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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 926: 172128, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565350

RESUMO

The threat of heavy metal (HM) pollution looms large over plant growth and human health, with tobacco emerging as a highly vulnerable plant due to its exceptional absorption capacity. The widespread cultivation of tobacco intensifies these concerns, posing increased risks to human health as HMs become more pervasive in tobacco-growing soils globally. The absorption of these metals not only impedes tobacco growth and quality but also amplifies health hazards through smoking. Implementing proactive strategies to minimize HM absorption in tobacco is of paramount importance. Various approaches, encompassing chemical immobilization, transgenic modification, agronomic adjustments, and microbial interventions, have proven effective in curbing HM accumulation and mitigating associated adverse effects. However, a comprehensive review elucidating these control strategies and their mechanisms remains notably absent. This paper seeks to fill this void by examining the deleterious effects of HM exposure on tobacco plants and human health through tobacco consumption. Additionally, it provides a thorough exploration of the mechanisms responsible for reducing HM content in tobacco. The review consolidates and synthesizes recent domestic and international initiatives aimed at mitigating HM content in tobacco, delivering a comprehensive overview of their current status, benefits, and limitations.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Humanos , Tabaco , Metais Pesados/análise , Plantas , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
2.
J Environ Manage ; 357: 120825, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579472

RESUMO

Alkali-activation is an effective municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWIFA) solidification/stabilization (S/S) technology. However, the characteristics of calcium-rich silica-poor aluminum phase in MSWIFA easily cause the structural instability and contamination of alkali activated MSWIFA S/S bodies. Therefore, the aluminosilicate solid wastes are used in this work to optimize the immobilization and structural properties. Results showed that incorporation of aluminosilicate solid wastes significantly improved the compressive strength and heavy metals pollution toxicity of MSWIFA S/S bodies. Compared to alkali activated MSWIFA, the compressive strength of S/S bodies with addition of coal fly ash, silica fume and granulated blast furnace slag improved by 31.0%, 47.6% and 50.8% when the curing time was 28 days, respectively. Leachability of Pb, Zn and Cd in these alkali activated MSWIFA S/S bodies was far below the threshold value specified in Standard GB16889. Aluminosilicate solid wastes provided abundant Si/Al structural units, and some new phases such as ettringite(AFt, 3CaO⋅Al2O3⋅3CaSO4⋅32H2O), calcium sulfoaluminate hydrate (3CaO⋅Al2O3⋅CaSO4⋅12H2O) and Friedel's salt (CaO⋅Al2O3⋅CaCl2⋅10H2O) can be detected in S/S matrix with aluminosilicate solid wastes, along comes increased the amount of the amorphous phases. Lower Ca/Si molar ratio tended to form the network structure gel similar to tobermorite with higher polymerization degree. Meanwhile, the silica tetrahedron of the gels changed from the oligomerization state like island to the hyperomerization state like chain, layer network or three-dimensional structure, and average molecular chain length increased. These findings provide theoretical basis for structural properties optimization and resource utilization of MSWIFA S/S matrices.


Assuntos
Silicatos de Alumínio , Metais Pesados , Eliminação de Resíduos , Cinza de Carvão/química , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Incineração/métodos , Dióxido de Silício , Álcalis/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Carbono/química , Material Particulado , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos
3.
J Environ Manage ; 357: 120783, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579475

RESUMO

The rapid development of the economy and society is causing an increase in the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) produced by people's daily lives. With the strong support of the Chinese government, incineration power generation has steadily become the primary method of treating MSW, accounting for 79.86%. However, burning produces a significant amount of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWI-FA), which contains heavy metals, soluble chlorine salts, and dioxins. China's MSWI-FA yield increased by 8.23% annually to 7.80 million tons in 2022. Besides, the eastern region, especially the southeastern coastal region, has the highest yield of MSWI-FA. There are certain similarities in the chemical characteristics of MSWI-FA samples from Northeast, North, East, and South China. Zn and CaO have the largest amounts of metals and oxides, respectively. The Cl content is about 20 wt%. This study provides an overview of the techniques used in the thermal treatment method, solidification and stabilization, and separation and extraction of MSWI-FA and compares their benefits and drawbacks. In addition, the industrial applications and standard requirements of landfill treatment and resource utilization of MSWI-FA in China are analyzed. It is discovered that China's resource utilization of MSWI-FA is insufficient through the study on the fly ash disposal procedures at a few MSW incineration facilities located in the economically developed Guangdong Province and the traditional industrial city of Tianjin. Finally, the prospects for the disposal of MSWI-FA were discussed.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Eliminação de Resíduos , Humanos , Cinza de Carvão/química , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Carbono/análise , Incineração , Metais Pesados/análise , China
4.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 45(5): 2548-2557, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629520

