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1.
Molecules ; 24(12)2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212847

RESUMO

Four new triterpenoids, 3ß,12ß,16ß,21ß,22-pentahydroxyhopane (1), 12ß,16ß,21ß,22-tetrahydroxyhopan-3-one (2), 3-oxo-olean-12-ene-28,30-dioic acid (3), and 3ß-hydroxyoleana-11,13(18)-diene-28,30-dioic acid 30-methyl ester (4); 21 new triterpenoid saponins, glinusopposides A-U (5-25); and 12 known compounds (26-37) were isolated from the whole plants of Glinus oppositifolius. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated based on the analysis of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) data. All compounds from the plants were measured for antifungal activities against Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton rubrum. Glinusopposide B (6), glinusopposide Q (21), glinusopposide T (24), and glinusopposide U (25) showed strong inhibitory activities against M. gypseum (MIC50 7.1, 6.7, 6.8, and 11.1 µM, respectively) and T. rubrum (MIC50 14.3, 13.4, 11.9, and 13.0 µM, respectively). For those active compounds with an oleanane skeleton, glycosylation (21-26) or oxidation (3) of 3-OH was helpful in increasing the activity; replacement of the 30-methyl group (29) by a carboxymethyl group (26) enhanced the activity; the presence of 11,13(18) double bonds (20) decreased the activity.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Microsporum/efeitos dos fármacos , Molluginaceae/química , Trichophyton/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Glicosídeos/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Triterpenos/química
2.
Pharm Biol ; 57(1): 74-81, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30707846

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Mollugo pentaphylla L. (Molluginaceae) extract (MPE) has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effect on MSU-induced gouty arthritis in a mouse model. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the anti-inflammatory activities of an MPE in vitro and anti-osteoarthritis effects on monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis (OA) in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The dried whole plants of M. pentaphylla were extracted with 70% ethanol under reflux. The anti-inflammatory effect of MPE was evaluated in vitro in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW264.7 cells. The anti-osteoarthritic effect of MPE was investigated in a Sprague-Dawley rat model of MIA-induced OA. Each seven male rats were orally administered MPE (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg) or the positive control drug indomethacin (1 mg/kg) 3 days before MIA injection and once daily for 11 days thereafter. After the treatment with MPE, no evidence of systemic adverse effects was observed in any study group. RESULTS: MPE exhibited anti-inflammatory activity via inhibition of the production of NO (57.8%), PGE2 (97.1%) and IL-6 (93.2%) in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells at 200 µg/mL. In addition, MPE suppressed IL-1ß (60.9%), TNF-α (37.9%) and IL- 6 (40.9%) production and suppressed the synthesis of MMP-2, MMP-9 and COX-2 in the MIA-induced OA rat model. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that MPE exerts potent anti-inflammatory activities and protects cartilage in an OA rat model. This might be a potential candidate for therapeutic OA treatment.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Molluginaceae/química , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Condrócitos , Indometacina/farmacologia , Articulação do Joelho/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Osteoartrite/induzido quimicamente , Células RAW 264.7 , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Suporte de Carga
3.
Integr Comp Biol ; 57(5): 1010-1020, 2017 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28992215

RESUMO

An organism's environment can vary over spatial and temporal scales. Seasonal variation is an important but overlooked source of environmental variation that often shapes the ranges of organisms. The seasonal niche is a description of the spatiotemporal range of an organism resulting from spatial variation in seasonal conditions. In this study, I describe the seasonal niche of a short-lived annual plant, and variation within the species in seasonal niche breadth. I construct a seasonal species distribution model (SDM) for the species, and using thermal performance curves (TPCs), construct mechanistic SDMs (MSDMs) for individual genotypes. I quantify the correlation between the suitability scores generated in the SDM and the predicted dry weight generated by the MSDMs for each genotype, to estimate variation in seasonal niche breadth among genotypes. Thus, the parameters of TPCs reflect generalist/specialist strategies. I detected significant relationships between thermal performance breadth and maximum predicted fitness and significant correlations between optimal growth temperature and thermal performance breadth. There were large positive correlations between predictions of the SDM and MSDMs based on growth within individual genotypes. The variation in these correlations suggests variation in the degree of specialization. Genotypes with the broadest TPCs had the largest correlations between their MSDMs and the SDM, suggesting that they were generalists. The results show that correlative and MSDMs make similar predictions over the seasonal range, and that ecological specialization can vary dramatically within species.


