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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12759, 2024 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834771

RESUMO

Exposure to N2O5 generated by plasma technology activates immunity in Arabidopsis through tryptophan metabolites. However, little is known about the effects of N2O5 exposure on other plant species. Sweet basil synthesizes many valuable secondary metabolites in its leaves. Therefore, metabolomic analyses were performed at three different exposure levels [9.7 (Ex1), 19.4 (Ex2) and 29.1 (Ex3) µmol] to assess the effects of N2O5 on basil leaves. As a result, cinnamaldehyde and phenolic acids increased with increasing doses. Certain flavonoids, columbianetin, and caryophyllene oxide increased with lower Ex1 exposure, cineole and methyl eugenol increased with moderate Ex2 exposure and L-glutathione GSH also increased with higher Ex3 exposure. Furthermore, gene expression analysis by quantitative RT-PCR showed that certain genes involved in the syntheses of secondary metabolites and jasmonic acid were significantly up-regulated early after N2O5 exposure. These results suggest that N2O5 exposure increases several valuable secondary metabolites in sweet basil leaves via plant defense responses in a controllable system.


Assuntos
Ocimum basilicum , Folhas de Planta , Metabolismo Secundário , Ocimum basilicum/metabolismo , Ocimum basilicum/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Metabolismo Secundário/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Metabolômica/métodos , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Eugenol/análogos & derivados , Eugenol/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo
2.
Environ Health ; 23(1): 52, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835048

RESUMO

Risk assessment (RA) of microbial secondary metabolites (SM) is part of the EU approval process for microbial active substances (AS) used in plant protection products (PPP). As the number of potentially produced microbial SM may be high for a certain microbial strain and existing information on the metabolites often are low, data gaps are frequently identified during the RA. Often, RA cannot conclusively clarify the toxicological relevance of the individual substances. This work presents data and RA conclusions on four metabolites, Beauvericin, 2,3-deepoxy-2,3-didehydro-rhizoxin (DDR), Leucinostatin A and Swainsonin in detail as examples for the challenging process of RA. To overcome the problem of incomplete assessment reports, RA of microbial AS for PPP is in need of new approaches. In view of the Next Generation Risk Assessment (NGRA), the combination of literature data, omic-methods, in vitro and in silico methods combined in adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) can be used for an efficient and targeted identification and assessment of metabolites of concern (MoC).


Assuntos
União Europeia , Medição de Risco , Metabolismo Secundário , Depsipeptídeos/toxicidade , Depsipeptídeos/metabolismo , Humanos
3.
Food Microbiol ; 122: 104532, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839238

RESUMO

Penicillium spp. produce a great variety of secondary metabolites, including several mycotoxins, on food substrates. Chestnuts represent a favorable substrate for Penicillium spp. development. In this study, the genomes of ten Penicillium species, virulent on chestnuts, were sequenced and annotated: P. bialowiezense. P. pancosmium, P. manginii, P. discolor, P. crustosum, P. palitans, P. viridicatum, P. glandicola, P. taurinense and P. terrarumae. Assembly size ranges from 27.5 to 36.8 Mb and the number of encoded genes ranges from 9,867 to 12,520. The total number of predicted biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) in the ten species is 551. The most represented families of BGCs are non ribosomal peptide synthase (191) and polyketide synthase (175), followed by terpene synthases (87). Genome-wide collections of gene phylogenies (phylomes) were reconstructed for each of the newly sequenced Penicillium species allowing for the prediction of orthologous relationships among our species, as well as other 20 annotated Penicillium species available in the public domain. We investigated in silico the presence of BGCs for 10 secondary metabolites, including 5 mycotoxins, whose production was validated in vivo through chemical analyses. Among the clusters present in this set of species we found andrastin A and its related cluster atlantinone A, mycophenolic acid, patulin, penitrem A and the cluster responsible for the synthesis of roquefortine C/glandicoline A/glandicoline B/meleagrin. We confirmed the presence of these clusters in several of the Penicillium species conforming our dataset and verified their capacity to synthesize them in a chestnut-based medium with chemical analysis. Interestingly, we identified mycotoxin clusters in some species for the first time, such as the andrastin A cluster in P. flavigenum and P. taurinense, and the roquefortine C cluster in P. nalgiovense and P. taurinense. Chestnuts proved to be an optimal substrate for species of Penicillium with different mycotoxigenic potential, opening the door to risks related to the occurrence of multiple mycotoxins in the same food matrix.


