Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 354
Filtrar
1.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641629

RESUMO

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease accompanied by excessive keratinocyte proliferation. Corticosteroids, vitamin D3 analogs, and calcineurin inhibitors, which are used to treat psoriasis, have diverse adverse effects, whereas natural products are popular due to their high efficiency and relatively low toxicity. The roots of the Cudrania tricuspidata (C. tricuspidata) are known to have diverse pharmacological effects, among which the anti-inflammatory effect is reported as a potential therapeutic agent in skin cells. Nevertheless, its effectiveness against skin diseases, especially psoriasis, is not fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of cudraxanthone D (CD), extracted from the roots the C. tricuspidata Bureau, on psoriasis using an imiquimod (IMQ)-induced mouse model and the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α/interferon (IFN)-γ-activated keratinocytes. IMQ was topically applied to the back skin of C57BL/6 mice for seven consecutive days, and the mice were orally administered with CD. This resulted in reduced psoriatic characteristics, such as the skin thickness and Psoriasis Area Severity Index score, and the infiltration of neutrophils in IMQ-induced skin. CD inhibited the serum levels of TNF-α, immunoglobulin G2a, and myeloperoxidase, and the expression of Th1/Th17 cells in splenocytes. In TNF-α/IFN-γ-activated keratinocytes, CD reduced the expressions of CCL17, IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-8 by inhibiting the phosphorylation of STAT1 and the nuclear translocation of NF-kB. Taken together, these results suggest that CD could be a potential drug candidate for the treatment of psoriasis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Imiquimode/efeitos adversos , Queratinócitos/citologia , Moraceae/química , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Xantonas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon gama/efeitos adversos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Psoríase/induzido quimicamente , Psoríase/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia , Xantonas/farmacologia
2.
Am J Bot ; 108(9): 1793-1807, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519027

RESUMO

PREMISE: The mechanisms generating the geographical distributions of genetic diversity are a central theme in evolutionary biology. The amount of genetic diversity and its distribution are controlled by several factors, including dispersal abilities, physical barriers, and environmental and climatic changes. We investigated the patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation among populations of the widespread species Brosimum alicastrum in Mexico. METHODS: Using nuclear DNA microsatellite data, we tested whether the genetic structure of B. alicastrum was associated with the roles of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec as geographical barriers to gene flow and to infer the role of past events in the genetic diversity patterns. We further used a maximum-likelihood population-effects mixed model (MLPE) to identify the main factor affecting population differentiation in B. alicastrum. RESULTS: Our results suggested that Mexican B. alicastrum is well differentiated into three main lineages. Patterns of the genetic structure at a finer scale did not fully correspond to the current geographical barriers to gene flow. According to the MLPE mixed model, isolation by distance is the best model for explaining the genetic differentiation of B. alicastrum in Mexico. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that the differentiation patterns might reflect (1) an ancient differentiation that occurred in Central and South America, (2) the effects of past climatic changes, and (3) the functions of some physical barriers to gene flow. This study provides insights into the possible mechanisms underlying the geographic genetic variation of B. alicastrum along a moisture gradient in tropical lowland forests.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Moraceae , Fluxo Gênico , México , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299094

RESUMO

The root bark of Cudrania tricuspidata has been reported to have anti-sclerotic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, and cytotoxic activities. In the present study, the effect of 16 compounds from C. tricuspidata on tumor necrosis factor-α+interferon-γ-treated HaCaT cells were investigated. Among these 16 compounds, 11 decreased IL-6 production and 15 decreased IL-8 production. The six most effective compounds, namely, steppogenin (2), cudraflavone C (6), macluraxanthone B (12), 1,6,7-trihydroxy-2-(1,1-dimethyl-2-propenyl)-3- methoxyxanthone (13), cudraflavanone B (4), and cudratricusxanthone L (14), were selected for further experiments. These six compounds decreased the expression levels of chemokines, such as regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), and downregulated the protein expression levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Compounds 2, 6, 12, 4, and 14 inhibited nuclear factor-kappa B p65 translocation to the nucleus; however, compound 13 showed no significant effects. In addition, extracellular signal regulatory kinase-1/2 phosphorylation was only inhibited by compound 14, whereas p38 phosphorylation was inhibited by compounds 13 and 4. Taken together, the compounds from C. tricuspidata showed potential to be further developed as therapeutic agents to suppress inflammation in skin cells.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Moraceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/classificação , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299130

