879 (84.0%) nulliparas. Through 12 and 36 months, expulsion occurred in 74 (7.1%, 95% CI 5.5-8.6%) and 133 (12.7%, 95% CI 10.7-14.7%) participants, respectively. Overall, 250 (23.9%) reported menstrual cup use. More menstrual cup users than non-users experienced expulsion through 12 months (32/203 [15.8%] vs. 42/843 [5.0%]) and 36 months (58/250 [23.2%] vs. 75/796 [9.4%]). Through 36 months, NTCu380-Mini menstrual cup users had higher expulsion odds, while TCu380A cup users did not. Menstrual cup users more frequently experienced accidental self-removal than non-users in participants using the TCu380A (3/53 [5.7%] vs. 0/150 [0.0%]) and the NTCu380-Mini (20/197 [10.2%] vs. 7/646 [1.1%]). In multivariable regression, we found increased odds of expulsion through 36 months in participants using menstrual cups with the NTCu380-Mini (aOR 3.13, 95% CI 1.16-8.46) and <25 years (aOR 1.59, 95% CI 1.07-2.34). CONCLUSIONS: We found higher odds of IUD expulsion with menstrual cup and concurrent NTCu380-Mini IUD use over 36 months of use, but not with concurrent TCu380A IUD use. Menstrual cup users experienced higher likelihood of accidental self-removal regardless of IUD type. IMPLICATIONS: Menstrual cup and NTCu380-Mini use may increase IUD expulsion risk and may increase accidental self-removal risk with TCu380A and NTCu380-Mini use. Clinicians should advise patients of these risks and consider warning patients using an IUD shaped like the NTCu380-Mini (Nova-T frames) of expulsion risk with menstrual cup use.


Assuntos
Expulsão de Dispositivo Intrauterino , Dispositivos Intrauterinos de Cobre , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual , Humanos , Feminino , Dispositivos Intrauterinos de Cobre/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Modelos Logísticos
7.
J Immunol Methods ; 528: 113656, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447801

RESUMO

Cytokines are important mediators of immunity in the female genital tract, and their levels may be associated with various reproductive health outcomes. However, the measurement of cytokines and chemokines in vaginal fluid samples may be influenced by a variety of factors, each with the potential to affect the sensitivity and accuracy of the assay, including the interpretation and comparison of data. We measured and compared cytokine milieu in samples collected via Softcup® menstrual cup versus vulvovaginal swabs. One hundred and eighty vulvovaginal swabs from CAPRISA 088 and 42 Softcup supernatants from CAPRISA 016 cohorts of pregnant women were used to measure the concentrations of 28 cytokines through multiplexing. Cytokines measured in this study were detectable in each of the methods however, SoftCup supernatants showed consistently, higher detectability, expression ratios, and mean concentration of cytokines than vulvovaginal swabs. While mean concentrations differed, the majority of cytokines correlated between SoftCup supernatants and vulvovaginal swabs. Additionally, there were no significant differences in a number of participants between the two sampling methods for the classification of genital inflammation. Our findings suggest that SoftCup supernatants and vulvovaginal swab samples are suitable for the collection of genital specimens to study biological markers of genital inflammatory response. However, the Softcup menstrual cup performs better for the detection and quantification of soluble biomarkers that are found in low concentrations in cervicovaginal fluid.


Assuntos
Colo do Útero , Citocinas , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual , Vagina , Genitália Feminina
8.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 33(4): 491-498, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38407820