RESUMO

A total of 18 metal elements in ambient PM2.5 in Zhengzhou were continuously determined using an online heavy metal observation instrument in January and April, 2021, and the changes in element concentrations were analyzed. Metal elements were traced via enrichment factors, positive matrix factorization (PMF), and a characteristic radar chart. The US EPA health risk assessment model was used to assess the health risks of heavy metals, and the backward trajectory method and the concentration-weighted trajectory (CWT) method were used to evaluate the potential source regions of health risks. The results showed that the element concentrations were higher in spring, and the sum of Fe, Ca, Si, and Al concentrations accounted for 89.8% and 87.5% of the total element concentrations in winter and spring, respectively. Cd was enriched significantly, which was related to human activities. The concentrations of Pb, Se, Zn, Ni, Sb, and K in winter and Cr, Ni, Fe, Mn, V, Ba, Ca, K, Si, and Al in spring increased with the increasing pollution level. The results of PMF and the characteristic radar chart showed that the main sources of metal elements in winter and spring were industry, crust, motor vehicles, and mixed combustion, with industry and mixed combustion pollution occurring more often in winter and crust pollution occurring more often in spring. Significant non-carcinogenic risks existed in both winter and spring with more severe health risks in winter, and Mn caused significant non-carcinogenic risks. The health risks in winter were mainly influenced by Zhengzhou and surrounding cities and long-distance transport in the northwest, and the health risks in spring were mainly influenced by Zhengzhou and surrounding cities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Metais Pesados , Humanos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , China
5.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 45(5): 2727-2740, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629536

RESUMO

Lake wetlands are extremely important and special ecosystems, which are important for regional water resource storage, environmental protection, and biodiversity maintenance. Sediment bacteria are an important component of lake ecosystems and are a major driver of biogeochemical cycling in lakes. In order to investigate the community structure of bacteria in typical lake sediments in Yinchuan City and their influencing factors, three typical lakes in Yinchuan City (Yuehai Lake, Mingcui Lake, and Xiniu Lake) were selected for the study and surface sediments were collected in January, April, July, and October 2021. The composition of the sediment bacterial community was examined using 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing technology, and the response relationships between them and heavy metals were explored. The results showed that the ecological hazard coefficient for heavy metals in the sediments of three typical lakes in Yinchuan City was far less than 40, and the ecological hazard index was far less than 150, all of which indicated a minor ecological hazard. There were no significant differences in bacterial community diversity among the three lakes, but there were significant variations in diversity among the lakes in different seasons and significant differences in community composition. The dominant phyla (top three in terms of relative abundance) in Yuehai Lake, Mingcui Lake, and Xiniu Lake were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi. The dominant lower orders were Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Deltaproteobacteria. The main divergent species that occurred at the phylum level in typical lakes in Yinchuan were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Euryarchaeota, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Acidobacteria. The sediment bacterial community structure of Yuehai Lake was significantly correlated with Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, As, and Pb; the sediment bacterial community structure of Lake Mingcui was significantly correlated with Fe, Pb, and Cr; and the sediment bacterial community structure of Xiniu Lake was not significantly correlated with heavy metals. The types and contents of sediment heavy metals had a significant effect on the bacterial community structure of sediments in Yinchuan Yuehai Lake and Mingcui Lake and were important environmental factors that caused changes in the bacterial community structure of lake sediments.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Lagos/química , Ecossistema , Chumbo , Metais Pesados/análise , Bactérias/genética , Proteobactérias/genética , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , China , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Medição de Risco , Monitoramento Ambiental
6.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 45(5): 2913-2925, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629553

