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1.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 33(1): 40-48, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583023

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the cytotoxic effect of a menthol-favored E-liquid on human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs), as well as the underlying mechanism of electronic cigarette (E-cig)-induced cell apoptosis. METHODS: PDLSCs were isolated and cultured from periodontal ligament tissues of healthy premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons. Cells in passage 3 were used to detect the surface markers of stem cells by flow cytometry. Then the cells were exposed to different doses of menthol-favored E-liquid (at 59 mg/L nicotine concentration) in the culture median (the final nicotine concentrations were 0.1 µg/mL, 1.0 µg/mL, 10 µg/mL, 50 µg/mL, 0.1 mg/mL, 0.2 mg/mL and 0.5 mg/mL, respectively) for different period of times (24, 48 and 72 h). The cell viability was analyzed by CCK-8 assay. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry (7-AAD and Annexin V staining) and TUNEL assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was detected with fluorescence probe DCFH-DA by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The protein expression levels associated with ROS/JNK/caspase 3 axis(p-JNK, JNK, c-Jun, p-c-Jun, Bcl-2, Bax and cleaved-caspase 3) were analyzed by Western blot. Immunocytofluorescense staining was applied to evaluate the expression level of p-JNK. After addition of NAC, a ROS scavenger, and MAPK/JNK specific blocker SP600125, their effects on E-cig-induced cell apoptosis were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed with Graph Pad 5.0 software package. RESULTS: Human PDLSCs were successfully isolated and cultured and flow cytometry assay showed the mesenchymal stem cell surface biomarkers (CD73, CD90 and CD105) were positively expressed. CCK8 assay indicated cell viability was significantly(P<0.001) different among all concentration groups at various time points (24, 48 or 72 h), and the difference in apoptosis rate among all concentration groups was also statistically significant (P<0.001). After exposure to E-liquid with nicotine concentration ≥50 µg/mL, cell viability was significantly reduced, and the proportion of apoptotic cells and the cellular ROS level was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner as compared with the control group(0.0 mg/mL). Western blot assay showed E-cig exposure could promote MAPK/JNK phosphorylation in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Either NAC or SP600125 could partially rescue the E-cig-induced cell apoptosis via reversing up-regulation of p-JNK and cleaved caspase 3. CONCLUSIONS: ROS/JNK/caspase 3 axis is involved in menthol-favored E-liquid-induced apoptosis of hPDLSCs.


Assuntos
Antracenos , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Humanos , Fosforilação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/farmacologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 3/farmacologia , Mentol/farmacologia , Ligamento Periodontal/metabolismo , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Apoptose , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
2.
Popul Health Metr ; 22(1): 6, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Targeted marketing of menthol cigarettes in the US influences disparities in the prevalence of menthol smoking. There has been no analysis of sub-national data documenting differences in use across demographic subgroups. This study estimated trends in the prevalence of menthol use among adults who smoke in the nine US census divisions by sex, age, and race/ethnicity from 2002 to 2020. METHODS: Data from 12 waves of the US ITC Survey were used to estimate the prevalence of menthol cigarette use across census divisions and demographic subgroups using multilevel regression and post-stratification (n = 12,020). Multilevel logistic regression was used to predict the prevalence of menthol cigarette use in 72 cross-classified groups of adults who smoke defined by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status; division-level effects were fit with a random intercept. Predicted prevalence was weighted by the total number of adults who smoke in each cross-classified group and aggregated to divisions within demographic subgroup. Estimates were validated against the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS). RESULTS: Overall modeled prevalence of menthol cigarette use was similar to TUS-CPS estimates. Prevalence among adults who smoke increased in each division from 2002 to 2020. By 2020, prevalence was highest in the Middle (46.3%) and South Atlantic (42.7%) and lowest in the Pacific (25.9%) and Mountain (24.2%) divisions. Prevalence was higher among adults aged 18-29 (vs. 50+) and females (vs. males). Prevalence among non-Hispanic Black people exceeded 80% in the Middle Atlantic, East North Central, West North Central, and South Atlantic in all years and varied most among Hispanic people in 2020 (Pacific: 26.5%, New England: 55.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Significant geographic variation in the prevalence of menthol cigarette use among adults who smoke suggests the proposed US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) menthol cigarette ban will exert differential public health benefits and challenges across geographic and demographic subgroups.