RESUMO

Although cisplatin is one of most effective chemotherapeutic drugs that is widely used to treat various types of cancer, it can cause undesirable damage in immune cells and normal tissue because of its strong cytotoxicity and non-selectivity. This study was conducted to investigate the cytoprotective effects of Cudrania tricuspidata fruit-derived polysaccharides (CTPS) against cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in macrophages, lung cancer cell lines, and a mouse model, and to explore the possibility of application of CTPS as a supplement for anticancer therapy. Both cisplatin alone and cisplatin with CTPS induced a significant cytotoxicity in A549 and H460 lung cancer cells, whereas cytotoxicity was suppressed by CTPS in cisplatin-treated RAW264.7 cells. CTPS significantly attenuated the apoptotic and necrotic population, as well as cell penetration in cisplatin-treated RAW264.7 cells, which ultimately inhibited the upregulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), cytosolic cytochrome c, poly (adenosine diphosphateribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, and caspases-3, -8, and -9, and the downregulation of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2). The CTPS-induced cytoprotective action was mediated with a reduction in reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial transmembrane potential loss in cisplatin-treated RAW264.7 cells. In agreement with the results obtained above, CTPS induced the attenuation of cell damage in cisplatin-treated bone marrow-derived macrophages (primary cells). In in vivo studies, CTPS significantly inhibited metastatic colonies and bodyweight loss as well as immunotoxicity in splenic T cells compared to the cisplatin-treated group in lung metastasis-induced mice. Furthermore, CTPS decreased the level of CRE and BUN in serum. In summation, these results suggest that CTPS-induced cytoprotective action may play a role in alleviating the side effects induced by chemotherapeutic drugs.


Assuntos
Cisplatino/toxicidade , Frutas/química , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Moraceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Macrófagos/patologia , Melanoma Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Nus , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
5.
J Plant Res ; 134(5): 1013-1020, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215965

RESUMO

While increasing numbers of studies report wide variations of leaf silicon (Si) accumulation among plant species, within-species variations of leaf Si accumulation have scarcely been examined for tree species. As in crop plants, environmental factors that affect transpiration rates may influence passive transpiration-dependent transport of Si uptake in trees. Here, we tested a hypothesis that leaf Si accumulation rate should be higher in shoots that receive more light and thus achieve faster growth, using Broussonetia papyrifera, a pioneer tree species with successive leaf production and Si accumulation with leaf age. We marked individual leaves weekly throughout the growing season (June-September), and measured Si concentration and light availability in relation to the chronosequence of leaf age in September. In shoots that continued growing and successively produced leaves throughout the growing season, leaf Si content increased linearly with leaf age. In support of our hypothesis, leaf Si accumulation rate varied widely among shoots with positive correlations with shoot growth and light availability. In conclusion, both leaf age and microenvironment affect within-species variations in leaf Si concentration of this species, a moderate Si accumulator.


Assuntos
Broussonetia , Moraceae , Morus , Folhas de Planta , Silício
6.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(7): e2001068, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33998146

RESUMO

In Brazil, there is a large diversity of species of small edible fruits that are considered sources of nutrients and functional properties. They present a high innovation domain for the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries due to their health-promoting properties. Edible fruits from Brosimum gaudichaudii (Moraceae) are widely consumed and used in folk medicine and in feed by the population of the Brazilian Cerrado. Nevertheless, detailed information on the chemical fingerprint, antiradical activity and safety aspects of these fruits is still unknown. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the bioactive compounds of hydroethanolic extracts of fruits from Brosimum gaudichaudii using high-performance liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization (HPLC ESI-MS). Eighteen different compounds, including flavonoids, coumarins, arylbenzofurans, terpenoids, stilbenes, xanthones and esters, were detected. Moreover, the study indicated that the hydroethanolic extract of fruits from B. gaudichaudii presented low scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (IC50 >800 µg mL-1 ) and was cytotoxic (IC50 <30 µg mL-1 ) in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) by an in vitro assay. This is the first report of the chemical profile, antioxidant activity and cytotoxic properties of the hydroethanolic extract of fruits from B. gaudichaudii.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Moraceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Brasil , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cricetulus , Frutas/química , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Comestíveis/química
7.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0250859, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956837