Assuntos
Clima , Molluginaceae/fisiologia , Termotolerância , California , Estações do Ano
4.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 17(1): 447, 2017 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28874151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gout is an inflammatory condition induced by the deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in joints and soft tissues, and it can lead to acute or chronic arthritis. MSU are pro-inflammatory stimuli that can initiate, amplify and sustain an intense inflammatory response. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of an extract of Mollugo pentaphylla (MPE) on MSU-induced gouty arthritis in a mouse model. METHOD: An MSU crystal suspension (4 mg/50 µL) was injected intradermally into the right paw. The mice were orally administered MPE (150 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg) or the positive control drug colchicine (1 mg/kg) 1 h before the MSU crystals were injected and then once daily for 3 days. The effects of MPE included inflammatory paw edema and pain upon weight-bearing activity, and we evaluated the inflammatory cytokine expression and paw tissue inflammation-related gene expression. RESULTS: MPE suppressed inflammatory paw edema and pain in the MSU-induced mice. MPE showed anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the production of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1ß, NLRP3 inflammasome and NF-κB. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that MPE has potent anti-inflammatory activities and may be useful as a therapeutic agent against gouty arthritis.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Gotosa/tratamento farmacológico , Molluginaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Artrite Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Artrite Experimental/fisiopatologia , Artrite Gotosa/induzido quimicamente , Artrite Gotosa/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/sangue , Edema/fisiopatologia , Pé/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Medição da Dor , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ácido Úrico/efeitos adversos , Suporte de Carga
5.
Genet Mol Res ; 16(2)2017 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28671248

RESUMO

The family Molluginaceae (order Caryophyllales) is considered polyphyletic based on the photosynthetic pathway, C4 evolution, and phylogeny of the family. This inference was made based on photosynthetic, anatomical, and molecular datasets. The generic circumscription of this family has greatly been changed owing to the placement of several of its genera into the Caryophyllaceae, Microteaceae, Lophiocarpaceae, and Limeaceae families. However, the generic relationships are largely unknown. By virtue of high substitution rates within the species and the ability to resolve the phylogenetic position of morphologically very closely related species and species complexes, the matK gene has emerged as one of the potential chloroplast DNA molecular markers in plant molecular phylogenetics and DNA barcoding studies. We herein used molecular phylogenetic analyses of matK gene sequences using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses to infer the generic relationships among currently recognized genera circumscribed under the family Molluginaceae. The resulting phylogenetic tree confirmed the polyphyly of the family Molluginaceae. The genus Hypertelis was found at the base of the Molluginaceae clade. The genus Glinus was close to Glischrothamnus and Mollugo, Suessenguthiella was close to Coelanthum and Pharnaceum, whereas Polpoda grouped with Adenogramma and Psammotropha. The present study constitutes a robust investigation of the molecular phylogenetic relationships among members of the family Molluginaceae. Future study should combine by combined analyses of morphological characters and multiple nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences with a more comprehensive taxon sampling of the family Molluginaceae.


Assuntos
Genes de Cloroplastos , Molluginaceae/genética , Filogenia , Molluginaceae/classificação , Polimorfismo Genético
6.
Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi ; 118(3): 866-72, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25341314