Assuntos
Mentol , Produtos do Tabaco , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Censos , Controle do Tabagismo , Fumar/epidemiologia
3.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 21: E20, 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547020

RESUMO

Introduction: Monitoring menthol cigarette use allows for identification of potential health disparities. We examined sociodemographic and temporal differences in menthol cigarette use among US adults who smoke. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for adults aged 20 years or older who smoke (N = 11,431) using binary logistic regression. Results: Among US adults who smoke, 28.8% used menthol cigarettes. After adjusting for age, sex, race and ethnicity, education, income-to-poverty ratio, and health status, the prevalence of menthol use among adults who smoke increased on average by 3.8% (95% CI, 2.7%-4.9%) annually. Non-Hispanic Black adults had the highest average prevalence of menthol cigarette use, 73.0% (95% CI, 70.9%-75.2%), and Mexican American adults had higher average annual increase in menthol cigarette use, 7.1% (95% CI, 4.0%-10.3%). Adults with fair or poor health status had a 4.3% annual increase in menthol cigarette use (95% CI, 2.5%-6.1%). The adjusted prevalence ratios of menthol cigarette use were 1.61 (95% CI, 1.39-1.83) for adults aged 20-29 years compared with those aged 65 years or older, 1.41 (95% CI, 1.32-1.49) for female adults compared with male adults, and 1.17 (95% CI, 1.07-1.27) for high school graduates or higher compared with those with no high school diploma. Conclusion: Non-Hispanic Black adults who smoke had the highest prevalence of menthol cigarette use among all racial and ethnic groups; the prevalence of menthol cigarette use among adults who smoke increased especially among Mexican American adults, younger adults, and adults who reported fair to poor health status.


Assuntos
Mentol , Produtos do Tabaco , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Brancos
4.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0292412, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38470869

RESUMO

Amid a potential menthol ban, electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) companies are incorporating synthetic cooling agents like WS-3 and WS-23 to replicate menthol/mint sensations. This study examines public views on synthetic cooling agents in e-cigarettes via Twitter data. From May 2021 to March 2023, we used Twitter Streaming Application Programming Interface (API), to collect tweets related to synthetic cooling agents with keywords such as 'WS-23,' 'ice,' and 'frozen.' The deep learning RoBERTa (Robustly Optimized BERT-Pretraining Approach) model that can be optimized for contextual language understanding was used to classify attitudes expressed in tweets about synthetic cooling agents and identify e-cigarette users. The BERTopic (a topic modeling technique that leverages Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers) deep-learning model, specializing in extracting and clustering topics from large texts, identified major topics of positive and negative tweets. Two proportion Z-tests were used to compare the proportions of positive and negative attitudes between e-cigarette users (vapers) and non-e-cigarette-users (non-vapers). Of 6,940,065 e-cigarettes-related tweets, 5,788 were non-commercial tweets related to synthetic cooling agents. The longitudinal trend analysis showed a clear upward trend in discussions. Vapers posted most of the tweets (73.05%, 4,228/5,788). Nearly half (47.87%, 2,771/5,788) held a positive attitude toward synthetic cooling agents, which is significantly higher than those with a negative attitude (19.92%,1,153/5,788) with a P-value < 0.0001. The likelihood of vapers expressing positive attitudes (60.17%, 2,544/4,228) was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than that of non-vapers (14.55%, 227/1,560). Conversely, negative attitudes from non-vapers (30%, 468/1,560) were significantly (P < 0.0001) higher than vapers (16.2%, 685/4,228). Prevalent topics from positive tweets included "enjoyment of specific vape flavors," "preference for lush ice vapes," and "liking of minty/icy feelings." Major topics from negative tweets included "disliking certain vape flavors" and "dislike of others vaping around them." On Twitter, vapers are more likely to have a positive attitude toward synthetic cooling agents than non-vapers. Our study provides important insights into how the public perceives synthetic cooling agents in e-cigarettes. These insights are crucial for shaping future U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations aimed at safeguarding public health.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Mídias Sociais , Vaping , Humanos , Opinião Pública , Mentol , Gelo
5.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 201, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38475757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Menthol cigarette use remains a large public health problem and disproportionately affects Black adults in the United States. The Food and Drug Administration has proposed prohibiting menthol flavor in cigarettes to protect public health. However, e-cigarettes are available in menthol flavor and are a popular alternative product adults might switch to if menthol is prohibited in cigarettes. Research is needed to understand how availability of menthol (vs. tobacco) flavored e-cigarettes could impact cigarette use among adults who smoke menthol cigarettes. METHODS: We will recruit 150 adults who currently smoke menthol cigarettes and will randomize them to 1 of 3 conditions modeling different regulatory scenarios. We will recruit equal numbers of participants identifying as Black vs. non-Black and will stratify randomization by race. To promote standardization and adherence, cigarette and e-cigarette products will be provided for 8 weeks based on the assigned condition: (A) no menthol restriction (menthol cigarette and menthol flavored e-cigarette), (B) menthol prohibited in cigarettes only (non-menthol cigarette and menthol flavored e-cigarette), (C) menthol prohibited in both cigarettes and e-cigarettes (non-menthol cigarette and tobacco flavored e-cigarette). A follow-up visit will occur at week 12 to assess tobacco use status. The study aims are to (1) examine the impact of prohibiting menthol flavor in cigarettes and e-cigarettes on smoking behavior and (2) investigate whether outcomes differ by race to understand the impact of menthol policies on Black (vs. non-Black) individuals given high rates of menthol cigarette use in this population. The primary outcome will evaluate changes in the number of cigarettes smoked per day during the 8-week study period and will examine differences by regulatory scenario. Secondary outcomes will compare percent days smoke-free, changes in nicotine dependence, and motivation, confidence, and intentions to quit smoking by the regulatory scenarios. We will examine whether changes in the outcomes differ by Black vs. non-Black participants to compare the magnitude of the effect of the various menthol policy scenarios by race. DISCUSSION: Results will contribute critical information regarding menthol in cigarettes and e-cigarettes to inform regulatory policies that maximize reductions in cigarette smoking and reduce tobacco-related health disparities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT05259566. Yale IRB protocol #2000032211, last approved 12/8/2023.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Adulto , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Mentol , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Aromatizantes , Controle do Tabagismo , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
6.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38538234