RESUMO

Natural regeneration is less expensive than tree planting, but determining what species will arrive and establish to serve as templates for tropical forest restoration remains poorly investigated in eastern Africa. This study summarises seedling recruitment under 29 isolated legacy trees (14 trees comprised of three exotic species and 15 trees comprised of seven native species) in tea plantations in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Among the findings were that pioneer recruits were very abundant whereas non-pioneers were disproportionately fewer. Importantly, 98% of all recruits were animal-dispersed. The size of legacy trees, driven mostly by the exotic Grevillea robusta, and to some extent, the native Milicia excelsa, explained abundance of recruits. The distribution of bird-dispersed recruits suggested that some bird species use all types of legacy trees equally in this fragmented landscape. In contrast, the distribution of bat-dispersed recruits provided strong evidence that seedling composition differed under native versus exotic legacy trees likely due to fruit bats showing more preference for native legacy trees. Native, as compared to exotic legacy trees, had almost two times more non-pioneer recruits, with Ficus and Milicia excelsa driving this trend. Implications of our findings regarding restoration in the tropics are numerous for the movement of native animal-dispersed tree species in fragmented and disturbed tropical forests surrounded by farmland. Isolated native trees that bear fleshy fruits can attract more frugivores, resulting not only in high recruitment under them, but depending on the dispersal mode of the legacy trees, also different suites of recruited species. When selecting tree species for plantings, to maximize visitation by different dispersal agents and to enhance seedling recruit diversity, bat-dispersed Milicia excelsa and Ficus species are recommended.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Florestas , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Árvores , Produção Agrícola , Ficus , Moraceae , Dispersão de Sementes , Tanzânia , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 5511881, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859775

RESUMO

Diabetic nephropathy is a microvascular complication induced by diabetes, and methylglyoxal (MGO) is a reactive carbonyl species causing oxidative stress that contributes to the induction of inflammatory response in kidney cells. Cudrania tricuspidata (CT), cultivated in Northeast Asia, has been used as traditional medicine for treating various diseases, including neuritis, liver damage, and cancer. In this study, we determined whether a CT root extract (CTRE) can prevent MGO-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inflammation and assessed underlying mechanisms using a kidney epithelial cell line, HK-2. We observed that CTRE inhibited MGO-induced ROS production. Additionally, CTRE ameliorated the activation of MGO-induced inflammatory signaling pathways such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK). Consistent with these results, expressions of p-nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) and inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin- (IL-) 1ß, and IL-6, were decreased when compared with MGO-only exposed HK-2 cells. CTRE alleviated the MGO-induced decrease in nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and antioxidant enzyme mRNA expressions. MGO induced the expression of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4); CTRE pretreatment inhibited this induction. Further studies revealed that the NOX4 expression was inhibited owing to the suppression of MGO-induced protein kinase C (PKC) activation following CTRE treatment. Collectively, our data suggest that CTRE attenuates MGO-induced inflammation and oxidative stress via inhibition of PKC activation and NOX4 expression, as well as upregulating the Nrf2-antioxidant enzyme pathway in HK-2 cells.