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: In Mali Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC. (Aizoaceae) is used to treat inflammations and joint pains. AIM: The present study was designed to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous and ethanol extracts obtained from the aerial parts of the plant. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The aqueous and ethanol extracts (G-A1 and G-E1, respectively) were studied regarding their acute toxicity. The extracts were further evaluated in different models using nociceptive (chemical, thermal, mechanical) and inflammatory stimuli. Experimental protocol was implemented according to international regulations in animal experiments. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS: No acute toxicity was noticed for these two extracts. ED50 (mg/kg bw) values were determined in different nociception models: the constrictive abdominal response test (G-A1: 229.00 +/- 53.30; G-E1: 146.38 +/- 31.75), hot plate test (G-A1: 278.59 +/- 73.00; G-E1: 383.52 +/- 89.69), Randall-Selitto test (G-A1: 207.14 +/- 26.15), evaluation of the inflammatory edema test (G-A1: 228.31 +/- 13.84; G-E1: 62.55 +/- 89.69). CONCLUSIONS: The results of the inflammatory nociception studies show that G-E1 extract had a higher potency than G-A1 extract in the constrictive abdominal response test. Also, for the same level of anti-inflammatory activity, G-E1 extract was more potent than G-A1 extract. These results encourage further studies to separate, isolate and identify the phytochemicals responsible for the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Molluginaceae , Fitoterapia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Analgésicos/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Artralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química
7.
Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi ; 118(2): 564-70, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25076732

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: In Malian traditional medicine, aerial parts of Glinus oppositifolius are used in the treatment of many disorders, particularly inflammations and joint pains. AIM: The present study was initiated to investigate the antioxidant potential of Glinus oppositifolius. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Aqueous and ethanol extracts were prepared from the dried aerial parts. Both extracts were examined for the phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Total phenolic content was quantified by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was studied in vitro by evaluating the ability to scavenge different free radicals (ABTS, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, nitric oxide) and to chelate ferrous ions. RESULTS: Aqueous extract was found to contain a higher level of total phenols than ethanol extract (1.27 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.94 +/- 0.05 g GAE/100 g extract). Both extracts lacked the ability to scavenge superoxide anion radical but scavenged ABTS and hydroxyl radicals, nitric oxide and chelated ferrous ions in a concentration-dependent manner. According to the EC50 values, aqueous extract showed stronger antioxidant effects than ethanol extract (174.32 +/- 1.49 vs. 276.76 +/- 1.52 microg/mL in ABTS radical cation scavenging assay, 119.91 +/- 1.70 vs. 240.57 +/- 0.97 microg/mL in nitric oxide scavenging assay, 1.99 +/- 0.01 vs. 6.54 +/- 0.08 mg/mL in ferrous ion chelating assay). In hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, aqueous extract had an EC50 value of 0.86 +/- 0.00 mg/mL while the EC50 value of ethanol extract was higher than the highest concentration that was tested (3.75 mg/mL). CONCLUSIONS: Our results clearly indicate the antioxidant potential of Glinus oppositifolius aerial parts and suggest that the antiinflammatory activity might be partly related to the antioxidant potential.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes , Molluginaceae , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Fenóis/química , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química
8.
BMC Res Notes ; 7: 220, 2014 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24713133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The negative impact of synthetic molluscicides on the environment and their high cost necessitated search for an alternative approach of using plant extracts for the control of schistosomiasis. The objective of this study was, therefore, to evaluate aqueous and ethyl acetate crude extracts of Glinus lotoides fruits for their cercariacidal activity and molluscicidal effect against schistosome snail intermediate hosts. METHODS: Assessment of the molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria pfeifferi was made by immersion method in accordance with WHO guideline. The results of mortality were statistically analyzed using probit analysis. The attenuating effect of the plant on Schistosoma mansoni cercariae was determined using establishment of adult worms as a parasitological parameter post exposure. RESULTS: The 24 and 48 hour-LC50 values for the aqueous extract of G. lotoides fruits were 47.1 and 44.1 mg/L, respectively, whereas that of ethyl acetate were 66.1 and 59.6 mg/L, respectively. The 24 and 48 hour LC90 values for the aqueous extract of G. lotoides fruits were 56.96 and 51.0 mg/L, respectively, while that of ethyl acetate were 77.2 and 70.0 mg/L, respectively. The in vitro cercariacidal activity was determined after 2 hrs of exposure to the aqueous plant extract. It was found out that the LC50 and LC90 values were 18.7 and 41.7 mg/L, respectively. Besides, infectivity of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae to mice was determined by exposing mice to cercariae pre-treated with the sub-lethal concentrations (3.7, 11.6 and 18.7 mg/L) of the aqueous extract. A significant reduction in worm burden in mice was obtained at 11.6 mg/L (p < 0.05). Moreover, the reduction in number of worms recovered was highly significant at 18.7 mg/L (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that G. lotoides has molluscicidal activity against B. pfeifferi snails and cercariacidal activity against S. mansoni. Yet, further comprehensive evaluation is recommended for the possible use of G. lotoides against B. pfeifferi and the schistosome parasite.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Molluginaceae/química , Moluscocidas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Schistosoma mansoni/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetatos , Animais , Biomphalaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomphalaria/fisiologia , Feminino , Frutas/química , Dose Letal Mediana , Masculino , Camundongos , Schistosoma mansoni/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Solventes , Água
9.
Pharm Biol ; 52(8): 1079-84, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24617922