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the occurrence of low back work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) among workers in a container manufacturing factory, and to explore the influencing factors. Methods: In June 2022, 952 workers from a container factory were selected as the research objects by cluster random sampling. Through questionnaire survey, the incidence of low back WMSDs symptoms among workers in the past one year was collected, and the influencing factors of low back WMSDs were analyzed by logistic regression. Results: The incidence rate of low back WMSDs was 46.7% (445/952). The factors with higher exposure at work were frequent slight bending (77.0%, 733/952), frequent overtime (74.1%, 705/952), and the need to turn around while working (62.3%, 593/952). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age over 40 years old, smoking, drinking, often bending over slightly, sitting for a long time, maintaining a large bending posture for a long time, often working overtime, limited operating space, and there was always a need to complete conflicting things in the container manufacturing factory workers were the risks of increasing the low back WMSDs (OR=1.68, 1.96, 2.47, 1.49, 1.84, 2.11, 1.90, 1.82, 2.00, P<0.05). Standing at work, always friendly colleagues, and always supportive and helpful leaders were protective factors for low back WMSDs (OR=0.60, 0.32, 0.40, P<0.05) . Conclusion: The incidence of low back WMSDs symptoms in container manufacturing workers is high, and work-related factors such as frequent slight bending, long time holding large bending posture and limited operating space are the focus of ergonomic intervention in container manufacturing enterprises.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Doenças Profissionais , Humanos , Adulto , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Prevalência , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Mentol , Instalações Industriais e de Manufatura
7.
Biomolecules ; 14(3)2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38540710

RESUMO

Human Campylobacter jejuni infections are of worldwide importance and represent the most commonly reported bacterial enteritis cases in middle- and high-income countries. Since antibiotics are usually not indicated and the severity of campylobacteriosis is directly linked to the risk of developing post-infectious complications, non-toxic antibiotic-independent treatment approaches are highly desirable. Given its health-promoting properties, including anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activities, we tested the disease-alleviating effects of oral menthol in murine campylobacteriosis. Therefore, human gut microbiota-associated IL-10-/- mice were orally subjected to synthetic menthol starting a week before C. jejuni infection and followed up until day 6 post-infection. Whereas menthol pretreatment did not improve campylobacteriosis symptoms, it resulted in reduced colonic C. jejuni numbers and alleviated both macroscopic and microscopic aspects of C. jejuni infection in pretreated mice vs. controls. Menthol pretreatment dampened the recruitment of macrophages, monocytes, and T lymphocytes to colonic sites of infection, which was accompanied by mitigated intestinal nitric oxide secretion. Furthermore, menthol pretreatment had only marginal effects on the human fecal gut microbiota composition during the C. jejuni infection. In conclusion, the results of this preclinical placebo-controlled intervention study provide evidence that menthol application constitutes a promising way to tackle acute campylobacteriosis, thereby reducing the risk for post-infectious complications.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter jejuni , Enterocolite , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Interleucina-10/genética , Mentol/farmacologia , Mentol/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Campylobacter/complicações , Infecções por Campylobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Enterocolite/tratamento farmacológico , Enterocolite/microbiologia
8.
Games Health J ; 13(2): 128-133, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38530225

