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1.
Parasitol Res ; 114(5): 1977-83, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25666371

RESUMO

In the Mediterranean Sea, anglerfish Lophius budegassa and Lophius piscatorius support an important fishery, and landings have increased in recent years. These species are infected by the microsporean Spraguea lophii, a parasite that infects their nervous system giving rise to multiple cysts. Due to the high value of these fish and conspicuous nature of the infection, we determined the apparent prevalence of this parasite in both Lophius spp. Specimens were obtained from commercial catches along the NW Mediterranean Sea during 2013. The parasite was observed in the nerves from the peripheral nervous system of the individuals and was detected at the prevalence of 69.2% (202/292) and 100% (58/58) in L. budegassa and L. piscatorius, respectively. Non-significant differences were noted between sexes of L. budegassa (χ(2) = 0.683; p = 0.409), although a positive correlation was noted between host size and prevalence (χ(2) = 6.134; p = 0.013). During the sampling, two specimens of L. budegassa with atypical morphological characteristics, pigment anomalies and blindness and infected with S. lophii xenomas were described.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Microsporea/isolamento & purificação , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Mar Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/microbiologia
2.
Int J Parasitol ; 34(10): 1137-46, 2004 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15380685

RESUMO

We investigated the prevalence, transmission mode and fitness effects of infections by obligatory intracellular, microsporidian parasites in the freshwater amphipod Gammarus roeseli. We found three different microsporidia species in this host, all using transovarial (vertical) transmission. All three coexist at different prevalences in two host populations, but bi-infected individuals were rarely found, suggesting no (or very little) horizontal transmission. It is predicted that vertically-transmitted parasites may exhibit sex-specific virulence in their hosts, or they may have either positive or neutral effects on host fitness. All three species differed in their transmission efficiency and infection intensity and our data suggest that these microsporidia exert sex-specific virulence by feminising male hosts. The patterns of infection we found exhibit convergent evolution with those of another amphipod host, Gammarus duebeni. Interestingly, we found that infected females breed earlier in the reproductive season than uninfected females. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to report a positive effect of microsporidian infection on female host reproduction.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/parasitologia , Microsporea , Microsporidiose/transmissão , Frutos do Mar/parasitologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Crustáceos/fisiologia , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Masculino , Microsporea/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Reprodução
3.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 58(2-3): 193-202, 2004 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15109142

RESUMO

Immunohistochemical and histopathological studies were conducted on a population of 3-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus (L.) from Loch Airthrey (Stirling, Scotland) naturally infected with the microsporean Glugea anomala (Moniez 1887). Of the 55 host specimens that were examined, 16 (29.09%) were infected, the intensity of infection ranging from 1 to 4 xenomas per fish, which were principally located within the central portion of the body lateral flank musculature. All 32 G. anomala xenomas examined were mature, their diameter ranging from 936 to 2232 Pum, and their walls of presented a laminar structure. Subcutaneously situated xenomas protruded from the fish body surface, whilst xenomas encountered within the intestine were seen to cause distortion. Light and electron microscopical observations confirmed a host cellular reaction around the xenoma, seen by the presence of eosinophile granule cells (EGCs), and some neutrophils. The occurrences of rodlet cells among the intestinal epithelial cells, and in close proximity to the xenoma wall, were observed in certain specimens. Outside the xenoma wall, macrophage aggregates (MAs) were commonly encountered. Within the xenoma wall, the presence of eosinophile granular cells immunoreactive to the anti-serotonin serum was also recorded. Further immunohistochemical tests revealed that a high number of nerve fibres running along the white lateral muscle fibres were immunoreactive to bombesin-, galanin-, and leu-enkephalin-antisera. Nerve fibres containing bombesin- and leu-enkephalin-like substances were also observed in the connective inflammatory tissue around the protozoan cyst, while neurons in the spinal ganglia were immunoreactive to met-enkephalin, and serotonin antisera. The control for the specificity of immunohistochemical reactions was performed using preabsorption tests of each antiserum with the corresponding antigen, and no immunoreactivity was noticed. The data presented are discussed in relation to the occurrence of G. anomala, which alters the pattern of nerve fibres present in the host. Specifically, the protozoan induces a response in the stickleback nervous system, the reaction of which is revealed through the application of immunohistochemical techniques.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Microsporea/fisiologia , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Smegmamorpha , Animais , Bombesina , Encefalina Leucina , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Galanina , Granulócitos/imunologia , Técnicas Histológicas , Soros Imunes/imunologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Microscopia Eletrônica , Microsporea/imunologia , Microsporidiose/parasitologia , Microsporidiose/patologia , Fibras Nervosas/imunologia , Escócia , Serotonina , Esporos/fisiologia
4.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 58(2-3): 261-4, 2004 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15109151