Assuntos
Genoma Fúngico , Família Multigênica , Micotoxinas , Penicillium , Filogenia , Metabolismo Secundário , Penicillium/genética , Penicillium/metabolismo , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Micotoxinas/genética , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Patulina/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Nozes/microbiologia , Policetídeo Sintases/genética , Policetídeo Sintases/metabolismo , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Corylus/microbiologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis , Indóis , Piperazinas
4.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 212: 108789, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38850727

RESUMO

Role of redox homeostasis in fruit ripening of Capsicum annuum L. with oxidative metabolism was studied. The research aims the ability to reduce agents during postharvest storage on fruit for delayed ripening with the regulation of oxidative stress. Thus, we applied 10 mM reduced glutathione (GSH) to fruit as pretreatment followed by 1 mM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as ripening-inducing treatment and observed during 7 days of storage at 25 °C. A decrease in total soluble solid and firmness under H2O2, was increased while dehydration in tissue was decreased by GSH pretreatment. Glutathione regulated the turnover of organic acids to reducing sugars with higher activity of NADP malic enzyme that sustained the fruit coat photosynthesis through chlorophyll fluorescence, pigment composition, and photosystem II activity. Malondialdehyde accumulation was inversely correlated with GSH content and antioxidative enzyme activity that reduced loss of cell viability. Conclusively, regulation of oxidative stress with GSH may be effective in the extension of shelf life under postharvest storage.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Frutas , Glutationa , Oxirredução , Capsicum/metabolismo , Capsicum/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo
5.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 575, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus shinii appears as an umbrella species encompassing several strains of Staphylococcus pseudoxylosus and Staphylococcus xylosus. Given its phylogenetic closeness to S. xylosus, S. shinii can be found in similar ecological niches, including the microbiota of fermented meats where the species may contribute to colour and flavour development. In addition to these conventional functionalities, a biopreservation potential based on the production of antagonistic compounds may be available. Such potential, however, remains largely unexplored in contrast to the large body of research that is available on the biopreservative properties of lactic acid bacteria. The present study outlines the exploration of the genetic basis of competitiveness and antimicrobial activity of a fermented meat isolate, S. shinii IMDO-S216. To this end, its genome was sequenced, de novo assembled, and annotated. RESULTS: The genome contained a single circular chromosome and eight plasmid replicons. Focus of the genomic exploration was on secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters coding for ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides. One complete cluster was coding for a bacteriocin, namely lactococcin 972; the genes coding for the pre-bacteriocin, the ATP-binding cassette transporter, and the immunity protein were also identified. Five other complete clusters were identified, possibly functioning as competitiveness factors. These clusters were found to be involved in various responses such as membrane fluidity, iron intake from the medium, a quorum sensing system, and decreased sensitivity to antimicrobial peptides and competing microorganisms. The presence of these clusters was equally studied among a selection of multiple Staphylococcus species to assess their prevalence in closely-related organisms. CONCLUSIONS: Such factors possibly translate in an improved adaptation and competitiveness of S. shinii IMDO-S216 which are, in turn, likely to improve its fitness in a fermented meat matrix.


Assuntos
Bacteriocinas , Genoma Bacteriano , Staphylococcus , Staphylococcus/genética , Staphylococcus/metabolismo , Bacteriocinas/genética , Bacteriocinas/metabolismo , Fermentação , Genômica/métodos , Metabolismo Secundário/genética , Carne/microbiologia , Família Multigênica , Filogenia
6.
Plant Cell Rep ; 43(7): 172, 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38874775