RESUMO

Purpose: Tabletop gaming has seen a rise in popularity over the past 10 years, with an influx of interest following the Coronavirus pandemic. Limited research has explored the impact of tabletop roleplaying games on mental health and self-concepts such as self-esteem and self-efficacy. This study used a repeated-measures design with four measurement points to quantitatively evaluate the effect of playing Dungeons & Dragons (D&D) on mental health and self-concepts in a community sample. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five community participants took part in 8 weeks of D&D gameplay (one 1 hour session per week), completing pre-, mid-, and postintervention surveys. Eighteen of these participants also completed a 1-month follow-up measure. Results: Participants demonstrated significant decreases in depression, stress, and anxiety and significant increases in self-esteem and self-efficacy over the study period. Conclusion: As such, D&D may have potential utility as a wellbeing intervention or prevention program.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Salicilatos , Autoimagem , Humanos , Autoeficácia , Ansiedade , Cânfora , Mentol
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 209, 2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38519997

RESUMO

Salinity stress can significantly delay plant growth. It can disrupt water and nutrient uptake, reducing crop yields and poor plant health. The use of strigolactone can be an effective technique to overcome this issue. Strigolactone enhances plant growth by promoting root development and improvement in physiological attributes. The current pot study used strigolactone to amend chili under no salinity and salinity stress environments. There were four treatments, i.e., 0, 10µM strigolactone, 20µM strigolactone and 30µM strigolactone. All treatments were applied in four replications following a completely randomized design (CRD). Results showed that 20µM strigolactone caused a significant increase in chili plant height (21.07%), dry weight (33.60%), fruit length (19.24%), fruit girth (35.37%), and fruit yield (60.74%) compared to control under salinity stress. Significant enhancement in chili chlorophyll a (18.65%), chlorophyll b (43.52%), and total chlorophyll (25.09%) under salinity stress validated the effectiveness of 20µM strigolactone application as treatment over control. Furthermore, improvement in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium concentration in leaves confirmed the efficient functioning of 20µM strigolactone compared to other concentrations under salinity stress. The study concluded that 20µM strigolactone is recommended for mitigating salinity stress in chili plants. Growers are advised to apply 20µM strigolactone to enhance their chili production under salinity stress.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis , Cânfora , Clorofila A , Lactonas , Mentol , Salinidade , Estresse Salino
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4772, 2024 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38413788

RESUMO

Nutrient leaching is a major reason for fresh and ground water contamination. Menthol is the major bioactive ingredient of Mentha arvensis L. and one of the most traded products of global essential oil market. The indigenous production of menthol crystals in developing countries of the world can prove to be the backbone for local growers and poor farmers. Therefore, present research was designed to check the effects of nano-structured plant growth regulators (PGRs) (28-homobrassinolide and ethephon) with reduced leaching potentials on the essential oil and menthol (%) of Mentha arvensis L. The prepared nano-formulations were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), Differential scanning colorimetry-thermal gravimetric analysis (DSC-TGA), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and Zeta potential and Zeta size analysis. The menthol (%) was determined by modified spectrophotometric and gas chromatographic (GC) method. The highest essential oil (%) was obtained by the application of 28-homobrassinolide-Zn-NPs-L-II (0.92 ± 0.09%) and ethephon-Ca-NPs-L-III (0.91 ± 0.05%) as compared to the control (0.65 ± 0.03%) and blank (0.62 ± 0.09%). The highest menthol (%) was obtained by applying 28-homobrassinolide-Ca-NPs-L-I (80.06 ± 0.07%), 28-homobrassinolide-Ca-NPs-L-II (80.48 ± 0.09%) and 28-homobrassinolide-Ca-NPs-L-III (80.84 ± 0.11%) and ethephon-Ca-NPs-L-III (81.53 ± 0.17%) and ethephon-Zn-NPs-L-II (81.93 ± 0.26%) as compared to control (67.19 ± 0.14%) and blank (63.93 ± 0.17%).