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC. (Molluginaceae), a perennial subshrubs herb, grows at low altitudes in the southern part of Taiwan, and is used in traditional Chinese medicine for herpes zoster and herpangina. OBJECTIVE: This study describes nutritional and therapeutic potential of Glinus oppositifolius and summarizes scientific evidence that supports traditional claims; recent progress in research for this plant is reviewed herein. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The literature has been retrieved from the web-based online systems including PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar. The articles related to phytochemistry, pharmaceutical biology and ethnopharmacology have been excluded. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In clinical practice, the plant has been extensively investigated in a broad range of studies to provide scientific evidence for folklore claims or to find new therapeutic uses. The present review may arouse related research and make a more valid display for Taiwanese native medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Molluginaceae , Fitoterapia/tendências , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Taiwan
10.
Am J Bot ; 100(9): 1757-78, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24008516

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Caryophyllales are highly diverse in the structure of the perianth and androecium and show a mode of floral development unique in eudicots, reflecting the continuous interplay of gynoecium and perianth and their influence on position, number, and identity of the androecial whorls. The floral development of five species from four genera of a paraphyletic Molluginaceae (Limeum, Hypertelis, Glinus, Corbichonia), representing three distinct evolutionary lineages, was investigated to interpret the evolution of the androecium across Caryophyllales. • METHODS: Floral buds were dissected, critical-point dried and imaged with SEM. The genera studied are good representatives of the diversity of development of stamens and staminodial petaloids in Caryophyllales. • KEY RESULTS: Sepals show evidence of petaloid differentiation via marginal hyaline expansion. Corbichonia, Glinus, and Limeum also show perianth differentiation via sterilization of outer stamen tiers. In all four genera, stamens initiate with the carpels and develop centrifugally, but subsequently variation is significant. With the exception of Limeum, the upper whorl is complete and alternisepalous, while a second antesepalous whorl arises more or less sequentially, starting opposite the inner sepals. Loss or sterilization of antesepalous stamens occurs in Glinus and Limeum and is caused by altered carpel merism and inhibition by sepal pressures. • CONCLUSIONS: Outer stamens of Hypertelis correspond with petaloids of Caryophyllaceae and suggest that staminodial petaloids and outer alternisepalous stamens are interchangeable in the Caryophyllales. We emphasize a switch in the position of first formed stamens from antesepalous to alternisepalous following the divergence of Limeum; thus stamen position is an important synapomorphy for the globular inclusion clade.


Assuntos
Caryophyllaceae/anatomia & histologia , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Evolução Biológica , Caryophyllaceae/genética , Caryophyllaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Molluginaceae/anatomia & histologia , Molluginaceae/genética , Molluginaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia
11.
Curr Biol ; 23(8): 722-6, 2013 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23583553