RESUMO

Background: This study explored factors associated with the differences between women and men in attitudes, norms, and the support of taxation of menstrual products (MPs) and menstrual-adjacent products. It also investigated the use of these products in women. Methods: Young adults from 18 to 30 years of age were recruited via social media, listserve emails, and flyers placed throughout a university campus. Following cognitive interviewing, a survey investigated attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors associated with MPs. Results: Individuals self-identified as men or women. Women (n = 154) had more positive general attitudes, less positive safety attitudes, and less support for taxation of MPs than men (n = 43). Regression analyses indicated that factors, such as race, age, attitudes, norms, and taxation, were associated with product use. Conclusions: Attitudes about safety and taxation differ for men and women. Tax policies and attitude-shifting interventions need to be tailored to their audience, and our study can inform that effort.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual , Impostos , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores Sexuais
9.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 144, 2024 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38408979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Menstruation is a major physiological change in a woman's life, but lack of knowledge, poor practices, socio-cultural barriers, poor access to products and their improper disposal have significant consequences on health, dignity and well-being of women and adolescent girls. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the knowledge and practices related to menstrual health and hygiene amongst females of 10-49 years of age; explore the experiences and challenges of women during menstruation; and identify the key predictors of healthy menstrual health and hygiene. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional study design, we adopted a mixed methods approach for data collection. For quantitative household survey, a total of 921 respondents were selected from three districts of Odisha. Qualitative findings through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews supplemented the survey findings and helped to identify the barriers affecting good menstrual practices. Epi data version 2.5 and R 4.2.2 was used for data entry and data analysis, respectively. Descriptive statistics was used to calculate proportion, mean and standard deviation; Chi square test was used to measure the association between categorical variables. Bivariate and multivariate logistics analyses were done to identify predictors of healthy menstrual health and hygiene. For qualitative data analysis, thematic analysis approach was adopted using software Atlas.ti 8. RESULTS: For 74.3% respondents, mothers were the primary source of information; about 61% respondents were using sanitary pad. The mean age at menarche was 12.9 years and almost 46% of respondents did not receive any information about menstruation before menarche. Lower age and education up to higher secondary level or above had statistically significant associations with the knowledge about menstruation. Age, caste, respondent's education, mother's education, sanitation facility, availability of water, accessibility and affordability for sanitary pads were found to be strongly associated with good menstrual hygiene practices. CONCLUSION: Traditional beliefs regarding menstruation still persists at the community level. Educating mothers, increasing awareness about safe menstrual hygiene, providing adequate water and sanitation facilities and ensuring proper disposal of menstruation products need priority attention.


Assuntos
Higiene , Menstruação , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Menstruação/fisiologia , Higiene/educação , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual , Índia , Água
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38397644

RESUMO

Disasters that involve displacement are particularly challenging for managing personal and menstrual hygiene, which can increase the risk of toxic shock syndrome, infections and other health conditions that can endanger women's lives. This study aimed to examine the menstrual hygiene challenges experienced by internally displaced women affected by recurrent natural disasters and subsequent displacement in the context of a low-middle-income country, i.e., Pakistan. A critical ethnographic study was undertaken in disaster-relief camps in the northern region of Pakistan. Data were collected using multiple methods, including field observations, review of media reports and in-depth interviews with 18 women. The findings suggested that the key barriers to the personal and menstrual hygiene of women during recurrent disasters and displacement in the mountainous rural region of Pakistan include inadequate housing, lack of infrastructure and humanitarian aid, no waste disposal system and lack of women-friendly spaces in disaster-relief camps. Community-based collaboration is necessary for the implementation of effective interventions. A comprehensive menstrual response to promote the health and well-being of women during disasters must include menstruation supplies, supportive facilities (mainly toilets and bathing facilities), supplementary supplies for storing, washing and drying, disposal/waste management facilities, education and culturally appropriate spaces and supplies.


Assuntos
Desastres , Menstruação , Humanos , Feminino , Higiene/educação , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
11.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 165(3): 1158-1166, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38189102

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between women's menstrual hygiene product use and their level of concern around climate change as well as to identify the variables influencing this relationship. METHODS: In all, 978 women between the ages of 18 and 49 who were of reproductive age participated in this descriptive cross-sectional study. The CHERRIES criteria were followed in conducting the online survey. Data were gathered using the "personal information form" and the Climate Change Anxiety Scale for Women's Health The data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, multiple linear regression, and logistic regression. RESULTS: Women were more prone to using throwaway goods than eco-friendly, sanitary goods when their climate change worry level was lower. Age, education level, region of residence, and the intensity of menstrual bleeding have an impact on the hygiene products used during the menstrual cycle, whereas environmental pollution in the area of residence and a woman's allergy status have an impact on the level of climate change anxiety concerning a woman's health. CONCLUSION: Women who are worried about how climate change will affect their health prefer to purchase sustainable/eco-friendly items. Starting in adolescence, women can receive advice about the use of sustainable products from health experts who are primarily responsible for women's health.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Mudança Climática , Produtos de Higiene Feminina , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Saúde da Mulher , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual , Modelos Logísticos , Menstruação/psicologia
12.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 78, 2024 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38291382