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The heat stress transcription factor HSFA2e regulates both temperature and drought response via hormonal and secondary metabolism alterations. High temperature and drought are the primary yield-limiting environmental constraints for staple food crops. Heat shock transcription factors (HSF) terminally regulate the plant abiotic stress responses to maintain growth and development under extreme environmental conditions. HSF genes of subclass A2 predominantly express under heat stress (HS) and activate the transcriptional cascade of defense-related genes. In this study, a highly heat-inducible HSF, HvHSFA2e was constitutively expressed in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to investigate its role in abiotic stress response and plant development. Transgenic barley plants displayed enhanced heat and drought tolerance in terms of increased chlorophyll content, improved membrane stability, reduced lipid peroxidation, and less accumulation of ROS in comparison to wild-type (WT) plants. Transcriptome analysis revealed that HvHSFA2e positively regulates the expression of abiotic stress-related genes encoding HSFs, HSPs, and enzymatic antioxidants, contributing to improved stress tolerance in transgenic plants. The major genes of ABA biosynthesis pathway, flavonoid, and terpene metabolism were also upregulated in transgenics. Our findings show that HvHSFA2e-mediated upregulation of heat-responsive genes, modulation in ABA and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways enhance drought and heat stress tolerance.


Assuntos
Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Hordeum , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Metabolismo Secundário/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Resistência à Seca
7.
Mol Biol Rep ; 51(1): 757, 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38874856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Salvia rosmarinus spenn. (rosemary) is considered an economically important ornamental and medicinal plant and is widely utilized in culinary and for treating several diseases. However, the procedure behind synthesizing secondary metabolites-based bioactive compounds at the molecular level in S. rosmarinus is not explored completely. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed transcriptomic sequencing of the pooled sample from leaf and stem tissues on the Illumina HiSeqTM X10 platform. The transcriptomics analysis led to the generation of 29,523,608 raw reads, followed by data pre-processing which generated 23,208,592 clean reads, and de novo assembly of S. rosmarinus obtained 166,849 unigenes. Among them, nearly 75.1% of unigenes i.e., 28,757 were interpreted against a non-redundant protein database. The gene ontology-based annotation classified them into 3 main categories and 55 sub-categories, and clusters of orthologous genes annotation categorized them into 23 functional categories. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database-based pathway analysis confirmed the involvement of 13,402 unigenes in 183 biochemical pathways, among these unigenes, 1,186 are involved in the 17 secondary metabolite production pathways. Several key enzymes involved in producing aromatic amino acids and phenylpropanoids were identified from the transcriptome database. Among the identified 48 families of transcription factors from coding unigenes, bHLH, MYB, WRKYs, NAC, C2H2, C3H, and ERF are involved in flavonoids and other secondary metabolites biosynthesis. CONCLUSION: The phylogenetic analysis revealed the evolutionary relationship between the phenylpropanoid pathway genes of rosemary with other members of Lamiaceae. Our work reveals a new molecular mechanism behind the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids and their regulation in rosemary plants.


Assuntos
Vias Biossintéticas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Salvia , Transcriptoma , Transcriptoma/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Salvia/genética , Salvia/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Ontologia Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Propanóis/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário/genética
8.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 24(1): 205, 2024 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38796482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The plant roots excrete a large number of organic compounds into the soil. The rhizosphere, a thin soil zone around the roots, is a hotspot for microbial activity, making it a crucial component of the soil ecosystem. Secondary metabolites produced by rhizospheric Sphingomonas sanguinis DM have sparked significant curiosity in investigating their possible biological impacts. METHODS: A bacterial strain has been isolated from the rhizosphere of Datura metel. The bacterium's identification, fermentation, and working up have been outlined. The ethyl acetate fraction of the propagated culture media of Sphingomonas sanguinis DM was fractioned and purified using various chromatographic techniques. The characterization of the isolated compounds was accomplished through the utilization of various spectroscopic techniques, such as UV, MS, 1D, and 2D-NMR. Furthermore, the evaluation of their antimicrobial activity was conducted using the agar well diffusion method, while cytotoxicity was assessed using the MTT test. RESULTS: The extract from Sphingomonas sanguinis DM provided two distinct compounds: n-dibutyl phthalic acid (1) and Bis (2-methyl heptyl) phthalate (2) within its ethyl acetate fraction. Furthermore, the 16S rRNA gene sequence of Sphingomonas sanguinis DM has been registered under the NCBI GenBank database with the accession number PP422198. The bacterial extract exhibited its effect against gram-positive bacteria, inhibiting Streptococcus mutans (12.6 ± 0.6 mm) and Staphylococcus aureus (10.6 ± 0.6 mm) compared to standard antibiotics. Conversely, compound 1 showed a considerable effect against phytopathogenic fungi such as Alternaria alternate (56.3 ± 10.6 mm) and Fusarium oxysporum (21.3 ± 1.5 mm) with a MIC value of 17.5 µg/mL. However, it was slightly active against Klebsiella pneumonia (11.0 ± 1.0 mm). Furthermore, compound 2 was the most active metabolite, having a significant antimicrobial efficacy against Rhizoctonia solani (63.6 ± 1.1 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16.7 ± 0.6 mm), and Alternaria alternate (20.3 ± 0.6 mm) with MIC value at 15 µg/mL. In addition, compound 2 exhibited the most potency against hepatocellular (HepG-2) and skin (A-431) carcinoma cell lines with IC50 values of 107.16 µg/mL and 111.36 µg/mL, respectively. CONCLUSION: Sphingomonas sanguinis DM, a rhizosphere bacterium of Datura metel, was studied for its phytochemical and biological characteristics, resulting in the identification of two compounds with moderate antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities.