RESUMO

In this study, a Meta-analysis was used to investigate the pollution status of eight farmland soil heavy metal elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in China. Meanwhile, their spatiotemporal changes and differences between different types of cultivated land were explored. The research data were chosen from 449 relevant literature data collected by CNKI and Web of Science from 2005 to 2021, and the Meta-analysis used a weighted method based on "sampling numbers", "study area", and "standard deviation". The results showed that the national average values of the eight heavy metal elements in Chinese farmland soil were ω(As)11.00 mg·kg-1, ω(Cd)0.350 2 mg·kg-1, ω(Cr)62.91 mg·kg-1, ω(Cu)28.87 mg·kg-1, ω(Hg)0.135 1 mg·kg-1, ω(Ni)28.91 mg·kg-1, ω(Pb)34.67 mg·kg-1,and ω(Zn)90.24 mg·kg-1. Compared with their background values, all elements except As accumulated to some extent, and Cd and Hg accumulated the most, exceeding their background values by 177.9% and 340.3%, respectively. The research results indicated that Cd and Hg were the main pollution elements in farmland soil in China, and their accumulation was mainly influenced by human activities. In terms of their temporal and spatial changes, the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau and the eastern coast were the most concentrated areas of pollution cases, and the pollution center shifted from the middle reaches of the Yangtze River to the southwest over time. The accumulation of heavy metals in farmland soil was affected by crop planting types, and the accumulation of heavy metals in vegetable and paddy soil was significantly greater than that in other cultivated land types.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Humanos , Solo , Fazendas , China , Cádmio , Chumbo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Metais Pesados/análise
7.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 45(5): 2983-2994, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629559

RESUMO

Taking a city in Guangdong Province as the research area, the concentration and spatial distribution characteristics of heavy metals in the surface soil were studied to clarify the situation of soil heavy metal pollution and priority control factors, providing basic data for the prevention and control of soil heavy metal pollution in the city. The content characteristics of heavy metals in 221 soil samples in the city were analyzed, and the potential health risk assessment and source analysis were carried out through the Monte Carlo model, the potential health risk assessment (HRA) model, and the PMF receptor model. It was found that heavy metals ω(As), ω(Hg), ω(Cd), ω(Pb), ω(Cr), ω(Cu), ω(Ni), and ω(Zn) in the soil of the city were 18.16, 0.43, 1.46, 68.57, 98.34, 64.19, 26.53, and 257.32 mg·kg-1, respectively, with a moderate to high degree of variation. Except for Ni concentration, the soil concentrations of other heavy metal elements exceeded the background values of soil in Guangdong Province to a certain extent, and the concentrations of Cd and Zn exceeded the national secondary standards, resulting in severe heavy metal pollution; the main sources of heavy metals were industrial sources, and natural parent materials, lead battery manufacturing, transportation, artificial cultivation, and pesticide and fertilizer inputs also had an undeniable impact on the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil. Heavy metals in the soil had a certain degree of tolerable carcinogenic health risk for both children and adults, whereas non-carcinogenic risks could be ignored. The potential health risk of children was greater than that of adults, and the main exposure route was through oral intake. The input sources of pesticides and fertilizers and As should be the main controlling factors for the health risks of heavy metals in the city's soil, followed by mixed sources and Cr. There were differences in the spatial distribution characteristics and relative pollution levels of heavy metals, and it is necessary to deepen zoning monitoring and control, strengthen soil pollution prevention and control, and reduce human input of heavy metals in soil.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Criança , Adulto , Humanos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Solo , Cádmio/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , China
8.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 45(5): 3047-3058, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629565

RESUMO

In order to comprehensively evaluate the effects of vermicomposting on compost quality and the conversion of heavy metals under different control conditions, 109 studies were reviewed. The effects of earthworm species, pre-compost time, ventilation methods, initial C/N, initial pH, and initial moisture of the raw materials on compost quality and the heavy metal toxicity were quantitatively discussed during the vermicomposting process through Meta-analysis. The results showed that the six subgroups of factors all showed obvious influences on the compost quality and heavy metal toxicity. After vermicomposting, the contents of NO3--N (116.2%), TN (29.1%), TP (31.2%), and TK (15.0%) were significantly increased, whereas NH4+-N (-14.8%) and C/N (-36.3%) were significantly decreased. Meanwhile, the total amount of Cu and Cr of the final compost and their bioavailability were significantly reduced. Considering the influences of grouping factors on compost quality and heavy metals, it is recommended to adjust the initial moisture of pile materials to 70%-80%, C/N to 30-85, and pH to 6-7 and to conduct pre-composting for 0-15 d; additionally, vermicomposting should be naturally placed when the composting is aimed at promoting the compost quality. If the main purpose is to weaken the perniciousness of heavy metals in the raw material, it is recommended to adjust the initial moisture of the material to 50%-60%, C/N to less than 30, and pH to 7-8; to conduct no pre-compost; regularly turn the piles; and use the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae for vermicomposting.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Metais Pesados , Oligoquetos , Animais , Solo/química , Esgotos/química , Metais Pesados/análise
9.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(6): 165, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630187