Assuntos
Mentha , Óleos Voláteis , Compostos Organofosforados , Mentol/farmacologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Óleos Voláteis/química , Mentha/metabolismo
11.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 103: 106789, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Solanum pseudocapsicum (PC) and Capsicum annum (CA) belongs to the family of Solanaceae. CA have been reported a rich source of phenolics whereas, the phenolics content of GA (gallic acid), SC (scopoletin), RA (rosmarinic acid), and RV (resveratrol) are yet to be reported for the PC-fruit. This study comparatively evaluates the phenolics profile for different parts (seeds and skin) and colors (green and red) of the PC- and CA-fruits using the green solvents of ethanol (ET), acetone (AC), water (H2O), and different combinations of these solvents. METHODOLOGY: Ultrasonics extraction (US) and UHPLC analysis were employed for phenolics evaluation. RESULTS: The USMD (method development) revealed the highest extract yield of 62 mg/100 mg for the PC-skin in ET:AC (70:30) solvent whereas, more phenolics (ppm) were observed for PC-seeds in ET:AC (50:50) solvent, particularly the SC (29.46) and GA (16.92). The UHPLCMDMV exhibited significant accuracies (100.70-114.14 %) with r2-values (0.9993-0.9997) in the linearity range of 1-200 ppm. The USMV (method validation) in PC- and CA-fruit parts and colors revealed more extract yields for the red skin part of the PC- (180.5 mg) and CA-fruit (126.2 mg). The phenolics were seen more in the green seeds of the PC-fruit (ppm); SC (276), GA (147.36), RV (28.54), and RA (23.87) followed by the green PC-skin, and red/green CA-seeds. The statistical models of mean differences, ANOVA, and Pearson's correlation showed significant differences for the PC-fruit parts (seeds and skin) and colors (red and green) vs extract yield and phenolics content (P = 0.05). CONCLUSION: PC-and CA-fruits were successfully evaluated where the seeds for the green fruits exhibited more phenolics amount.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Solanum , Ultrassom , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Extratos Vegetais , Fenóis/análise , Solventes , Frutas/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Etanol , Cânfora/análise , Mentol/análise , Acetona
12.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 256: 111110, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Menthol cigarette smoking has remained stable or increased in certain groups, despite an overall decline in cigarette smoking rates in the U.S. Understanding whether e-cigarettes alter patterns of menthol cigarette use is critical to informing efforts for reducing the public health burden of menthol cigarette smoking. This 2019-2020 laboratory pilot study evaluated whether self-administration of mint-, menthol-, or tobacco-flavored e-cigarettes would differentially impact tobacco withdrawal symptoms in e-cigarette-naïve adults who smoke menthol cigarettes daily. METHODS: Participants (N=17; 35.3% Female; mean age=51.8) attended three laboratory sessions after 16-hours of tobacco abstinence. Participants self-administered a study-provided JUUL e-cigarette (0.7mL with 5% nicotine by weight) at each session in which flavor was manipulated (mint vs. menthol vs. tobacco; order randomized). Participants completed pre- and post-e-cigarette administration self-report assessments on smoking urges, nicotine withdrawal, and positive and negative affect states. Multilevel linear regression models tested differences between the three flavor conditions for individual study outcomes. RESULTS: Following overnight tobacco abstinence, vaping either a mint or menthol (vs. tobacco) flavored e-cigarette led to significantly greater reductions in smoking urges over time; menthol (vs. tobacco) flavored e-cigarettes also suppressed urges to smoke for pleasure. Notably, no differences in nicotine withdrawal, positive affect, or negative affect were observed. CONCLUSIONS: In this laboratory pilot study, mint and menthol (vs. tobacco) flavored e-cigarettes provided some negative reinforcement effects via acute reductions in smoking urges during tobacco abstinence, yet only menthol flavored e-cigarettes demonstrated suppressive effects on smoking urges for pleasure in adults who smoke menthol cigarettes daily.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Mentha , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Produtos do Tabaco , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mentol , Nicotina , Projetos Piloto
13.
Food Funct ; 15(4): 2144-2153, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305768