RESUMO

Succulent water storage is a prominent feature among plants adapted to arid zones, but we know little about how succulence evolves and how it is integrated into organs already tasked with multiple functions. Increased volume in succulent leaves, for example, may result in longer transport distances between veins and the cells that they supply, which in turn could negatively impact photosynthesis. We quantified water storage in a group of 83 closely related species to examine the evolutionary dynamics of succulence and leaf venation. In most leaves, vein density decreased with increasing succulence, resulting in significant increases in the path length of water from veins to evaporative surfaces. The most succulent leaves, however, had a distinct three-dimensional (3D) venation pattern, which evolved 11-12 times within this small lineage, likely via multiple developmental pathways. 3D venation "resets" internal leaf distances, maintaining moderate vein density in extremely succulent tissues and suggesting that the evolution of extreme succulence is constrained by the need to maintain an efficient leaf hydraulic system. The repeated evolution of 3D venation decouples leaf water storage from hydraulic path length, facilitating the evolutionary exploration of novel phenotypic space.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Magnoliopsida/anatomia & histologia , Magnoliopsida/fisiologia , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Transporte Biológico , Magnoliopsida/classificação , Magnoliopsida/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Molluginaceae/anatomia & histologia , Molluginaceae/classificação , Molluginaceae/genética , Molluginaceae/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/classificação , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Água/metabolismo
12.
Nat Prod Res ; 27(7): 624-9, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22594571

RESUMO

Evaluation of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity led to the isolation of six triterpene saponins from the aerial parts of Glinus oppositifolius including one new and five known constituents. The structure of the new saponin, glinoside C (1), was established as 16-O-(ß-D-glucopyranosyl)-3ß,12ß,16ß,21α,22-pentahydroxy hopane by extensive use of 1-D, 2-D NMR and mass spectral techniques. The other constituents identified were 3-O-(ß-D-xylopyranosyl)-spergulagenin A (2), spergulacin (3), spergulin A (4), spergulacin A (5) and spergulin B (6). Compound 1 exhibited the greatest inhibition of the enzyme with IC50 of 127 ± 30 µM. Kinetics study for the compound 1 demonstrated mixed type of inhibition (Ki = 157.9 µM).


Assuntos
Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Molluginaceae/química , Saponinas/química , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Saponinas/farmacologia
13.
Phytother Res ; 27(4): 507-14, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22648529

RESUMO

An extract of Glinus lotoides, a medicinal plant used in Africa and Asia for various therapeutic purposes, was recently shown to cause DNA damage in vitro. To further explore the potential genotoxicity of this plant, fractionation of the crude extract was performed using reverse phase solid-phase extraction and a stepwise gradient elution of methanol in water. Four fractions were collected and subsequently analysed for their DNA damaging effects in mouse lymphoma cells using an alkaline version of the comet assay. To identify potential genotoxic and non-genotoxic principles, each fraction was then subjected to liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, LC-MS/MS. 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance analyses were used to confirm the identity of some saponins. Although fractions containing a mixture of flavonoids and oleanane-type saponins or oleanane-type saponins alone produced no DNA damage, those containing hopane-type saponins exhibited a pronounced DNA damaging effect without affecting the viability of the cells. To conclude, even if this study presents evidence that hopane-type of saponins are endowed with a DNA damaging ability, further studies are needed before individual saponins can be cited as a culprit for the previously reported genotoxicity of the crude extract of G. lotoides.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Molluginaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Saponinas/toxicidade , Triterpenos/toxicidade , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatografia Líquida , Ensaio Cometa , Camundongos , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Oleanólico/toxicidade , Plantas Medicinais/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
14.
Asian Pac J Trop Med ; 5(11): 862-7, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23146799

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the protective effect of ethanol extract of Mollugo nudicaulis (M. nudicaulis) against perchloroethylene-induced hepatotoxicity. METHODS: The hepatoprotective activity of the ethanol extract of M. nudicaulis (200 mg/kg body wt) was studied in percholoroethylene (1 000 mg/kg body wt) induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar albino rats. The serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin and the liver content of SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GSH, vitamin C were assessed to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the extract. The activity of the extract was compared with silymarin, a standard reference drug. In addition, serum urea, uric acid and creatinine levels were measured to evaluate the kidney function. The histopathological examination of the liver tissues was observed to support the biochemical parameters. RESULTS: The results revealed that the extract significantly (P<0.05) restored the serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin and significantly (P<0.05) increased the antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GSH, vitamin C in perchloroethylene-induced rats to its normalcy. The biochemical observations were supported by the histopathological studies of the liver tissues. CONCLUSIONS: The results led to the conclusion that M. nudicaulis possess hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities against perchloroethylene-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Molluginaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Tetracloroetileno/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Creatinina/sangue , Enzimas/sangue , Feminino , Histocitoquímica , Fígado/enzimologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Resultado do Tratamento , Ureia/sangue , Ácido Úrico/sangue
15.
Evolution ; 65(3): 643-60, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20955197