RESUMO

Bacterial reduction of hexavalent chromium (VI) to chromium (III) is a sustainable bioremediation approach. However, the Cr(VI) containing wastewaters are often characterized with complex conditions such as high salt, alkaline pH and heavy metals which severely impact the growth and Cr(VI) reduction potential of microorganisms. This study investigated Cr(VI) reduction under complex haloalkaline conditions by an Alteromonas sp. ORB2 isolated from aerobic granular sludge cultivated from the seawater-microbiome. Optimum growth of Alteromonas sp. ORB2 was observed under haloalkaline conditions at 3.5-9.5% NaCl and pH 7-11. The bacterial growth in normal culture conditions (3.5% NaCl; pH 7.6) was not inhibited by 100 mg/l Cr(VI)/ As(V)/ Pb(II), 50 mg/l Cu(II) or 5 mg/l Cd(II). Near complete reduction of 100 mg/l Cr(VI) was achieved within 24 h at 3.5-7.5% NaCl and pH 8-11. Cr(VI) reduction by Alteromonas sp. ORB2 was not inhibited by 100 mg/L As(V), 100 mg/L Pb(II), 50 mg/L Cu(II) or 5 mg/L Cd(II). The bacterial cells grew in the medium with 100 mg/l Cr(VI) contained lower esterase activity and higher reactive oxygen species levels indicating toxicity and oxidative stress. In-spite of toxicity, the cells grew and reduced 100 mg/l Cr(VI) completely within 24 h. Cr(VI) removal from the medium was driven by bacterial reduction to Cr(III) which remained in the complex medium. Cr(VI) reduction was strongly linked to aerobic growth of Alteromonas sp. The Cr(VI) reductase activity of cytosolic protein fraction was pronounced by supplementing with NADPH in vitro assays. This study demonstrated a growth-dependent aerobic Cr(VI) reduction by Alteromonas sp. ORB2 under complex haloalkaline conditions akin to wastewaters.


Assuntos
Alteromonas , Cromo , Metais Pesados , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Cádmio , Chumbo/toxicidade , Águas Residuárias , Metais Pesados/toxicidade
10.
Plant Cell Rep ; 43(4): 111, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568247

RESUMO

Heavy metal pollution threatens plant growth and development as well as ecological stability. Here, we synthesize current research on the interplay between plants and their microbial symbionts under heavy metal stress, highlighting the mechanisms employed by microbes to enhance plant tolerance and resilience. Several key strategies such as bioavailability alteration, chelation, detoxification, induced systemic tolerance, horizontal gene transfer, and methylation and demethylation, are examined, alongside the genetic and molecular basis governing these plant-microbe interactions. However, the complexity of plant-microbe interactions, coupled with our limited understanding of the associated mechanisms, presents challenges in their practical application. Thus, this review underscores the necessity of a more detailed understanding of how plants and microbes interact and the importance of using a combined approach from different scientific fields to maximize the benefits of these microbial processes. By advancing our knowledge of plant-microbe synergies in the metabolism of heavy metals, we can develop more effective bioremediation strategies to combat the contamination of soil by heavy metals.


