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2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 14019, 2024 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38890484

RESUMO

The mucus surface layer serves vital functions for scleractinian corals and consists mainly of carbohydrates. Its carbohydrate composition has been suggested to be influenced by environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, nutrients) and microbial pressures (e.g., microbial degradation, microbial coral symbionts), yet to what extend the coral mucus composition is determined by phylogeny remains to be tested. To investigate the variation of mucus carbohydrate compositions among coral species, we analyzed the composition of mucosal carbohydrate building blocks (i.e., monosaccharides) for five species of scleractinian corals, supplemented with previously reported data, to discern overall patterns using cluster analysis. Monosaccharide composition from a total of 23 species (belonging to 14 genera and 11 families) revealed significant differences between two phylogenetic clades that diverged early in the evolutionary history of scleractinian corals (i.e., complex and robust; p = 0.001, R2 = 0.20), mainly driven by the absence of arabinose in the robust clade. Despite considerable differences in environmental conditions and sample analysis protocols applied, coral phylogeny significantly correlated with monosaccharide composition (Mantel test: p < 0.001, R2 = 0.70). These results suggest that coral mucus carbohydrates display phylogenetic dependence and support their essential role in the functioning of corals.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Muco , Filogenia , Antozoários/genética , Antozoários/metabolismo , Antozoários/classificação , Animais , Muco/química , Muco/metabolismo , Carboidratos/análise , Carboidratos/química , Monossacarídeos/análise
3.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304689, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38875285

RESUMO

To explore cost-effective and efficient phytoremediation strategies, this study investigated the distinct roles of earthworm activity and mucus in enhancing Cd phytoextraction from soils contaminated by Festuca arundinacea, focusing on the comparative advantages of selective leaf harvesting versus traditional whole-plant harvesting methods. Our study employed a horticultural trial to explore how earthworm activity and mucus affect Festuca arundinacea' s Cd phytoremediation in soils using control, earthworm, and mucus treatments to examine their respective effects on plant growth and Cd distribution. Earthworm activity increased the dry weight of leaves by 13.5% and significantly increased the dry weights of declining and senescent leaves, surpassing that of the control by more than 40%. Earthworm mucus had a similar, albeit less pronounced, effect on plant growth than earthworm activity. This study not only validated the significant role of earthworm activity in enhancing Cd phytoextraction by Festuca arundinacea, with earthworm activity leading to over 85% of Cd being allocated to senescent tissues that comprise only approximately 20% of the plant biomass, but also highlighted a sustainable and cost-effective approach to phytoremediation by emphasizing selective leaf harvesting supported by earthworm activity. By demonstrating that earthworm mucus alone can redistribute Cd with less efficiency compared to live earthworms, our findings offer practical insights into optimizing phytoremediation strategies and underscore the need for further research into the synergistic effects of biological agents in soil remediation processes.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio , Festuca , Muco , Oligoquetos , Folhas de Planta , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Oligoquetos/fisiologia , Cádmio/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Festuca/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Muco/metabolismo , Biomassa , Solo/química
4.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4764, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834561

RESUMO

Bacteriophage are sophisticated cellular parasites that can not only parasitize bacteria but are increasingly recognized for their direct interactions with mammalian hosts. Phage adherence to mucus is known to mediate enhanced antimicrobial effects in vitro. However, little is known about the therapeutic efficacy of mucus-adherent phages in vivo. Here, using a combination of in vitro gastrointestinal cell lines, a gut-on-a-chip microfluidic model, and an in vivo murine gut model, we demonstrated that a E. coli phage, øPNJ-6, provided enhanced gastrointestinal persistence and antimicrobial effects. øPNJ-6 bound fucose residues, of the gut secreted glycoprotein MUC2, through domain 1 of its Hoc protein, which led to increased intestinal mucus production that was suggestive of a positive feedback loop mediated by the mucus-adherent phage. These findings extend the Bacteriophage Adherence to Mucus model into phage therapy, demonstrating that øPNJ-6 displays enhanced persistence within the murine gut, leading to targeted depletion of intestinal pathogenic bacteria.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli , Mucosa Intestinal , Mucina-2 , Animais , Escherichia coli/virologia , Camundongos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/virologia , Mucina-2/metabolismo , Humanos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/terapia , Terapia por Fagos/métodos , Aderência Bacteriana , Feminino , Muco/metabolismo , Muco/virologia , Colífagos/fisiologia , Fucose/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
5.
Sci Adv ; 10(24): eado4791, 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865465