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The primary objectives were to determine the proportion of modern menstrual method (MMM) users among college going women in Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu; and to estimate the unmet needs associated with use of MMMs in comparison with other menstrual hygiene methods (MHMs). We also assessed the factors that determine MMM use among college going women. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among college going women in Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu, India between October 2022 and January 2023 using a purpose predesigned, pretested, semi-structured proforma that included validated Menstrual Practice Needs Scale (MPNS-36). RESULTS: Only 1.4% of the study participants used MMMs - menstrual cups (1.3%) and tampons (0.1%). Sanitary pads were the most common MHM of choice (96.3%); of which majority (98.6%) used disposable pads and more than half (50.4%) used non-biodegradable pads. Importantly, one in six (16.5%) were not aware of nature of sanitary pads (biodegradable or nonbiodegradable) used. The unmet needs associated with MMMs (menstrual cups and tampons) were significantly lower than that for other MHMs (including sanitary pads), in particular, the unmet material and home environment needs, unmet material reliability concerns, unmet reuse needs and unmet reuse insecurity. However, we found no significant difference between MMMs, sanitary pads and other MHMs in terms of unmet transport, college environment, change and disposal insecurity needs. The significant predictors of use of MMMs were age (more than 21 years of age), residence (urban), type of stay (off campus including home), socioeconomic status (upper), fathers' and mothers' education (high school and above), and presence of personal income. Discussions with friends (or peers) both before and after menarche regarding menstruation resulted in higher adoption of modern menstrual methods. CONCLUSION: MMMs provided comparative advantage with lesser unmet needs for material reliability and reuse insecurity concerns, particularly in home environment. However, none of the MHMs fulfilled the user expectations for transport and disposal insecurity concerns, particularly outdoors.


Assuntos
Higiene , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual , Menstruação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Higiene/educação , Índia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) ; 64(1): 222-225, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37940100

RESUMO

Menstrual health is composed of physical and psychosocial factors and fundamental to the well-being of menstruating individuals. Clinicians are urged to assess markers of menstruation as a vital sign, informing potential current and future health risks. Period poverty, or lack of access to menstrual hygiene products, sanitation, and clinical support, is a concern worldwide, particularly for vulnerable populations. As global health authorities and professional medical associations call for menstrual health as a priority, pharmacists are well-positioned to contribute solutions through access, education, advocacy, and research.


Assuntos
Higiene , Menstruação , Feminino , Humanos , Menstruação/psicologia , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual , Pobreza , Escolaridade , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
14.
BJOG ; 131(5): 655-664, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37743685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: From menarche until menopause, the average menstruator will use over 11 000 tampons or sanitary pads. Vaginal and vulvar tissue is highly permeable, and chemicals are absorbed without undergoing first-pass metabolism. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a review of the literature to determine exposure to environmental chemicals in menstrual products. SEARCH STRATEGY: This review identified 15 papers over the past 10 years. SELECTION CRITERIA: Papers that measured chemicals in menstrual products and that measured human biomarkers of chemical exposure were included. Papers had to also be available in English. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Reviewers assessed the articles and data provided. Multiple chemical groups were found. MAIN RESULTS: Phthalates, volatile organic compounds, parabens, environmental phenols, fragrance chemicals, dioxins and dioxin-like compounds were detected in menstrual products. Research gaps were identified, including the lack of studies on newer products such as menstrual underwear and cups/discs. In addition to measuring chemicals in these products, future research should focus on clarifying the exposure per menstrual cycle to these chemicals to understand how menorrhagia and cycle length influence exposure from menstrual products. CONCLUSION: Menstrual products contained measurable levels of a range of endocrine disrupting chemicals including phthalates, phenols and parabens. This reflects a potentially important route of exposure to chemicals that can impact women's reproductive health.


Assuntos
Produtos de Higiene Menstrual , Ácidos Ftálicos , Humanos , Feminino , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual/efeitos adversos , Parabenos/efeitos adversos , Reprodução , Fenóis
16.
BMJ Sex Reprod Health ; 50(1): 21-26, 2024 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37550075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heavy menstrual bleeding affects up to one third of menstruating individuals and has a negative impact on quality of life. The diagnosis of heavy menstrual bleeding is based primarily on history taking, which is highly dependent on traditional disposable menstrual products such as pads and tampons. Only tampons undergo industry-regulated testing for absorption capacity. As use of alternative menstrual products is increasing, there is a need to understand how the capacity of these products compare to that of standard products. METHODS: A variety of commercially available menstrual products (tampons, pads, menstrual cups and discs, and period underwear) were tested in the laboratory to determine their maximal capacity to absorb or fill using expired human packed red blood cells. The volume of blood necessary for saturation or filling of the product was recorded. RESULTS: Of the 21 individual menstrual hygiene products tested, a menstrual disc (Ziggy, Jiangsu, China) held the most blood of any product (80 mL). The perineal ice-activated cold pack and period underwear held the least (<3 mL each). Of the product categories tested, on average, menstrual discs had the greatest capacity (61 mL) and period underwear held the least (2 mL). Tampons, pads (heavy/ultra), and menstrual cups held similar amounts of blood (approximately 20-50 mL). CONCLUSION: This study found considerable variability in red blood cell volume capacity of menstrual products. This emphasises the importance of asking individuals about the type of menstrual products they use and how they use them. Further understanding of capacity of newer menstrual products can help clinicians better quantify menstrual blood loss, identify individuals who may benefit from additional evaluation, and monitor treatment.