Assuntos
Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Moraceae/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Aldeído Pirúvico/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Túbulos Renais Proximais/efeitos dos fármacos , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Proximais/patologia , NADPH Oxidase 4/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
9.
Chin J Nat Med ; 19(1): 46-55, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516451

RESUMO

Cudrania tricuspidata Bureau (CTB), a species of the Moraceae plant, has been used as a bruise recovery treatment. This study aimed to determine whether the 75 kDa phytoglycoprotein extracted from CTB has a regulatory effect on the proliferation of human colon epithelial cells and the pathological process of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We found that CTB glycoprotein significantly induces the proliferation of human colon epithelial HT-29 cells by activating protein kinase C. CTB glycoprotein stimulated the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and transcription factor nuclear factor-κB, which are responsible for the expression of cell-cycle-related proteins (CDK2, CDK4, cyclin D1 and cyclin E) during its promotion of cell proliferation. Experimental colitis was induced in mice by adding dextran sulfate sodium to their drinking water at a concentration of 4% (W/V) for seven days. We found that CTB glycoprotein ameliorates the pathological process of IBD and lowers the disease activity index score, which was composed of body weight change, diarrhea, and hematochezia in ICR mice treated with dextran sulfate sodium. Hence, we suggest that CTB glycoprotein has the ability to prevent IBD by promoting cell proliferation signaling events via the activation of PKC, JNK and NF-κB in colon epithelial cells.


Assuntos
Colite , Glicoproteínas/farmacologia , Moraceae , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfato de Dextrana , Células HT29 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Moraceae/química
10.
Phytochemistry ; 181: 112544, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130375

RESUMO

Phytochemical investigation of the roots of Streblus asper Lour. resulted in the isolation of six previously undescribed cardiac glycosides, designated 2'-de-O-methylstrebloside (1), cannogenol-3α-O-ß-D-gluopyranosyl-(1 â†’ 4)-6-deoxy -2,3-dimethoxyl-ß-D-fucopyranoside (2), periplogenin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl -(1 â†’ 4)-6-deoxy-ß-D-allopyranoside (3), 5-de-O-hydroxylstrebloside (4), 5ßH-16ß-hydroxylkamaloside (5), and 17S, 21R-21-hydroxylstrebloside (6), and three known analogues (7-9). The structures were elucidated using NMR spectroscopic techniques, mass spectrometry, and comparison of the spectroscopic data with previously reported data. Compound 6 is a novel C-21 hydroxyl cardiac glycoside, its absolute configuration was established from the analysis of computational ECD calculations and NMR spectroscopic data. The effects of the cardiac glycosides on apoptosis and cytotoxicity were examined in human A549 lung cancer cells. All the compounds showed remarkable inhibitory activities, with IC50 values in the range of 0.01-6.08 µM. Furthermore, compound 3 was able to significantly inhibit A549 cell growth proliferation via the induction of apoptosis, due to the activation of caspases-3, -8 and -9 in A549 cells, as revealed by Western blot analysis.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos Cardíacos , Moraceae , Células A549 , Apoptose , Glicosídeos Cardíacos/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia
11.
Inflammation ; 44(1): 104-115, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766955

RESUMO

A prenylated flavonoid, cudraflavanone B, is isolated from Cudrania tricuspidata. In this study, we investigated its anti-inflammatory and anti-neuroinflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 and BV2 cells. In our initial study of the anti-inflammatory effects of cudraflavanone B the production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 was attenuated in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 and BV2 cells. These inhibitory effects were related to the downregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. In addition, cudraflavanone B suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in LPS-induced RAW264.7 and BV2 cells. Moreover, the evaluation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of cudraflavanone B revealed that the compound attenuated the nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway in LPS-induced RAW264.7 and BV2 cells. In addition, cudraflavanone B inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in these LPS-stimulated cells. Thus, cudraflavanone B suppressed nuclear factor-κB, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase mediated inflammatory pathways, demonstrating its potential in the treatment of neuroinflammatory conditions.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/farmacologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/antagonistas & inibidores , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/fisiologia , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Microglia/metabolismo , Moraceae , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Casca de Planta , Células RAW 264.7
12.
Int J Environ Health Res ; 31(3): 271-284, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407590