RESUMO

Steinhausia mytilovum is a globally distributed microsporidian parasite which infects the oocytes of the blue mussels Mytilus edulis and M. galloprovincialis. Despite the intensive monitoring effort made on mussel populations, the parasite has not previously been reported in France. We report herein on the occurrence of S. mytilovum in Mytilus sp. from 1 cultured and 2 natural populations on the northern coast of France, thus extending the parasite's known distribution northwards. We also report on the observation in 1989 of S. mytilovum in M. galloprovincialis from the Golfe de Fos area in the Mediterranean Sea (South of France). S. mytilovum was observed in the European hybrid zone between M. edulis and M. galloprovincialis, which therefore renders the exact taxonomic status of the infected hosts unknown. The prevalence of the parasite was low, which suggests that its effect on mussel populations was probably limited.


Assuntos
Bivalves/parasitologia , Microsporea/citologia , Oócitos/patologia , Animais , Feminino , França , Geografia , Técnicas Histológicas , Prevalência
5.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 34(1): 45-9, 1998 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9789978

RESUMO

Oral treatment with fumagillin is effective for controlling various microsporean and myxosporean infections in fish. We tested a synthetic analog of fumagillin, TNP-470 (Takeda Chemical Industries), for its efficacy against 2 microsporean pathogens of salmon: Loma salmonae and Nucleospora salmonis. Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were experimentally infected with either L. salmonae (per os) or N. salmonis (intraperitoneal, i.p., injection) and held in fresh water at 15 degrees C. Fish were then divided into 3 replicate groups: untreated or treated orally at 1.0 mg or at 0.1 mg drug kg-1 fish d-1. With L. salmonae, the high dose fish had 0.32 xenomas mm-2 of gill tissue compared to controls at 24.5 xenomas per mm2. With N. salmonis infections, untreated fish exhibited 100% infection, showed prominent clinical signs (e.g. renal swelling, anaemia), and high mortality. In contrast, fish treated at 1.0 mg kg-1 showed no clinical signs, and 16% of those treated at 0.1 mg kg-1 showed only mild gross pathological changes. With the treated groups, over 50% of the fish exhibited extremely light infections, even with high dose treatments, but no mortalities were attributed to N. salmonis infections. Uninfected fish treated at 1.0 mg drug kg-1 fish d-1 for 5 wk appeared clinically normal and showed no reduction in growth. However, about half of these fish exhibited atrophy of the renal interstitial hematopoietic tissue.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Peixes/tratamento farmacológico , Microsporea/efeitos dos fármacos , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Salmão/parasitologia , Sesquiterpenos/uso terapêutico , Análise de Variância , Animais , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Cicloexanos , Brânquias/patologia , Rim/parasitologia , Rim/patologia , Microsporea/isolamento & purificação , Microsporidiose/tratamento farmacológico , O-(Cloroacetilcarbamoil)fumagilol , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Baço/parasitologia , Baço/patologia
6.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 40(4): 215-8, July-Aug. 1998. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-225878

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi e o mais comum microsporidio agente de infeccoes gastrointestinais que ocorre predominantemente em pessoas com AIDS. Em todo o mundo os microsporidios sao reconhecidos como importantes patogenos oportunistas, entretanto poucos casos ja foram diagnosticados no Brasil, provavelmente devido ao pouco conhecimento do quadro clinico que os agentes produzem ou a dificuldades no diagnostico laboratorial. No presente trabalho relatamos o caso de um paciente brasileiro HIV-positivo acompanhado durante 3 anos, em que foram detectados esporos de microsporidios nas fezes, identificados como Enterocytozoon bieneusi por microscopia eletronica e PCR. O paciente apresentava diarreia cronica, contagem de linfocitos CD4 abaixo de 100/mm3 e fez uso de albendazol em diferentes ocasioes com melhora transitoria da diarreia, que reaparecia logo que a droga era suspensa...