Assuntos
Datura metel , Rizosfera , Sphingomonas , Datura metel/química , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Metabolismo Secundário
9.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 211: 108671, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703500

RESUMO

Salvia castanea Diels, a close wild relative to the medicinal plant, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, primarily grows in high-altitude regions. While the two species share similar active compounds, their content varies significantly. WRKY transcription factors are key proteins, which regulate plant growth, stress response, and secondary metabolism. We identified 46 ScWRKY genes in S. castanea and found that ScWRKY35 was a highly expressed gene associated with secondary metabolites accumulation. This study aimed to explore the role of ScWRKY35 gene in regulating the accumulation of secondary metabolites and its response to UV and cadmium (Cd) exposure in S. miltiorrhiza. It was found that transgenic S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots overexpressing ScWRKY35 displayed upregulated expression of genes related to phenolic acid synthesis, resulting in increased salvianolic acid B (SAB) and rosmarinic acid (RA) contents. Conversely, tanshinone pathway gene expression decreased, leading to lower tanshinone levels. Further, overexpression of ScWRKY35 upregulated Cd transport protein HMA3 in root tissues inducing Cd sequestration. In contrast, the Cd uptake gene NRAMP1 was downregulated, reducing Cd absorption. In response to UV radiation, ScWRKY35 overexpression led to an increase in the accumulation of phenolic acid and tanshinone contents, including upregulation of genes associated with salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) synthesis. Altogether, these findings highlight the role of ScWRKY35 in enhancing secondary metabolites accumulation, as well as in Cd and UV stress modulation in S. miltiorrhiza, which offers a novel insight into its phytochemistry and provides a new option for the genetic improvement of the plants.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Depsídeos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Salvia miltiorrhiza/genética , Salvia miltiorrhiza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Depsídeos/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Benzofuranos/metabolismo , Ácido Rosmarínico , Cinamatos/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Raios Ultravioleta , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Abietanos/metabolismo , Abietanos/biossíntese , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo
10.
Molecules ; 29(10)2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38792233

RESUMO

Considering the escalating resistance to conventional antifungal medications, it is critical to identify novel compounds that can efficiently counteract this challenge. The purpose of this research was to elucidate the fungicidal properties of secondary metabolites derived from Arcangelisia flava, with a specific focus on their efficacy against Candida species. This study utilized a combination approach comprising laboratory simulations and experiments to discern and evaluate the biologically active constituents present in the dichloromethane extract of A. flava. The in vitro experiments demonstrated that compounds 1 (palmatine) and 2 (fibraurin) exhibited antifungal properties. The compounds exhibited minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 15.62 to 62.5 µg/mL against Candida sp. Moreover, compound 1 demonstrated a minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of 62.5 µg/mL against Candida glabrata and C. krusei. In contrast, compound 2 exhibited an MFC of 125 µg/mL against both Candida species. Based on a molecular docking study, it was shown that compounds 1 and 2 have a binding free energy of -6.6377 and -6.7075 kcal/mol, respectively, which indicates a strong affinity and specificity for fungal enzymatic targets. This study utilized pharmacophore modeling and Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations to better understand the interaction dynamics and structural properties crucial for antifungal activity. The findings underscore the potential of secondary metabolites derived from A. flava to act as a foundation for creating novel and highly efficient antifungal treatments, specifically targeting fungal diseases resistant to existing treatment methods. Thus, the results regarding these compounds can provide references for the next stage in antifungal drug design. Further investigation is necessary to thoroughly evaluate these natural substances' clinical feasibility and safety characteristics, which show great potential as antifungal agents.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Candida , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Secundário , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Apocynaceae/química , Simulação por Computador
11.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 117(1): 82, 2024 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38789815