RESUMO

Particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5), aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm, is the primary air pollutant that plays the key role for lung injury resulted from the loss of vascular barrier integrity. Cudratricusxanthone O (CTXO) is a novel xanthone compound isolated from the root of Cudrania tricuspidata Bureau. Here, we investigated the beneficial effects of CTXO against PM-induced lung endothelial cell (EC) barrier disruption and pulmonary inflammation. Permeability, leukocyte migration, activation of proinflammatory proteins, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and histology were examined in PM2.5-treated ECs and mice. CTXO significantly scavenged PM2.5-induced ROS and inhibited the ROS-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Concurrently, CTXO activated Akt, which helped maintain endothelial integrity. Furthermore, CTXO reduced vascular protein leakage, leukocyte infiltration, and proinflammatory cytokine release in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in PM-induced lung tissues. These results indicated that CTXO may exhibit protective effects against PM-induced inflammatory lung injury and vascular hyperpermeability.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Lesão Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Xantonas/farmacologia , Animais , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Moraceae/química
13.
Am J Chin Med ; 49(1): 163-179, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371809

RESUMO

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is ubiquitous in many populations despite the use of acyclovir or related nucleoside analogs for treating infection. Drug resistance impairs the treatment of HSV-infected individuals who have immune deficits, underscoring the need for new safe and effective antiviral agents. Mori ramulus (the young twig of Morus alba L.) has long been used to treat diseases in Korea, Japan, and China. Recent studies have reported multiple pharmacological activities of Mori ramulus and its constituent morusin, but their effects on HSV-1 remain unknown. Here, we found that treatment with Mori ramulus ethanol extract (MRE) significantly reduced the replication of fluorescently labeled HSV-1 in Vero cells and inhibited the expression of HSV-1 envelope glycoprotein D (gD) and tegument protein VP16. MRE, furthermore, blocked HSV-1-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and this mediated the inhibition of viral replication. We identified morusin as the active antiviral component of MRE and found that morusin post-treatment was sufficient to inhibit viral gD and VP16 in addition to HSV-1-induced ROS production. Therefore, the inhibition of HSV-1-induced ROS may explain the antiviral activity of MRE against HSV-1. MRE or its component morusin may be potentially developed for anti-HSV-1 agents.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/farmacologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Moraceae/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antivirais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Herpes Simples/tratamento farmacológico , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fitoterapia , Células Vero
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21102, 2020 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273564

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that vinegar intake can help to reduce body fat and hyperglycemia. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the anti-obesity efficacy of vinegar fermented using Cudrania tricuspidata fruits (CTFV) and its main phenolic constituents and to analyze its molecular mechanism and changes in obesity-related metabolizing enzymatic activities. We found that HFD significantly caused hepatic steatosis; increases in body fats, feed efficiency, liver mass, lipids, insulin, oxidative parameters, cardiovascular-associated risk indices, lipase and α-amylase activities, whereas CTFV efficaciously attenuated HFD-induced oxidant stress, fat accumulation, obesity-related enzymatic activity, and the activation or reduction of obesity-related molecular reactions via improving metabolic parameters including phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, phosphorylated phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B, phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinases, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein, and fatty acid synthase; and decreases in adiponectin receptor 1, leptin receptor, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, subsequently ameliorating HFD-induced obesity. Therefore, CTFV might provide a functional food resource or nutraceutical product for reducing body fat accumulation.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/administração & dosagem , Ácido Acético/uso terapêutico , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Frutas/química , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Moraceae/química , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fenofibrato/farmacologia , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/sangue , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Romã (Fruta)/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Fitoterapia ; 147: 104770, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157153

RESUMO

Based on anti-inflammatory activity to evaluate the effects to the release of NO, bio-assay guided separation of the bark of Streblus zeylanicus led to identify fifteen compounds, including four new terpenes (1, 2, 9, and 10), one new pentanoid glycoside (12), one new rumenic ester (13), together with nine known compounds (3-8, 11, 14, and 15). Their structures were elucidated using extensive NMR and HRESIMS spectroscopic data analyses. The stereochemistry of compound 10 was established by comparing the calculated and experimental ECD spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate inhibition on nitric oxide (NO) production, with IC50 values of 10.21 µM and 15.53 µM, respectively.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Moraceae/química , Casca de Planta/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , China , Ésteres , Glicosídeos , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Terpenos
16.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 191: 113593, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942105