RESUMO

The hippocampal memory deficit stands out as a primary symptom in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. While numerous therapeutic candidates have been proposed, they primarily serve to delay disease progression. Given the irreversible brain atrophy or injury associated with these conditions, current research efforts are concentrated on preventive medicine strategies. Herein, we investigated whether the extracts of Capsicum annuum L. seeds (CSE) and Capsicum annuum L. pulp (CPE) have preventive properties against glutamate-induced neuroexcitotoxicity (one of the main causes of Alzheimer's disease) in HT22 hippocampal neuronal cells. Pretreatment with CSE demonstrated significant anti-neuroexcitotoxic activity, whereas CPE did not exhibit such effects. Specifically, CSE pretreatment dose-dependently inhibited the elevation of excitotoxic elements (intracellular calcium influx and reactive oxygen species; ROS) and apoptotic elements (p53 and cleaved caspase-3). In addition, the glutamate-induced alterations of neuronal activity indicators (brain-derived neurotrophic factor; BDNF and cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation; CREB) were significantly attenuated by CSE treatment. We also found that luteolin is the main bioactive compound corresponding to the anti-neuroexcitotoxic effects of CSE. Our results strongly suggest that Capsicum annuum L. seeds (but not its pulp) could be candidates for neuro-protective resources especially under conditions of neuroexcitotoxicity. Its underlying mechanisms may involve the amelioration of ROS-mediated cell death and BDNF-related neuronal inactivity and luteolin would be an active compound.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Capsicum , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Capsicum/química , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Luteolina/farmacologia , Cânfora/metabolismo , Cânfora/farmacologia , Mentol/metabolismo , Mentol/farmacologia , Neurônios , Sementes/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/metabolismo
14.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 207: 108376, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354526

RESUMO

Heavy metals contaminate agricultural land by limiting the productivity of crops and making them or their products unfit for consumption. Arsenic (As) is a potentially hazardous metalloid that severely impacts plants' survival. Menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L.) bears volatile compounds that are harshly exaggerated by diverse environmental factors like drought, salinity, heavy metal, temperature, photoperiod, and luminosity stresses. In this study, the phytotoxicity of As was examined in M. arvensis L. and its alleviation through the supplementation of oligomers of carrageenan. Noticeably, scanty information is available regarding the effect of irradiated carrageenan (ICA) on As-stressed plants. In order to observe the same in the case of M. arvensis L., the effect of ICA on As-treated plants was explored. The ICA concentration (foliar-applied) selected for the study was 80 mg L-1, 100 mg L-1 and 120 mg L-1, and that of As (soil-applied) was 80 mg kg-1 soil. Excess accumulation of As resulted in reduced growth, enzymatic activities, and yield and quality parameters of M. arvensis L. under As toxicity. However, the foliage application of ICA strengthens the antioxidant machinery and other physiological and oxidative stress biomarkers of the plant by facilitating the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), and proline, and, therefore aids in alleviating the toxicity generated by As. Nevertheless, ICA supplementation proves beneficial in enhancing the monoterpene synthesis (essential oil production and its active constituents) of M. arvensis L. by maintaining a steady-state equilibrium between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and its scavenging process.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Mentha , Metais Pesados , Resiliência Psicológica , Carragenina/farmacologia , Arsênio/toxicidade , Mentol , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Produtos Agrícolas , Estresse Oxidativo , Solo
15.
Langmuir ; 40(10): 5098-5105, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38412279

RESUMO

As a serious public health issue, malaria threatens the health of millions of people. Artemisinin, a gift from traditional Chinese medicine, has been used in the treatment of malaria and has shown good therapeutic efficiency. However, due to its low solubility, poor bioavailability, and short half-life time, some smart delivery strategies are still required. Herein, a multifunctional DES prepared from ibuprofen and menthol was prepared. This DES was shown to efficiently promote the solubility of artemisinin up to 400-fold. Then, it was further applied as the oil phase to construct an O/W microemulsion with the help of Tween-80 + Span-20 mixed surfactants. The prepared microemulsion displayed high efficiency in improving the permeability of artemisinin, which can be ascribed to the presence of the permeation enhancer menthol in DES and the microstructure of the O/W microemulsion. Moreover, the simultaneous permeation of artemisinin and ibuprofen further indicated the potential benefits of the presented formulation in the treatment of malaria. To sum up, the microemulsion based on multifunctional DES presented herein provided an effective method for transdermal delivery of artemisinin.