Assuntos
Interações Ervas-Drogas , Metais Pesados , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Solo
11.
Chemosphere ; 355: 141871, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570052

RESUMO

Recycling solid waste for preparing sulfoaluminate cementitious materials (SACM) represents a promising approach for low-carbon development. There are drastic physical-chemical reactions during SACM calcination. However, there is a lack of research on the flue gas pollutants emissions from this process. Condensable particulate matter (CPM) has been found to constitute the majority of the primary PM emitted from various fuel combustion. In this study, the emission characteristics of CPM during the calcination of SACM were determined using tests in both a real-operated kiln and laboratory experiments. The mass concentration of CPM reached 96.6 mg/Nm3 and occupied 87% of total PM emission from the SACM kiln. Additionally, the mass proportion of SO42- in the CPM reached 93.8%, thus indicating that large quantities of sulfuric acid mist or SO3 were emitted. CaSO4 was one key component for the formation of main mineral ye'elimite (3CaO·3Al2O3·CaSO4), and its decomposition probably led to the high SO42- emission. Furthermore, the use of CaSO4 as a calcium source led to SO42- emission factor much higher than conventional calcium sources. Higher calcination temperature and more residence time also increased SO42- emission. The most abundant heavy metal in kiln flue gas and CPM was Zn. However, the total condensation ratio of heavy metals detected was only 40.5%. CPM particles with diameters below 2.5 µm and 4-20 µm were both clearly observed, and components such as Na2SO4 and NaCl were conformed. This work contributes to the understanding of CPM emissions and the establishment of pollutant reduction strategies for waste collaborative disposal in cement industry.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluentes Ambientais , Metais Pesados , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Resíduos Sólidos , Cálcio
12.
Chemosphere ; 355: 141884, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575083

RESUMO

Global water demand and environmental concerns related to climate change require industries to develop high-efficiency wastewater treatment methods to remove pollutants. Likewise, toxic pollutants present in wastewater negatively affect the environment and human health, requiring effective treatment. Although conventional treatment processes remove carbon and nutrients, they are insufficient to remove pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and plasticizers. Electrochemical processes effectively remove pollutants from wastewater through the mineralization of non-biodegradable pollutants with consequent conversion into biodegradable compounds. Its advantages include easy operation, versatility, and short reaction time. In this way, this review initially provides a global water scenario with a view to the future. It comprises global demand, treatment methods, and pollution of water resources, addressing various contaminants such as heavy metals, nutrients, organic compounds, and emerging contaminants. Subsequently, the fundamentals of electrochemical treatments are presented as well as electrochemical treatments, highlighting the latest studies involving electrocoagulation, electroflocculation, electroflotation, capacitive deionization and its derivatives, eletrodeionization, and electrochemical advanced oxidation process. Finally, the challenges and perspectives were discussed. In this context, electrochemical processes have proven promising and effective for the treatment of water and wastewater, allowing safe reuse practices and purification with high contaminant removal.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Humanos , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Água
13.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0288190, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to heavy metals (cadmium, mercury, and lead) has been linked with adverse health outcomes, especially their nephrotoxic effects at high levels of exposure. We conducted a replication study to examine the association of low-level heavy metal exposure and chronic kidney disease (CKD) using a larger NHANES data set compared to previous studies. METHODS: The large cross-sectional study comprised 5,175 CKD cases out of 55677 participants aged 20-85 years from the 1999-2020 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [NHANES]. Logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the associations between CKD and heavy metals [Cd, Pb, Hg] measured as categorical variables after adjusting with age, race, gender, socioeconomic status, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and blood cotinine level as smoking status. RESULTS: Compared to the lowest quartile of blood Cd, exposures to the 2nd, 3rd and 4th quartiles of blood Cd were statistically significantly associated with higher odds of CKD after adjustment for blood Pb and Hg, with OR = 1.79, [95% CI; 1.55-2.07, p<0.0001], OR = 2.17, [95% CI; 1.88-2.51, p<0.0001] and OR = 1.52, [95% CI; 1.30-1.76, p<0.0001] respectively. The 2nd, 3rd and 4th quartiles of blood Cd remained statistically significantly associated with higher odds of CKD after adjustment for blood cotinine level, with OR = 2.06, [95% CI; 1.80-2.36, p<0.0001], OR = 3.18, [95% CI; 2.79-3.63, p<0.0001] and OR = 5.54, [95% CI; 4.82-6.37, p<0.0001] respectively. Exposure to blood Pb was statistically significantly associated with higher odds of CKD in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th quartile groups, after adjustment for all co-variates (ag, gender, race, socio-economic status, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, blood cadmium, mercury, and cotinine levels) in all the four models. Blood Hg level was statistically significantly associated with lower odds of CKD in the 2nd quartile group in model 2, 3rd quartile group in model 1, 2 and 3, and the 4th quartile group in all the four models. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed that low blood levels of Cd and Pb were associated with higher odds of CKD while low blood levels of Hg were associated with lower odds of CKD in the US adult population. However, temporal association cannot be determined as it is a cross sectional study.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão , Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Cádmio/toxicidade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Cotinina , Chumbo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia
14.
Curr Microbiol ; 81(5): 136, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598029