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Diarreia/terapia , Seguimentos , Enteropatia por HIV/diagnóstico , Enteropatia por HIV/etiologia , Enteropatia por HIV/parasitologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/parasitologia , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Doença Crônica , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/diagnóstico , Contagem de Linfócitos , Microscopia Eletrônica/métodos , Microsporea/classificação , Microsporea/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 34(3): 211-6, 1998 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9891735

RESUMO

During a 6 mo study of moribund trout from Buford hatchery, Buford, Georgia, USA, a Loma cf. salmonae microsporidian parasite was studied in the gills of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, brown trout Salmo trutta, and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. This parasite was morphologically similar to L. salmonae and L. fontinalis but differed in spore size. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that xenomas were embedded in gill filaments. Transmission electron micrographs prepared from fresh tissue showed mature spores with 12 to 15 turns of their polar tube. Spore diameters for the Georgia strain from formalin-fixed gill tissues measured 3.5 (SD +/- 0.1) by 1.8 (SD +/- 0.1) microns. Electron micrographs of formalin-fixed, deparaffinized tissues of rainbow trout from Pennsylvania and West Virginia show spores with a diameter of 3.5 (+/- 0.2) by 1.7 (+/- 0.1) microns and 3.4 (+/- 0.2) by 1.8 (+/- 0.1) microns, respectively. Transmission electron micrographs of spores from Pennsylvania and West Virginia show that mature spores from both states had 13 to 15 turns of their polar tubes. Measurements from transmission electron micrographs prepared from alcohol-fixed tissues from Virginia fish contained spores with a diameter of 3.0 (+/- 0.3) by 1.1 (+/- 0.3) microns and 12 to 15 turns of their polar tubes. These measurements are consistent with L. salmonae and therefore suggest that the parasite is present on the east coast of the United States. During the height of the Georgia epizootic, the percentage of fish with observed xenomas reached 62.2% (N = 87), and the highest number of xenomas counted per 10 gill filaments was 133 (N = 87). The microsporidian epizootic occurred either during the autumn months or when intake river water quality reached combined iron-manganese concentrations as high as 1.01 (mean 0.44, SD +/- 0.42) mg-1.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Microsporea/isolamento & purificação , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Truta/parasitologia , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Pesqueiros , Água Doce/análise , Georgia/epidemiologia , Brânquias/parasitologia , Brânquias/patologia , Ferro/análise , Manganês/análise , Microscopia Eletrônica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microsporea/ultraestrutura , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/parasitologia , Prevalência , Estações do Ano
8.
Leukemia ; 11 Suppl 3: 170-1, 1997 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9209333

RESUMO

Plasmacytoid leukemia is a common disease of seawater pen-reared chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in British Columbia, Canada, but has also been detected in wild salmon, in freshwater-reared salmon in United States, and in salmon from netpens in Chile. The disease can be transmitted under laboratory conditions, and is associated with a retrovirus, the salmon leukemia virus. However, the proliferating plasmablasts are often infected with the microsporean Enterocytozoon salmonis, which may be an important co-factor in the disease.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Leucemia Plasmocitária/veterinária , Microsporea/isolamento & purificação , Retroviridae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Animais Selvagens , Colúmbia Britânica , Chile , Rim/parasitologia , Rim/virologia , Leucemia Plasmocitária/parasitologia , Leucemia Plasmocitária/virologia , Salmão , Baço/parasitologia , Baço/virologia , Estados Unidos
9.
J Parasitol ; 83(2): 296-301, 1997 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9105314

RESUMO

Loma embiotocia n. sp. is described from the gills of shiner perch (Cymatogaster aggregata) from waters off Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Highest prevalence at a site was 15% and greatest intensity was 583 xenomas per fish. Xenomas averaged 0.13 mm in diameter (0.06-0.16 mm) and contained ovoid spores 4.8 x 2.6 (4.0-5.0 x 2.0-3.0) microns. Sporogonic stages were dispersed throughout the xenomas. The xenoma wall was smooth lacking invaginations into the cyto plasm: sporoblasts were not highly vacuolated, and the sporophorous vesicle formed before sporogony. In addition to differences in host and geographic location the new species is distinguished from Loma salmonae, the only other species in the genus known from British Columbia, by its internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA sequence.