RESUMO

This brief review aims to draw attention to the biotechnological potential of actinomycetes. Their main uses as sources of antibiotics and in agriculture would be enough not to neglect them; however, as we will see, their biotechnological application is much broader. Far from intending to exhaust this issue, we present a short survey of the research involving actinomycetes and their applications published in the last 23 years. We highlight a perspective for the discovery of new active ingredients or new applications for the known metabolites of these microorganisms that, for approximately 80 years, since the discovery of streptomycin, have been the main source of antibiotics. Based on the collected data, we organize the text to show how the cosmopolitanism of actinomycetes and the evolutionary biotic and abiotic ecological relationships of actinomycetes translate into the expression of metabolites in the environment and the richness of biosynthetic gene clusters, many of which remain silenced in traditional laboratory cultures. We also present the main strategies used in the twenty-first century to promote the expression of these silenced genes and obtain new secondary metabolites from known or new strains. Many of these metabolites have biological activities relevant to medicine, agriculture, and biotechnology industries, including candidates for new drugs or drug models against infectious and non-infectious diseases. Below, we present significant examples of the antimicrobial spectrum of actinomycetes, which is the most commonly investigated and best known, as well as their non-antimicrobial spectrum, which is becoming better known and increasingly explored.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria , Biotecnologia , Actinobacteria/genética , Actinobacteria/metabolismo , Actinobacteria/classificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Metabolismo Secundário
12.
Mar Drugs ; 22(5)2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38786604

RESUMO

Marine sponges of the genus Spongia have proven to be unabated sources of novel secondary metabolites with remarkable scaffold diversities and significant bioactivities. The discovery of chemical substances from Spongia sponges has continued to increase over the last few years. The current work provides an up-to-date literature survey and comprehensive insight into the reported metabolites from the members of the genus Spongia, as well as their structural features, biological activities, and structure-activity relationships when available. In this review, 222 metabolites are discussed based on published data from the period from mid-2015 to the beginning of 2024. The compounds are categorized into sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, sesterterpenes, meroterpenes, linear furanoterpenes, steroids, alkaloids, and other miscellaneous substances. The biological effects of these chemical compositions on a vast array of pharmacological assays including cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, neuroprotective, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B)-inhibitory, and phytoregulating activities are also presented.


Assuntos
Poríferos , Poríferos/metabolismo , Poríferos/química , Animais , Humanos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/química , Metabolismo Secundário
13.
Planta ; 260(1): 9, 2024 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38795149

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The secondary metabolic conversion of monolignans to sesquilignans/dilignans was closely related to seed germination and seedling establishment in Arctium lappa. Arctium lappa plants are used as a kind of traditional Chinese medicines for nearly 1500 years, and so far, only a few studies have put focus on the key secondary metabolic changes during seed germination and seedling establishment. In the current study, a combined approach was used to investigate the correlation among secondary metabolites, plant hormone signaling, and transcriptional profiles at the early critical stages of A. lappa seed germination and seedling establishment. Of 50 metabolites in methonolic extracts of A. lappa samples, 35 metabolites were identified with LC-MS/MS and 15 metabolites were identified with GC-MS. Their qualitative properties were examined according to the predicted chemical structures. The quantitative analysis was performed for deciphering their metabolic profiles, discovering that the secondary metabolic conversion from monolignans to sesquilignans/dilignans was closely correlated to the initiation of A. lappa seed germination and seedling establishment. Furthermore, the critical transcriptional changes in primary metabolisms, translational regulation at different cellular compartments, and multiple plant hormone signaling pathways were revealed. In addition, the combined approach provides unprecedented insights into key regulatory mechanisms in both gene transcription and secondary metabolites besides many known primary metabolites during seed germination of an important traditional Chinese medicinal plant species. The results not only provide new insights to understand the regulation of key medicinal components of 'ARCTII FRUCTUS', arctiin and arctigenin at the stages of seed germination and seedling establishment, but also potentially spur the development of seed-based cultivation in A. lappa plants.