RESUMO

Copper resistance in phytopathogens is a major challenge to crop production globally and is known to be driven by excessive use of copper-based pesticides. However, recent studies have shown co-selection of multiple heavy metal and antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria exposed to heavy metal and xenobiotics, which may impact the epidemiology of plant, animal, and human diseases. In this study, multi-resistance to heavy metals and antibiotics were evaluated in local Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) and co-isolated Xanthomonas melonis (Xmel) strains from infected crucifer plants in Trinidad. Resistance to cobalt, cadmium, zinc, copper, and arsenic (V) was observed in both Xanthomonas species up to 25 mM. Heavy metal resistance (HMR) genes were found on a small plasmid-derived locus with ~ 90% similarity to a Stenotrophomonas spp. chromosomal locus and a X. perforans pLH3.1 plasmid. The co-occurrence of mobile elements in these regions implies their organization on a composite transposon-like structure. HMR genes in Xcc strains showed the lowest similarity to references, and the cus and ars operons appear to be unique among Xanthomonads. Overall, the similarity of HMR genes to Stenotrophomonas sp. chromosomal genomes suggest their origin in this genus or a related organism and subsequent spread through lateral gene transfer events. Further resistome characterization revealed the presence of small multidrug resistance (SMR), multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux pumps, and bla (Xcc) genes for broad biocide resistance in both species. Concurrently, resistance to antibiotics (streptomycin, kanamycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and ampicillin) up to 1000 µg/mL was confirmed.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Metais Pesados , Animais , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cobre , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Ampicilina , Cloranfenicol
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8023, 2024 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580805

RESUMO

Toxic metals are vital risk factors affecting serum ion balance; however, the effect of their co-exposure on serum ions and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. We assessed the correlations of single metal and mixed metals with serum ion levels, and the mediating effects of mineralocorticoids by investigating toxic metal concentrations in the blood, as well as the levels of representative mineralocorticoids, such as deoxycorticosterone (DOC), and serum ions in 471 participants from the Dongdagou-Xinglong cohort. In the single-exposure model, sodium and chloride levels were positively correlated with arsenic, selenium, cadmium, and lead levels and negatively correlated with zinc levels, whereas potassium and iron levels and the anion gap were positively correlated with zinc levels and negatively correlated with selenium, cadmium and lead levels (all P < 0.05). Similar results were obtained in the mixed exposure models considering all metals, and the major contributions of cadmium, lead, arsenic, and selenium were highlighted. Significant dose-response relationships were detected between levels of serum DOC and toxic metals and serum ions. Mediation analysis showed that serum DOC partially mediated the relationship of metals (especially mixed metals) with serum iron and anion gap by 8.3% and 8.6%, respectively. These findings suggest that single and mixed metal exposure interferes with the homeostasis of serum mineralocorticoids, which is also related to altered serum ion levels. Furthermore, serum DOC may remarkably affect toxic metal-related serum ion disturbances, providing clues for further study of health risks associated with these toxic metals.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Metais Pesados , Selênio , Humanos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Arsênio/toxicidade , Cádmio/toxicidade , Análise de Mediação , Mineralocorticoides , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados , Zinco , Ferro , Íons , China , Metais Pesados/toxicidade
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(5): 429, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575685