RESUMO

C(4) photosynthesis is a series of biochemical and structural modifications to C(3) photosynthesis that has evolved numerous times in flowering plants, despite requiring modification of up to hundreds of genes. To study the origin of C(4) photosynthesis, we reconstructed and dated the phylogeny of Molluginaceae, and identified C(4) taxa in the family. Two C(4) species, and three clades with traits intermediate between C(3) and C(4) plants were observed in Molluginaceae. C(3)-C(4) intermediacy evolved at least twice, and in at least one lineage was maintained for several million years. Analyses of the genes for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, a key C(4) enzyme, indicate two independent origins of fully developed C(4) photosynthesis in the past 10 million years, both within what was previously classified as a single species, Mollugo cerviana. The propensity of Molluginaceae to evolve C(3)-C(4) and C(4) photosynthesis is likely due to several traits that acted as developmental enablers. Enlarged bundle sheath cells predisposed some lineages for the evolution of C(3)-C(4) intermediacy and the C(4) biochemistry emerged via co-option of photorespiratory recycling in C(3)-C(4) intermediates. These evolutionarily stable transitional stages likely increased the evolvability of C(4) photosynthesis under selection environments brought on by climate and atmospheric change in recent geological time.


Assuntos
Pleiotropia Genética , Molluginaceae/genética , Mutação , Fotossíntese , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Genética Populacional , Modelos Genéticos , Molluginaceae/classificação , Molluginaceae/fisiologia , Filogenia
16.
Molecules ; 15(9): 6186-92, 2010 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20877215

RESUMO

An amino acid derivative, L-(-)-(N-trans-cinnamoyl)-arginine, was isolated from the whole plant of Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC. along with kaempferol 3-O-galactopyranoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-galactopyranoside, vitexin, vicenin-2, adenosine and L-phenylalanine. The structure determinations were based on analyses of chemical and spectroscopic methods.


Assuntos
Arginina/análogos & derivados , Molluginaceae/química , Aminoácidos , Arginina/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/análise
17.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 56(5): 311-8, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21228502

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to determine the anticancer activity and the nutritional values of the seeds of Glinus lotoides, a plant used as a dietary vegetable and medicinal plant in Asia and Africa. To achieve this goal, the seeds were extracted in soxhlet using solvents, namely n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanol and n-hexane extracts showed differential growth inhibitory responses in carcinoma cell lines (Calu-3 IC(50)=29.7 and 79.8 µg/mL and Caco-2 IC(50)=69.7 and 74.6 µg/mL, respectively) as compared to normal cell lines (MDCK IC(50)=106.1 and 131.1 µg/mL and IEC-6 IC(50)=134.0 and 128.5 µg/mL, respectively). In addition, these extracts induced significant apoptosis in the cancer cells (p<0.05) at 100 µg/mL. The seeds of G. lotoides were found to contain nutritional compounds of well-established chemopreventive activity, including vitamin E, folic acid, selenium and calcium. The hydrophilic oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) value was found to be 123 µM Trolox Equiv./g, indicating the antioxidant activity of the plant. These data suggest that the seeds of G. lotoides could potentially be used in the diet in chemoprevention of cancer and warrant further confirmatory preclinical and clinical studies. The amount of protein, carbohydrate, fat, ash, moisture, sugar profile and fatty acids further support the nutritional value of the seeds.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Molluginaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/química , África , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose , Ásia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quimioprevenção , Cães , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Valor Nutritivo , Ratos , Solventes/metabolismo , Verduras/química
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 122(1): 136-42, 2009 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19146933