Assuntos
Artemisininas , Malária , Humanos , Ibuprofeno/química , Solventes Eutéticos Profundos , Solventes , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Mentol , Emulsões/química , Administração Cutânea , Tensoativos/química , Malária/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Chemosphere ; 346: 140533, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38303396

RESUMO

This paper proposes the preparation of a new sorbent material based on melamine sponges (MS) with superhydrophobic, superoleophilic, and magnetic properties. This study involved impregnating the surface of commercially available MS with eco-friendly deep eutectic solvents (DES) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The DES selection was based on the screening of 105 eutectic mixtures using COSMO-RS modeling. Other parameters affecting the efficiency and selectivity of oil removal from water were optimized using the Box-Bhenken model. Menthol:Thymol (1:1)@Fe3O4-MS exhibited the highest sorption capacity for real crude oils (101.7-127.3 g/g). This new sponge demonstrated paramagnetic behavior (31.06 emu/g), superhydrophobicity (151°), superoleophobicity (0°), low density (15.6 mg/cm3), high porosity (99 %), and excellent mechanical stability. Furthermore, it allows multiple regeneration processes without losing its sorption capacity. Based on these benefits, Menthol:Thymol (1:1)@Fe3O4-MS shows promise as an efficient, cost-effective, and eco-friendly substitute for the existing sorbents.


Assuntos
Petróleo , Triazinas , Água/química , Mentol , Timol , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Fenômenos Magnéticos
17.
Respir Res ; 25(1): 23, 2024 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38200492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarette (e-cig) vaping has increased in the past decade in the US, and e-cig use is misleadingly marketed as a safe cessation for quitting smoking. The main constituents in e-liquid are humectants, such as propylene glycol (PG) and vegetable glycerine (VG), but different flavoring chemicals are also used. However, the toxicology profile of flavored e-cigs in the pulmonary tract is lacking. We hypothesized that menthol and tobacco-flavored e-cig (nicotine-free) exposure results in inflammatory responses and dysregulated repair in lung fibroblast and epithelium. METHOD: We exposed lung fibroblast (HFL-1) and epithelium (BEAS-2B) to Air, PG/VG, menthol flavored, or tobacco-flavored e-cig, and determined the cytotoxicity, inflammation, and wound healing ability in 2D cells and 3D microtissue chip models. RESULTS: After exposure, HFL-1 showed decreased cell number with increased IL-8 levels in the tobacco flavor group compared to air. BEAS-2B also showed increased IL-8 secretion after PG/VG and tobacco flavor exposure, while menthol flavor exposure showed no change. Both menthol and tobacco-flavored e-cig exposure showed decreased protein abundance of type 1 collagen α 1 (COL1A1), α-smooth-muscle actin (αSMA), and fibronectin as well as decreased gene expression level of αSMA (Acta2) in HFL-1. After tobacco flavor e-cig exposure, HFL-1 mediated wound healing and tissue contractility were inhibited. Furthermore, BEAS-2B exposed to menthol flavor showed significantly decreased tight junction gene expressions, such as CDH1, OCLN, and TJP1. CONCLUSION: Overall, tobacco-flavored e-cig exposure induces inflammation in both epithelium and fibroblasts, and tobacco-flavored e-cig inhibits wound healing ability in fibroblasts.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Nicotina , Nicotina/toxicidade , Mentol , Interleucina-8 , Epitélio , Fibroblastos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Produtos do Tabaco
18.
Subst Use Misuse ; 59(5): 727-731, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38226661

RESUMO

Background: Research is needed to identify the determinants of motivation to quit smoking among non-Hispanic Black (NHB) adults who smoke menthol cigarettes and reside in communities covered by menthol cigarette bans. Objectives: This study examined the associations between motivation to quit smoking and a range of individual-level predictors, including measures of demographics, harm/risk perception of menthol cigarettes, and awareness of a ban on menthol cigarettes in Los Angeles County unincorporated communities. Self-identified NHB adults who currently smoke menthol cigarettes (N=50; M=47.2 years; SD=13.7; 46% female) were recruited in Los Angeles County unincorporated communities. Participants completed an interviewer-administered cross-sectional survey between January to September 2021. Results: Participants (74%) reported an annual household income of less than $25,000. Participants' mean age at cigarette initiation was 15.7 years old (SD=5.68). Most (88%) were aware of the ordinance banning menthol cigarette sales. Employing multivariable linear regression analysis, harm/risk perception of menthol cigarettes (B=14.69, p<0.01) and awareness of the local menthol ban (B=26.18, p<0.05) were found to be independently associated with motivation to quit smoking. Conclusions: Findings from this community-based sample suggest that among NHB adults who smoke menthol cigarettes, motivation to quit smoking is influenced by their perception of menthol cigarettes as harmful and awareness of local policy banning the sale of menthol cigarettes. Findings underscore the need for community-centered and culturally grounded interventions to facilitate quitting among NHB adults who smoke in order for communities covered by menthol bans to achieve health equity in reducing preventable racial inequities due to menthol cigarettes.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Masculino , Motivação , Mentol , Estudos Transversais , Los Angeles
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(4): 2277-2286, 2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38235660