RESUMO

Roots´ bark extract of Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul (EBGT) is traditionally used for photochemotherapy of vitiligo due to the presence of furanocoumarins psoralen (PSO) and 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) as major compounds. Though plant extracts may provide additional highly permeable psoralens-like substances which may act synergically on vitiligo's therapy. Thus, the aim of this work was to develop an LC-MS/MS method for screening new highly permeable furanocoumarins from B. gaudichaudii and to compare biomarkers permeability and solubility provided as single compounds or as crude extract, according to BCS. An optimized LC-MS/MS method showed twelve permeable and bioactive compounds, among which 9 furanocoumarins, 2 pyranocoumarins and 1 dihydrocinnamic acid derivative were detected in EBGT samples. Solubility of PSO and 5-MOP was found to be, respectively, six- and eleven-fold higher in crude extract than as pure compounds. Permeability (Papp) of PSO and 5-MOP in EBGT were higher than metoprolol, the low/high BCS permeability class boundary reference compound. Hence, both biomarkers were considered as highly permeable (BCS2) compounds. Their permeability were concentration-dependent displaying values from 30.26 ± 5.13-8.21 ± 2.16 × 10-6 cm/s and 10.72 ± 1.73-6.07 ± 1.27 × 10-6 cm/s, respectively, over a wide range (2.3-200.0 mg mL-1). Thus, a carrier-mediated absorption process is suggested as the main mechanism. Accordingly, all additional permeated coumarins, identified by LC-MS/MS, showed to be at comparable amount of biomarkers in the permeated samples inferring similar high permeability rate. Moreover, biomarkers and other highly absorbable and bioactive linear furanocoumarins from EBGT may be used for vitiligo´s photochemotherapy. Taken together, these findings bring additional evidences for using crude plant extract when aiming synergistic effects of bioactive compounds on melanogenic therapies.


Assuntos
Moraceae , Vitiligo , Cromatografia Líquida , Absorção Intestinal , Permeabilidade , Extratos Vegetais , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
Molecules ; 25(17)2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858815

RESUMO

Fruit plants have been widely used by the population as a source of food, income and in the treatment of various diseases due to their nutritional and pharmacological properties. The aim of this study was to review information from the most current research about the phytochemical composition, biological and toxicological properties of four fruit species widely used by the world population in order to support the safe medicinal use of these species and encourage further studies on their therapeutic properties. The reviewed species are: Talisia esculenta, Brosimum gaudichaudii, Genipa americana, and Bromelia antiacantha. The review presents the botanical description of these species, their geographical distribution, forms of use in popular medicine, phytochemical studies and molecules isolated from different plant organs. The description of the pharmacological mechanism of action of secondary metabolites isolated from these species was detailed and toxicity studies related to them were reviewed. The present study demonstrates the significant concentration of phenolic compounds in these species and their anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, photosensitizing properties, among others. Such species provide important molecules with pharmacological activity that serve as raw materials for the development of new drugs, making further studies necessary to elucidate mechanisms of action not yet understood and prove the safety for use in humans.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos , Bromelia/química , Moraceae/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Sapindaceae/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico
18.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2020: 3572809, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32714090