Assuntos
Menorragia , Feminino , Humanos , Menorragia/diagnóstico , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual , Higiene , Qualidade de Vida , Menstruação , Eritrócitos
17.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 292: 239-243, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38043221

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of Turkish women of reproductive age toward menstrual cup. METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted via online platforms with 301 Turkish women between March-June 2023. The Participant Information Form was used to collect the data. A p value of <0.05 was considered. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 26.42 ± 7.81 years. The most common used menstrual hygiene product was sanitary pad. Of the women, 72.1 % have heard of the menstrual cup before, however, only 6.6 % of the women used menstrual cups. The 42.9 % of the women who use the menstrual cup had difficulty in using it. The most common concern of women who did not use menstrual cups was that they thought they were uncomfortable and did not know how to use them. Factors such as age, marital status, place of residence, occupation, previous pregnancy and finding the menstrual hygiene product used comfortable was found statistically significantly correlated with the menstrual cup usage. CONCLUSION: In our study, very few of the women use menstrual cups, and nearly half of them stated that they had difficulty in using it. The participants who did not use the menstrual cup most frequently did not know how to use the cup and did not use it because they thought the cup was uncomfortable. It is essential to increase the awareness of reproductive age women about the menstrual cups.


Assuntos
Produtos de Higiene Menstrual , Menstruação , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Higiene
18.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 33(1): 20-27, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38016121

RESUMO

Background: Data documenting period product insecurity, or an inability to access products, in the United States have recently emerged. With multiple years of data now available, we assessed trends in period product insecurity among two nationally representative samples of U.S. adults. Materials and Methods: Data from nationally representative, cross-sectional online surveys conducted in January 2018 and April 2021 were used to run weighted logistic regressions. Those aged 18-49 years and who had menstruated in the past year (n = 922 in 2018; n = 1037 in 2021) were included. Results: In 2021, 59% experienced period product insecurity compared with 53% in 2018. In 2018 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.91, confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.29-2.83) and 2021 (aOR 1.53, 95% CI: 1.06-2.21), Hispanic respondents were more likely to find products unaffordable. Some college attainment was associated with finding products unaffordable in 2018 (aOR 1.53, 95% CI: 1.00-2.34) and 2021 (aOR 1.97, 95% CI: 1.35-2.88). Participants struggling to purchase products had higher odds of experiencing period product insecurity in 2018 (aOR 11.78, 95% CI: 8.07-17.20) and 2021 (aOR 7.71, 95% CI: 5.44-10.93). Conclusions: Hispanic ethnicity, lower educational attainment, and struggling to purchase period products were strong predictors of finding products unaffordable and experiencing product insecurity in both 2018 and 2021. Policies that improve access to or affordability of period products in the United States are needed to help those most vulnerable.


Assuntos
Etnicidade , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual , Menstruação , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Hispânico ou Latino , Estados Unidos , Feminino , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual/economia
19.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e4028, Jan.-Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1522038

RESUMO

Objetivo: sintetizar la evidencia disponible relacionada con el acceso y las prácticas de higiene menstrual en América Latina y el Caribe. Método: revisión de alcance de la literatura con protocolo de investigación registrado en el Open Science Framework, realizada en las bases de datos bibliográficas: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science y Portal Regional da Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde. Los datos fueron analizados mediante estadística descriptiva simple y análisis temático. Resultados: se incluyeron 15 publicaciones, la mayoría de las cuales trataban sobre adolescentes en Brasil: 12 artículos, dos informes técnicos y una monografía de trabajo de conclusión de curso. Como temas recurrentes en las publicaciones se destacan: acceso a condiciones dignas para el manejo de la higiene menstrual; necesidad de acceso a información sobre el manejo de la higiene menstrual; y prácticas para el manejo de la higiene menstrual. Conclusión: adolescentes informan dificultades para acceder a baños, agua y materiales absorbentes, y falta de información sobre la salud menstrual, incluso en las escuelas, lo que lleva al ausentismo escolar. De esta manera, las lagunas en la literatura científica latinoamericana revelan desigualdades y diversidad en las experiencias menstruales interseccionadas por categorías como género, clase social y etnia.