RESUMO

Water, as an indispensable constituent of life, serves as the primary source of sustenance for all living things on Earth. The contamination of surface water with heavy metals poses a significant global health risk to humans, animals, and plants. Sharkiya Governorate, situated in the East Nile Delta region of Egypt, is particularly susceptible to surface water pollution due to various industrial, agricultural, and urban activities. The Bahr Mouse Stream, crucial for providing potable water and supporting irrigation activities in Sharkiya Governorate, caters to a population of approximately 7.7 million inhabitants. Unfortunately, this vital water source is exposed to many illegal encroachments that may cause pollution and deteriorate the water resource quality. In a comprehensive study conducted over two consecutive seasons (2019-2020), a total of 38 surface water samples were taken to assess the quantity of heavy metals in surface water destined for human consumption and other applications, supported by indices and statistics. The assessment utilized flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry to determine the concentration of key heavy metals including iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), and chromium (Cr). The calculated mean value of the Water Quality Index (WQI) was found to be 39.1 during the winter season and 28.05 during the summer season. This value suggests that the surface water maintains good quality and is suitable for drinking purposes. Furthermore, the analysis indicated that the concentrations of heavy metals in the study area were below the recommended limits set by the World Health Organization and fell within the safe threshold prescribed by Egyptian legislation. Despite the identification of localized instances of illegal activities in certain areas, such as unauthorized discharges, the findings affirm that the Bahr Mouse stream is devoid of heavy metal pollution. This underscores the importance of continued vigilance and regulatory enforcement to preserve the integrity of these vital water resources.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Egito , Rios , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Cádmio/análise , Qualidade da Água , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1339755, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577275

RESUMO

Background: It has been reported that the disease-initiated and disease-mediated effects of aerosol pollutants can be related to concentration, site of deposition, duration of exposure, as well as the specific chemical composition of pollutants. Objectives: To investigate the microelemental composition of dust aggregates in primary schools of Vilnius and determine trace elements related to acute upper respiratory infections among 6-to 11-year-old children. Methods: Microelemental analysis of aerosol pollution was performed using dust samples collected in the classrooms of 11 primary schools in Vilnius from 2016 to 2020. Sites included areas of its natural accumulation behind the radiator heaters and from the surface of high cupboards. The concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, W, Sb, Sn, Zr, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn, Cr, V, and As) in dust samples were analyzed using a SPECTRO XEPOS spectrometer. The annual incidence rates of respiratory diseases in children of each school were calculated based on data from medical records. Results: The mean annual incidence of physician-diagnosed acute upper respiratory infections (J00-J06 according to ICD-10A) among younger school-age children was between 25.1 and 71.3% per school. A significant correlation was found between vanadium concentration and the number of episodes of acute upper respiratory infections during each study year from 2016 to 2020. The lowest was r = 0.67 (p = 0.024), and the highest was r = 0.82 (p = 0.002). The concentration of vanadium in the samples of dust aggregates varied from 12.7 to 52.1 parts per million (ppm). No significant correlations between the other trace elements and the incidence of upper respiratory infections were found, which could be caused by a small number of study schools and relatively low concentrations of other heavy metals found in the samples of indoor dust aggregates. Conclusion: A significant and replicable correlation was found between the concentration of vanadium in the samples of natural dust aggregates collected in primary schools and the incidence of acute upper respiratory infections in children. Monitoring the concentration of heavy metals in the indoor environment can be an important instrument for the prevention and control of respiratory morbidity in children.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Metais Pesados , Infecções Respiratórias , Oligoelementos , Criança , Humanos , Poeira/análise , Vanádio/análise , Incidência , Monitoramento Ambiental , Oligoelementos/análise , Aerossóis e Gotículas Respiratórios , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia
18.
PeerJ ; 12: e17200, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577416