Assuntos
DNA de Protozoário/química , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Microsporea/classificação , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Percas/parasitologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Brânquias/parasitologia , Microsporea/genética , Microsporea/ultraestrutura , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/parasitologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Alinhamento de Sequência , Esporos/ultraestrutura
10.
J Eukaryot Microbiol ; 44(1): 55-60, 1997.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9172833

RESUMO

Rules of zoological nomenclature, morphological data, and ribosomal DNA sequence data support the validity of the genus Nucleospora, and its placement in the family Enterocytozoonidae. Although Nucleospora exhibits most of the distinguishing morphological characteristics of the family Enterocytozoonidae Cali and Owen, 1990, the distinctively different hosts (fish and humans, respectively) and sites of development (the nuclei of immature blood cells and the cytoplasm of enterocytes) support the placement of Nucleospora and Enterocytozoon into separate genera. Ribosomal DNA sequence comparisons between Nucleospora salmonis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi showed 19.8% genetic divergence in the large and small subunit regions. Although more inter- and intrageneric comparisons are needed before percent homology of ribosomal DNA can be used as a criterion for the separation of genera, the genetic divergence between the two species is sufficiently large to deter suppression of the genus Nucleospora as a junior synonym of Enterocytozoon. A polymerase chain reaction test for the detection of N. salmonis in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), based on N. salmonis-specific ribosomal DNA sequence, is described.


Assuntos
DNA de Protozoário , DNA Ribossômico , Microsporea/genética , Filogenia , Terminologia como Assunto , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Microsporea/classificação , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Salmão/parasitologia , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico
11.
Can Vet J ; 36(2): 98-101, 1995 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7728735

RESUMO

Transmission studies were conducted to determine if Loma salmonae was transmissible in sea water. Transmission of L. salmonae to chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) held in sea water was achieved by exposing fish to macerated, infected gill tissue. Fish were exposed in seawater in a flow-through aquarium, and the infection was detected as soon as 5 wk after exposure. Heavily infected fish exhibited numerous xenomas in the branchial arteries, central venous sinusoids, and within the blood channels of the lamellae. The pathological changes were similar to those seen in pen-reared salmon with L. salmonae infections. The infection was not observed in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi, family Clupeidae), or shiner perch (Cymatogaster aggregata, family Embiotocidae), experimentally exposed using identical methods. This study suggests that L. salmonae is transmissible to chinook salmon in seawater netpens. Fish farmers and fish health specialists should consider this possibility when developing and implementing strategies to control the infection.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/transmissão , Microsporea , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Salmão/parasitologia , Animais , Aquicultura , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Microsporea/isolamento & purificação , Microsporidiose/parasitologia , Microsporidiose/transmissão , Percas , Água do Mar
12.
AIDS ; 6(2): 195-7, 1992 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1558716

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We compared the level of Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection at different sites within the small intestine among patients with AIDS. DESIGN: The level of E. bieneusi infection of each patient biopsy was determined and compared using semi-thin plastic section light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). PATIENTS, PARTICIPANTS: Nine subjects with chronic diarrhea who had endoscopic biopsies of either proximal (bulb) or distal (fourth portion) duodenum plus proximal jejunum (just past ligament of Treitz), either simultaneously or within a few months of each other were studied. All patients had TEM-confirmed diagnoses of E. bieneusi intestinal microsporidiosis. RESULTS: The intensity of infection was always greater in biopsies taken from the patients' jejunum compared with those taken from the duodenal bulb. In one patient, the duodenal bulb biopsy was negative while the jejunal biopsy, taken at the same time, was positive. The distal duodenum was usually, but not always, equal to the jejunum in terms of parasite burden. Esophageal, gastric, and colorectal biopsies from these and other patients were negative for E. bieneusi. CONCLUSIONS: For the diagnosis of E. bieneusi to evaluate chronic diarrhea in AIDS patients, upper intestinal endoscopy biopsies should be taken at the most distal site possible.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Enteropatias/parasitologia , Microsporea/isolamento & purificação , Microsporidiose/parasitologia , Infecções Oportunistas/parasitologia , Animais , Biópsia , Doença Crônica , Diarreia/parasitologia , Humanos , Enteropatias/complicações , Enteropatias/patologia , Intestino Delgado/parasitologia , Microsporidiose/complicações , Microsporidiose/patologia , Infecções Oportunistas/complicações
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