RESUMO

Enzymatic kinetic resolution is a promising way to produce l-menthol. However, the properties of the reported biocatalysts are still unsatisfactory and far from being ready for industrial application. Herein, a para-nitrobenzylesterase (pnbA) gene from Bacillus subtilis was cloned and expressed to produce l-menthol from d,l-menthyl acetate. The highest enantiomeric excess (ee) value of the product generated by pnbA was only approximately 80%, with a high conversion rate (47.8%) of d,l-menthyl acetate with the help of a cosolvent, indicating high catalytic activity but low enantioselectivity (E = 19.95). To enhance the enantioselectivity and catalytic efficiency of pnbA to d,l-menthyl acetate in an organic solvent-free system, site-directed mutagenesis was performed based on the results of molecular docking. The F314E/F315T mutant showed the best catalytic properties (E = 36.25) for d,l-menthyl acetate, with 92.11% ee and 30.58% conversion of d,l-menthyl acetate. To further improve the properties of pnbA, additional mutants were constructed based on the structure-guided triple-code saturation mutagenesis strategy. Finally, four mutants were screened for the best enantioselectivity (ee > 99%, E > 300) and catalytic efficiency at a high substrate concentration (200 g/L) without a cosolvent. This work provides several generally applicable biocatalysts for the industrial production of l-menthol.


Assuntos
Esterases , Mentol , Esterases/genética , Esterases/química , Mentol/química , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais , Acetatos
20.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 104(5): 377-384, 2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38281807

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the effects between transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) on pain symptom and neuronal proliferation in mice with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). Methods: Female wild-type C57BL/6 mice (8-10 weeks old) were divided into control group, IC/BPS model group, and IC/BPS model+menthol group (6 mice each) by random number table method; TRPM8 knockout mice were randomly divided into TRPM8 knockout group and TRPM8 knockout model group (6 mice each). The IC/BPS model group, the IC/BPS model+menthol group, and the TRPM8 knockout model group were injected subcutaneously with residues 65-84 of murine uroplakin 3A (UPK3A65-84). The IC/BPS model+menthol group continued to be injected with menthol. After successful modeling, the differences in pain thresholds between the groups were assessed by mechanosensitivity. The bladder wall was injected with a cell membrane red fluorescent probe (Dil), and the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) tissues were collected 10 days later. The differences in the protein and mRNA levels of TRPM8 and GAP43 in the groups were detected by Western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), respectively. Immunofluorescence was used to detect the distribution of TRPM8 expression with GAP43 or Dil in DRG tissues. The relationship between TRPM8 and pain symptom and its role in neuronal proliferation in IC/BPS mice were analyzed. Results: The models were all constructed successfully. Compared with the control group, the pain thresholds of mice in the IC/BPS model group and IC/BPS model+menthol group were reduced [(8.50±1.22), (5.50±1.05) vs (11.67±2.16), respectively, all P<0.001]. Compared with the control group, the expression of TRPM8 mRNA was elevated in the IC/BPS model group and IC/BPS model+menthol group, while TRPM8 was not expressed in the TRPM8 knockout group [(3.16±0.05), (6.46±0.21), and 0 vs (1.00±0.06), respectively, all P<0.001]. The expression of TRPM8 protein and mRNA in each group had the same trend (P<0.001). Compared with the control group, the expression of GAP43 mRNA in the DRG of the IC/BPS model group and the IC/BPS model+menthol group was increased, whereas the expression of GAP43 mRNA in the TRPM8 knockout model group was decreased (all P<0.001). The trend of GAP43 protein expression was the same as that of mRNA expression (P<0.001). Immunofluorescence results showed an increase in the number of GAP43-positive neurons in the DRG of the IC/BPS model group and the IC/BPS model+menthol group, and a decrease in the TRPM8 knockout group compared with the control group (all P<0.001). Compared with the control group, the number of Dil-positive neurons in the DRG of the IC/BPS model group and the IC/BPS model+menthol group was increased, while the TRPM8 knockout group was decreased (all P<0.001). Conclusion: TRPM8 can exacerbate pain symptom in IC/BPS mice, and the mechanism may be related to the induction of sensory nerve proliferation at the DRG level.


Assuntos
Cistite Intersticial , Canais de Cátion TRPM , Camundongos , Feminino , Animais , Mentol/farmacologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Dor , Neurônios/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro , Proliferação de Células , Canais de Cátion TRPM/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPM/metabolismo
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