Objective: to synthesize available evidence related to menstrual hygiene access and practices in Latin America and the Caribbean. Method: literature scoping review with research protocol registered in the Open Science Framework, carried out in the bibliographic databases: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Portal Regional da Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde. Data were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Results: 15 publications were included, the majority of which addressed adolescents in Brazil: 12 articles, two technical reports and a course conclusion monograph. As recurring themes in the publications, the following stand out: Access to dignified conditions for managing menstrual hygiene; Need for access to information on menstrual hygiene management; and Practices for managing menstrual hygiene. Conclusion: adolescents report difficulties in accessing toilets, water and absorbent materials, and lack of information about menstrual health, including in schools, leading to school absenteeism. Thus, gaps in the Latin American scientific literature reveal inequalities and diversity in menstrual experiences intersected by categories such as gender, social class and ethnicity


Objetivo: sintetizar evidências disponíveis relacionadas ao acesso e práticas de higiene menstrual na América Latina e Caribe. Método: revisão de escopo da literatura com protocolo de pesquisa registrado no Open Science Framework, realizada nas bases de dados bibliográficas: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science e Portal Regional da Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde. Os dados foram analisados por estatística descritiva simples e análise temática. Resultados: foram incluídas 15 publicações, cuja maioria abordava adolescentes no Brasil: 12 artigos, dois relatórios técnicos e uma monografia de trabalho de conclusão de curso. Como temas recorrentes nas publicações, destacam-se: acesso a condições dignas para o manejo da higiene menstrual; necessidade de acesso à informação sobre manejo da higiene menstrual; e práticas para manejo da higiene menstrual. Conclusão: adolescentes relatam dificuldades de acesso a sanitários, água e materiais absorventes, e falta de informação sobre saúde menstrual, inclusive nas escolas, levando ao absenteísmo escolar. Assim, lacunas na literatura científica latino-americana revelam desigualdades e diversidade nas experiências menstruais interseccionadas por categorias como gênero, classe social e etnia.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Higiene , Estudos Transversais , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual , Menstruação
20.
BMC Womens Health ; 23(1): 573, 2023 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37932760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Menstruation, especially the menstrual cycle, is a vital sign for female adolescent health and maintaining menstrual hygiene is of utmost importance for menstruating girls and women. However, menstrual hygiene and management are issues that have not received adequate attention. Therefore, the present study aimed to explore spatial patterns of menstrual hygiene practices in India and to identify their socioeconomic and demographic determinants among women aged 15-24 years. METHODS: The study utilized data from the fifth round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5) conducted during 2019-21 in India. The analysis was limited to 241,180 women aged 15-24 years. The statistical methods range from multinomial logistic regression, spatial autocorrelation in terms of Moran's I statistics, to spatial regression in order to understand the spatial dependence and clustering in different methods of menstrual practices across the districts of India. RESULTS: Almost half of the respondents (49.8 percent) reported using hygienic methods of bloodstain protection, while 22.7 percent still relied on unhygienic methods and 27.5 percent reported using both hygienic and unhygienic methods during their menstruation. Factors like age, place of residence, caste, religion, education, wealth index and toilet facility were found to be significantly associated with the use of unhygienic and both methods. It was also observed that the percentage of women practicing hygienic methods was predominantly higher in the Southern region. On the other hand, states like Madhya Pradesh and Bihar appeared to be hotspots for unhygienic menstrual practices. The univariate Moran's I value for unhygienic and both methods were 0.722 and 0.596, respectively, depicting high spatial autocorrelation across districts in India. In spatial regression, rural residence, illiteracy, poverty, and no toilet facility were found to be statistically significant predictors of the use of unhygienic method and both methods. CONCLUSION: Young women should be educated about the importance of menstrual hygiene practices and the physiological consequences of unhygienic practices. Furthermore, interventions should target socio-economically disadvantaged women to increase the use of sanitary napkins.


Assuntos
Higiene , Menstruação , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Pobreza , Análise Espacial , Índia , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
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