Assuntos
Arctium , Germinação , Lignanas , Sementes , Arctium/genética , Arctium/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Lignanas/metabolismo , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Lignina/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolismo Secundário
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(22): 12387-12397, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776247

RESUMO

Agaricus mushrooms are an important genus in the Agaricaceae family, belonging to the order Agaricales of the class Basidiomycota. Among them, Agaricus bisporus is a common mushroom for mass consumption, which is not only nutritious but also possesses significant medicinal properties such as anticancer, antibacterial, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory properties. The rare edible mushroom, Agaricus blazei, contains unique agaricol compounds with significant anticancer activity against liver cancer. Agaricus blazei is believed to expel wind and cold, i.e., the pathogenic factors of wind and cold from the body, and is an important formula in traditional Chinese medicine. Despite its nutritional richness and outstanding medicinal value, Agaricus mushrooms have not been systematically compiled and summarized. Therefore, the present review compiles and classifies 70 natural products extracted from Agaricus mushrooms over the past six decades. These compounds exhibit diverse biological and pharmacological activities, with particular emphasis on antitumor and antioxidant properties. While A. blazei and A. bisporus are the primary producers of these compounds, studies on secondary metabolites from other Agaricus species remain limited. Further research is needed to explore and understand the anticancer and nutritional properties of Agaricus mushrooms. This review contributes to the understanding of the structure, bioactivity, and biosynthetic pathways of Agaricus compounds and provides insights for the development of functional foods using these mushrooms.


Assuntos
Agaricus , Antineoplásicos , Antioxidantes , Produtos Biológicos , Metabolismo Secundário , Agaricus/química , Agaricus/metabolismo , Humanos , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Animais , Estrutura Molecular
15.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 212: 108735, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38781639

RESUMO

Plant secondary metabolites (SMs) play a crucial role in shielding plants from pathogens and environmental stressors. These natural products find widespread applications across various industries, including pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic, and healthcare. However, the quantity and quality of these compounds in plants can be influenced by factors such as genetics, morphology, plant age, and the seasonal and daily variations. The timing of harvest holds particular significance for medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) as their active compounds peak at a specific moment during the plant growth cycle. Determining the optimal harvest time is essential to ensure the plants meet their intended cultivation goal. In this review, we analyzed how developmental and external factors impact the qualitative and quantitative effectiveness of SMs in MAPs. We examined recent studies on the effects of environmental and developmental factors on SMs of MAPs, compiling relevant data for analysis. The results of this review demonstrate how these factors influence the quantity and quality of plant SMs, underscoring the importance of determining the optimal harvest time (known as the balsamic time) to maximize the utilization of these compounds. Our findings offer crucial insights into the factors affecting SMs, serving as a tool for quality control in MAPs production. Moreover, this review can be a valuable resource for researchers, farmers, and industrial users aiming to optimize plant growth and harvest timing for maximum yield. Overall, our review provides valuable information for devising effective strategies to produce high-quality MAPs products.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metabolismo Secundário , Plantas/metabolismo
16.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(7): 217, 2024 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38806748