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of peptides derived from synbiotics on improving inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were administered with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) via drinking water for seven days to induce IBD (IBD group). The mice in the IBD group were orally administered with PBS (IBD-PBS-positive control), Lactobacillus gasseri 505 (IBD-Pro), fermented powder of CT extract with L. gasseri 505 (IBD-Syn), ß-casein: LSQSKVLPVPQKAVPYPQRDMP (IBD-Pep 1), or α s2-casein: VYQHQKAMKPWIQPKTKVIPYVRYL (IBD-Pep 2) (both peptides are present in the synbiotics) for four more days while inducing IBD. To confirm IBD induction, the weights of the animals and the disease activity index (DAI) scores were evaluated once every two days. Following treatment of probiotics, synbiotics, or peptides for 11 days, the mice were sacrificed. The length of the small and large intestines was measured. The expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, and COX-2 in the large intestine was measured. Large intestine tissue was fixed in 10% formalin and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathological analysis. The body weights decreased and DAI scores increased in the IBD group, but the DAI scores were lower in the IBD-Pep 2 group than those in the IBD group treated with PBS, Pro, Syn, or Pep 1. The lengths of the small and large intestines were shorter in the IBD group than in the group without IBD, and the expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines were lower (p < 0.05) in the IBD-Pep 2 group than those in the IBD-PBS-positive control group. In addition, histopathological analysis showed that IBD was ameliorated in the Pep 2-treated group. These results indicate that Pep 2 derived from α s2-casein was effective in alleviating IBD-associated inflammation. Thus, we showed that these peptides can alleviate inflammation in IBD.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Lactobacillus gasseri/fisiologia , Moraceae/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fermentação , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Simbióticos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(14)2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650596

RESUMO

Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is a detoxifying phase II enzyme that plays a role in both inflammatory and oxidative stress responses. Curdrania tricuspidata is widespread throughout East Asia and is used as a therapeutic agent in traditional medicine. We investigated whether treatment with sixteen flavonoid or xanthone compounds from C. tricuspidata could induce HO-1 expression in HT22 hippocampal cells, RAW264.7 macrophage, and BV2 microglia. In these compounds, kuwanon C showed the most remarkable HO-1 expression effects. In addition, treatment with kuwanon C reduced cytoplasmic nuclear erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) expression and increased Nrf2 expression in the nucleus. Significant inhibition of glutamate-induced oxidative injury and induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurred when HT22 hippocampal cells were pretreated with kuwanon C. The levels of inflammatory mediator and cytokine, which increased following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, were suppressed in RAW264.7 macrophage and BV2 microglia after kuwanon C pretreatment. Kuwanon C also attenuated p65 DNA binding and translocation into the nucleus in LPS-induced RAW264.7 and BV2 cells. The anti-inflammatory, anti-neuroinflammatory, and neuroprotective effects of kuwanon C were reversed when co-treatment with HO-1 inhibitor of tin protoporphyrin-IX (SnPP). These results suggest that the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of kuwanon C are regulated by HO-1 expression.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Derivados de Benzeno/farmacologia , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Moraceae/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Microglia/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Neuroproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Xantonas/farmacologia
20.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(14): 6273-6285, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394142

RESUMO

High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity has been associated with alteration of gut microbiota alongside body weight gain. In this study, the synbiotic effect of Lactobacillus gasseri 505 (LG) and Cudrania tricuspidata (CT) in HFD-induced mice was revealed. After feeding mice with high-fat diet for 10 weeks, combination of LG and CT (LG_CT) exhibited the greatest reduction in the final body weight (11.9%). Moreover, microbial diversity significantly increased, and Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) revealed that the LG_CT group showed closer cluster to NORM. At phylum level, the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio increased in HFD, and the abundance of Bacteroidetes was restored by LG and CT. At genus level, notable changes in Alistipes, Desulfovibrio, Bilophila, and Acetatifactor were observed. Helicobacter elevated to 16.2% in HFD and diminished dramatically to less than 0.01% in LG and/or CT. At species level, L. gasseri increased after the administration of LG (0.54%) and LG_CT (1.14%), suggesting that LG may grow and colonize in the gut and CT can function as a prebiotic. Finally, functional analysis revealed certain metabolic factors correlated with body weight and gut microbiota. This study serves as a potential basis for the application of L. gasseri 505 and C. tricuspidata in the prevention and treatment of diet-induced obesity.Key Points • Combination of L. gasseri (LG) and C. tricuspidata (CT) reduced body weight gain.• Microbial diversity significantly increased in LG_CT treatment.• Abundance of microorganisms involved with leanness increased in LG, CT, and LG_CT.• Body weight is associated with some metabolic functions of gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus gasseri/fisiologia , Moraceae/química , Obesidade/terapia , Simbióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/microbiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...