RESUMO

Background: Dayu County, a major tungsten producer in China, experiences severe heavy metal pollution. This study evaluated the pollution status, the accumulation characteristics in paddy rice, and the potential ecological risks of heavy metals in agricutural soils near tungsten mining areas of Dayu County. Furthermore, the impacts of soil properties on the accumulation of heavy metals in soil were explored. Methods: The geo-accumulation index (Igeo), the contamination factor (CF), and the pollution load index (PLI) were used to evaluate the pollution status of metals (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Mo, W, and Zn) in soils. The ecological risk factor (RI) was used to assess the potential ecological risks of heavy metals in soil. The health risks and accumulation of heavy metals in paddy rice were evaluated using the health risk index and the translocation factor (TF), respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to discuss the influence of soil factors on heavy metal contents in soil. Results: The concentrations of metals exceeded the respective average background values for soils (As: 10.4, Cd: 0.10, Cu: 20.8, Cr: 48.0, Pb: 32.1, Mo: 0.30, W: 4.93, Zn: 69.0, mg/kg). The levels of As, Cd, Mo, and tungsten(W) exceeded the risk screening values for Chinese agricultural soil contamination and the Dutch standard. The mean concentrations of the eight tested heavy metals followed the order FJ-S > QL > FJ-N > HL > CJ-E > CJ-W, with a significant distribution throughout the Zhangjiang River basin. Heavy metals, especially Cd, were enriched in paddy rice. The Igeo and CF assessment indicated that the soil was moderately to heavily polluted by Mo, W and Cd, and the PLI assessment indicated the the sites of FJ-S and QL were extremely severely polluted due to the contribution of Cd, Mo and W. The RI results indicated that Cd posed the highest risk near tungsten mining areas. The non-carcinogenic and total carcinogenic risks were above the threshold values (non-carcinogenic risk by HQ > 1, carcinogenic risks by CR > 1 × 10-4 a-1) for As and Cd. Correlation analysis indicated that K2O, Na2O, and CaO are main factors affecting the accumulation and migration of heavy metals in soils and plants. Our findings reveal significant contamination of soils and crops with heavy metals, especially Cd, Mo, and W, near mining areas, highlighting serious health risks. This emphasizes the need for immediate remedial actions and the implementation of stringent environmental policies to safeguard health and the environment.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Tungstênio/análise , Cádmio/análise , Chumbo/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Mineração , China
19.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(5): 146, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578375

RESUMO

With the transformation and upgrading of industries, the environmental problems caused by industrial residual contaminated sites are becoming increasingly prominent. Based on actual investigation cases, this study analyzed the soil pollution status of a remaining sites of the copper and zinc rolling industry, and found that the pollutants exceeding the screening values included Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, total petroleum hydrocarbons and 6 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon monomers. Based on traditional analysis methods such as the correlation coefficient and spatial distribution, combined with machine learning methods such as SOM + K-means, it is inferred that the heavy metal Zn/Pb may be mainly related to the production history of zinc rolling. Cu/Ni may be mainly originated from the production history of copper rolling. PAHs are mainly due to the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels in the melting equipment. TPH pollution is speculated to be related to oil leakage during the industrial use period and later period of vehicle parking. The results showed that traditional analysis methods can quickly identify the correlation between site pollutants, while SOM + K-means machine learning methods can further effectively extract complex hidden relationships in data and achieve in-depth mining of site monitoring data.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Metais Pesados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes do Solo , Cobre/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Chumbo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Zinco/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Solo , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Mineração de Dados , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , China , Medição de Risco
20.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(5): 149, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578493

RESUMO

There is limited evidence linking exposure to heavy metals, especially mixed metals, to stress urinary incontinence (SUI). This study aimed to explore the relationship between multiple metals exposure and SUI in women. The data were derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2020. In the study, a total of 13 metals were analyzed in blood and urine. In addition, 5155 adult women were included, of whom 2123 (41.2%) suffered from SUI. The logistic regression model and restricted cubic spline (RCS) were conducted to assess the association of single metal exposure with SUI risk. The Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) and weighted quantile sum (WQS) were used to estimate the combined effect of multiple metals exposure on SUI. First, we observed that blood Pb, Hg and urinary Pb, Cd were positively related to SUI risk, whereas urinary W was inversely related by multivariate logistic regression (all p-FDR < 0.05). Additionally, a significant non-linear relationship between blood Hg and SUI risk was observed by RCS analysis. In the co-exposure models, WQS model showed that exposure to metal mixtures in blood [OR (95%CI) = 1.18 (1.06, 1.31)] and urine [OR (95%CI) = 1.18 (1.03, 1.34)] was positively associated with SUI risk, which was consistent with the results of BKMR model. A potential interaction was identified between Hg and Cd in urine. Hg and Cd were the main contributors to the combined effects. In summary, our study indicates that exposure to heavy metal mixtures may increase SUI risk in women.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Teorema de Bayes , Cádmio/toxicidade , Chumbo , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/induzido quimicamente , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/epidemiologia , Metais Pesados/toxicidade
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