RESUMO

Plant pathogens with their abundance are harmful and cause huge damage to different agricultural crops and economy of a country as well as lead towards the shortage of food for humans. For their management, the utilization of entomopathogenic fungi is an eco-friendly technique, sustainable to the environment, safe for humans and has promising effect over chemical-based pesticides. This process requires a biochemical mechanism, including the production of enzymes, toxins, and other metabolites that facilitate host infection and invasion. Essential enzymes such as chitinase, proteinase, and lipase play a direct role in breaking down the host cuticle, the primary barrier to EPF (Entomopathogenic Fungi) infection. Additionally, secondary metabolites such as destruxins in Metarhizium, beauvericin in Beauveria, hirsutellides in Hirsutella, isarolides in Isaria, cordyols in Cordyceps, and vertihemipterins in Verticillium, among others, act both directly and indirectly to disable the defense mechanisms of insect hosts, thereby accelerating the EPF infection process. The chemical composition of these secondary metabolites varies, ranging from simple non-peptide pigments such as oosporine to highly complex piperazine derivatives such as vertihemiptellides. The biocontrol efficacy of EPF is extensively studied, with numerous fungal strains commercially available on a large scale for managing arthropod pests. This review emphasizes the role of proteins and enzymes against crop pathogens, detailing their mode of action, and describing the metabolites from entomopathogenic fungi and their biological activities. In doing so, these findings contribute to establishing a symbiotic equilibrium between agricultural productivity and environmental conservation.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Fungos , Insetos , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Animais , Beauveria/metabolismo , Agentes de Controle Biológico/metabolismo , Cordyceps/metabolismo , Proteção de Cultivos/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/parasitologia , Fungos/metabolismo , Insetos/microbiologia , Metarhizium/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Metabolismo Secundário
17.
Recent Pat Biotechnol ; 18(4): 316-331, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38817009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the COVID-19 outbreak in early 2020, researchers and studies are continuing to find drugs and/or vaccines against the disease. As shown before, medicinal plants can be very good sources against viruses because of their secondary compounds which may cure diseases and help in survival of patients. There is a growing trend in the filed patents in this field. AIMS: In the present study, we test and suggest the inhibitory potential of five herbal based extracts including 7α-acetoxyroyleanone, Curzerene, Incensole, Harmaline, and Cannabidiol with antivirus activity on the models of the significant antiviral targets for COVID-19 like spike glycoprotein, Papain-like protease (PLpro), non-structural protein 15 (NSP15), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and core protease by molecular docking study. METHODS: The Salvia rythida root was extracted, dried, and pulverized by a milling machine. The aqueous phase and the dichloromethane phase of the root extractive were separated by two-phase extraction using a separatory funnel. The separation was performed using the column chromatography method. The model of the important antivirus drug target of COVID-19 was obtained from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and modified. TO study the binding difference between the studied molecules, the docking study was performed. RESULTS: These herbal compounds are extracted from Salvia rhytidea, Curcuma zeodaria, Frankincense, Peganum harmala, and Cannabis herbs, respectively. The binding energies of all compounds on COVID-19 main targets are located in the limited area of 2.22-5.30 kcal/mol. This range of binding energies can support our hypothesis for the presence of the inhibitory effects of the secondary metabolites of mentioned structures on COVID-19. Generally, among the investigated herbal structures, Cannabidiol and 7α- acetoxyroyleanone compounds with the highest binding energy have the most inhibitory potential. The least inhibitory effects are related to the Curzerene and Incensole structures by the lowest binding affinity. CONCLUSION: The general arrangement of the basis of the potential barrier of binding energies is in the order below: Cannabidiol > 7α-acetoxyroyleanone > Harmaline> Incensole > Curzerene. Finally, the range of docking scores for investigated herbal compounds on the mentioned targets indicates that the probably inhibitory effects on these targets obey the following order: main protease> RNA-dependent RNA polymerase> PLpro> NSP15> spike glycoprotein.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , Canabidiol , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais , SARS-CoV-2 , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Canabidiol/química , Canabidiol/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Harmalina/farmacologia , Harmalina/química , COVID-19/virologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Patentes como Assunto , Metabolismo Secundário
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(23): 13164-13174, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38819965

RESUMO

Obtaining a microorganism strain with a broad-spectrum resistance property and highly efficient antifungal activity is important to the biocontrol strategy. Herein, a marine Streptomyces sp. HNBCa1 demonstrated a broad-spectrum resistance to 17 tested crop pathogenic fungi and exhibited a high biocontrol efficiency against mango anthracnose and banana fusarium wilt. To uncover the critical bioactive secondary metabolites basis, genome assembly and annotation, metabolomic analysis, and a semipreparative HPLC-based activity-guide method were employed. Finally, geldanamycin and ectoine involved in codifferential secondary metabolites were also found to be related to biosynthetic gene clusters in the genome of HNBCa1. Reblastatin and geldanamycin were uncovered in response to broad-spectrum resistance to the 17 crop pathogenic fungi. Our results suggested that reblastatin and geldanamycin were critical to maintaining the broad-spectrum resistance property and highly efficient antifungal activity of HNBCa1, which could be further developed as a biological control agent to control crop fungal diseases.