RESUMO

AIM OF THE STUDY: Although traditional herbal medicines are widely used in Ethiopia, no information is available on their potential genotoxicity. In the present study, hydroalcoholic extracts of Glinus lotoides, Plumbago zeylanica, Rumex steudelii and Thymus schimperi were evaluated for their DNA damaging effects using the comet assay. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells were exposed to different concentrations of the extracts for 3h with and without metabolic activation (S9-mix) using 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide and benzo(a)pyrene as positive controls, and vehicles as negative controls. RESULTS: In the absence of S9, all extracts were found to induce significant DNA damage without affecting the cell viability. T. schimperi and R. steudelii were the most potent DNA-damaging extracts, and G. lotoides and P. zeylanica the least potent. The addition of S9 had different effects on the DNA damage induced by the extracts: it lowered the DNA damaging effect of P. zeylanica, did not affect the DNA damaging effect of T. schimperi, and increased the DNA damaging effects of R. steudelii and G. lotoides. CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study suggest that all extracts evaluated have a genotoxic potential in vitro which needs to be substantiated by further studies.


Assuntos
Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA , Magnoliopsida , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , 4-Nitroquinolina-1-Óxido/farmacologia , Animais , Benzo(a)pireno/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Etiópia , Linfoma/patologia , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Camundongos , Molluginaceae , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plumbaginaceae , Rumex , Thymus (Planta)
19.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 9(1): 31-8, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18446458

RESUMO

The purpose of this research was to improve the hygroscopicity and poor flow properties of the crude dry extract of the seeds of Glinus lotoides and improve the disintegration time of the core-tablets for enteric coated formulation thereof. The liquid crude extract of the plant was adsorbed on granulated colloidal silicon dioxide (Aeroperl 300 Pharma) at 30% w/w and the dry extract preparation (DEP) was dry-granulated with roller-compaction using Micro-Pactor. Hygroscopicity, flow property and disintegration time were improved significantly due to the adsorption and granulation processes. Moreover, the DEP does not become mucilaginous even at higher relative humidity levels (above 65%). Oblong tablets (20 x 8.25 mm) containing 947 mg of the granulated DEP (equivalent to the traditional dose), 363 mg of Avicel PH101 and 90 mg of Ac-di-Sol as disintegrant were formulated using an instrumented eccentric tablet machine at 20 kN. The tablets showed a crushing strength of 195 N, a friability of 0.4% and disintegrated within 9 min. The tablets were then enteric coated using polymethacrylate co-polymers (Eudragit L 100-55 and Kollicoat MAE 100P). The coated tablets resisted disintegration or softening in simulated gastric fluid for a minimum of 2 h and disintegrated within 15 min in intestine simulated fluid at pH 6.8. In addition to controlling the release of the active agents, the enteric coating improved the strength and decreased friability of the core-tablets.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos/química , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Molluginaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Estresse Mecânico , Comprimidos com Revestimento Entérico
20.
J Gen Appl Microbiol ; 54(2): 101-6, 2008 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18497484

RESUMO

Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis are pus-forming bacteria that trigger inflammation in acne. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of Jeju medicinal plants against these etiologic agents of acne vulgaris. Ethanol extracts of Jeju plants were tested for antimicrobial activities by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. The results from the disc diffusion assays revealed that four medicinal plants, Mollugo pentaphylla, Angelica anomala, Matteuccia orientalis, and Orixa japonica inhibited the growth of both pathogens. Among these, A. anomala had strong inhibitory effects. Its MIC values were 15.6 microg/ml and 125 microg/ml against P. acnes and S. epidermidis, respectively. The cytotoxic effects of the four extracts were determined by colorimetric MTT assays using two animal cell lines: human dermal fibroblasts and HaCaT cells. Although the M. orientalis root extract had moderate cytotoxicity in HaCaT cells at 200 microg/ml, most extracts exhibited low cytotoxicity at 200 microg/ml in both cell lines. In addition, the extracts reduced the P. acnes-induced secretion of interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in THP-1 cells, an indication of their anti-inflammatory effects. Based on these results, we suggest that M. pentaphylla, A. anomala, M. orientalis, and O. japonica are attractive acne-mitigating candidates for topical application.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Propionibacterium acnes/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus epidermidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Acne Vulgar/microbiologia , Angelica/química , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Anti-Inflamatórios/toxicidade , Células Cultivadas , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Dryopteridaceae/química , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interleucina-8/biossíntese , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Molluginaceae/química , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas/química , Rutaceae/química , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/biossíntese
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