Assuntos
Fusarium , Lactamas Macrocíclicas , Doenças das Plantas , Metabolismo Secundário , Streptomyces , Streptomyces/genética , Streptomyces/metabolismo , Streptomyces/química , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Lactamas Macrocíclicas/farmacologia , Lactamas Macrocíclicas/metabolismo , Lactamas Macrocíclicas/química , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzoquinonas/farmacologia , Benzoquinonas/metabolismo , Benzoquinonas/química , Fungos/genética , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/química
19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10942, 2024 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740839

RESUMO

Pradimicin U is a new dihydrobenzo[a]naphthacenequinone compound found to be active on a screen designed to investigate compounds with antimicrobial activity, produced by the actinomycete designated strain FMUSA5-5T. The strain was isolated from a bio-fertilizer of Musa spp. collected from Suphanburi province, Thailand. The chemotaxonomic characteristics and 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that strain FMUSA5-5T is a member of the genus Nonomuraea. Low genome-based taxonomic criteria, average nucleotide identity (ANI) (82.8-88.3%), average amino-acid identity (AAI) (79.4-87.3%), and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) (29.5-38.5%) values and several phenotypic differences between strain FMUSA5-5T and its closest type strains of the genus Nonomuraea indicated that strain FMUSA5-5T represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea and the name Nonomuraea composti sp. nov. is proposed for the strain. The crude extract from the culture broth of strain FMUSA5-5T displayed promising antimicrobial activity against several pathogens and led to the isolation of a novel secondary metabolite, pradimicin U. Interestingly, this compound displayed a broad spectrum of biological activities such as antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum K1 (IC50 value = 3.65 µg/mL), anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra (MIC value = 25.0 µg/mL), anti-Alternaria brassicicola BCC 42724 (MIC value = 25.0 µg/mL), anti-Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 and anti-Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 (MIC values = 6.25 and 1.56 µg/mL, respectively). Moreover, the compound possessed strong anti-human small cell lung cancer (NCI-H187) activity with IC50 value of 5.69 µg/mL, while cytotoxicity against human breast cancer (MCF-7) and Vero cells was very weak (IC50 values of 52.49 and 21.84 µg/mL, respectively).


Assuntos
Actinobacteria , Naftacenos , Quinonas , Naftacenos/isolamento & purificação , Naftacenos/farmacologia , Quinonas/isolamento & purificação , Quinonas/farmacologia , Actinobacteria/química , Actinobacteria/classificação , Actinobacteria/citologia , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Fertilizantes , Musa/microbiologia , Metabolismo Secundário , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 466, 2024 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38807068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nanotechnology has demonstrated its vital significance in all aspects of daily life. Our research was conducted to estimate the potential of primed seed with chitosan nanoparticles in seed growth and yield by inducing plant secondary metabolism of Pancratium maritimum L. one of the important medicinal plants. Petri dish and pot experiments were carried out. Seeds of Pancratium maritimum L. were soaked in Nano solution (0.1, 0.5, 1 mg/ ml) for 4, 8, 12 h. Germination parameters (germination percentage, germination velocity, speed of germination, germination energy, germination index, mean germination time, seedling shoot and root length, shoot root ratio, seedling vigor index, plant biomass and water content), alkaloids and antioxidant activity of Pancratium maritimum L. were recorded and compared between coated and uncoated seeds. RESULTS: Our results exhibited that chitosan nanopriming had a positive effect on some growth parameters, while it fluctuated on others. However, the data showed that most germination parameters were significantly affected in coated seeds compared to uncoated seeds. GC-MS analysis of Pancratium maritimum L. with different nanopriming treatments showed that the quantity of alkaloids decreased, but the amount of pancratistatin, lycorine and antioxidant content increased compared with the control. CONCLUSIONS: Applying chitosan nanoparticles in priming seeds might be a simple and effective way to improve the quantity of secondary metabolites of Pancratium maritimum L. valuable medicinal plant.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Germinação , Nanopartículas , Sementes , Quitosana/farmacologia , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/metabolismo , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/metabolismo , Alcaloides/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário/efeitos dos fármacos , Amaryllidaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Amaryllidaceae/metabolismo
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