RESUMO

The stemness loss-associated dysregeneration of impaired alveolar type 2 epithelial (AT2) cells abolishes the reversible therapy of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We here report an inhalable mucus-penetrating lipid nanoparticle (LNP) for codelivering dual mRNAs, promoting realveolarization via restoring AT2 stemness for IPF treatment. Inhalable LNPs were first formulated with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and our in-house-made ionizable lipids for high-efficiency pulmonary mucus penetration and codelivery of dual messenger RNAs (mRNAs), encoding cytochrome b5 reductase 3 and bone morphogenetic protein 4, respectively. After being inhaled in a bleomycin model, LNPs reverses the mitochondrial dysfunction through ameliorating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthesis, which inhibits the accelerated senescence of AT2 cells. Concurrently, pathological epithelial remodeling and fibroblast activation induced by impaired AT2 cells are terminated, ultimately prompting alveolar regeneration. Our data demonstrated that the mRNA-LNP system exhibited high protein expression in lung epithelial cells, which markedly extricated the alveolar collapse and prolonged the survival of fibrosis mice, providing a clinically viable strategy against IPF.


Assuntos
Bleomicina , Muco , Nanopartículas , Animais , Nanopartículas/química , Camundongos , Muco/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/patologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Administração por Inalação , Lipídeos/química , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Alvéolos Pulmonares/metabolismo , Alvéolos Pulmonares/efeitos dos fármacos , Alvéolos Pulmonares/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipossomos
6.
PeerJ ; 12: e17421, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38827308

RESUMO

Background: Rainfall-induced coastal runoff represents an important environmental impact in near-shore coral reefs that may affect coral-associated bacterial microbiomes. Shifts in microbiome community composition and function can stress corals and ultimately cause mortality and reef declines. Impacts of environmental stress may be site specific and differ between coral microbiome compartments (e.g., tissue versus mucus). Coastal runoff and associated water pollution represent a major stressor for near-shore reef-ecosystems in Guam, Micronesia. Methods: Acropora pulchra colonies growing on the West Hagåtña reef flat in Guam were sampled over a period of 8 months spanning the 2021 wet and dry seasons. To examine bacterial microbiome diversity and composition, samples of A. pulchra tissue and mucus were collected during late April, early July, late September, and at the end of December. Samples were collected from populations in two different habitat zones, near the reef crest (farshore) and close to shore (nearshore). Seawater samples were collected during the same time period to evaluate microbiome dynamics of the waters surrounding coral colonies. Tissue, mucus, and seawater microbiomes were characterized using 16S DNA metabarcoding in conjunction with Illumina sequencing. In addition, water samples were collected to determine fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations as an indicator of water pollution. Water temperatures were recorded using data loggers and precipitation data obtained from a nearby rain gauge. The correlation structure of environmental parameters (temperature and rainfall), FIB concentrations, and A. pulchra microbiome diversity was evaluated using a structural equation model. Beta diversity analyses were used to investigate spatio-temporal trends of microbiome composition. Results: Acropora pulchra microbiome diversity differed between tissues and mucus, with mucus microbiome diversity being similar to the surrounding seawater. Rainfall and associated fluctuations of FIB concentrations were correlated with changes in tissue and mucus microbiomes, indicating their role as drivers of A. pulchra microbiome diversity. A. pulchra tissue microbiome composition remained relatively stable throughout dry and wet seasons; tissues were dominated by Endozoicomonadaceae, coral endosymbionts and putative indicators of coral health. In nearshore A. pulchra tissue microbiomes, Simkaniaceae, putative obligate coral endosymbionts, were more abundant than in A. pulchra colonies growing near the reef crest (farshore). A. pulchra mucus microbiomes were more diverse during the wet season than the dry season, a distinction that was also associated with drastic shifts in microbiome composition. This study highlights the seasonal dynamics of coral microbiomes and demonstrates that microbiome diversity and composition may differ between coral tissues and the surface mucus layer.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Recifes de Corais , Microbiota , Estações do Ano , Animais , Antozoários/microbiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Microbiota/genética , Muco/microbiologia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação
7.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 16(10): 8472-8483, 2024 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38809424

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of the EGFR/MAPK signaling pathway in PM2.5 in promoting the MUC5AC hypersecretion in airway and exacerbating airway inflammation. METHODS: By establishing rat model exposed to PM2.5, overexpressing miR-133b-5p and Claudin1, the content of IL-1 and TNF-α in serum were detected by ELISA, the pathology of lung tissue was observed by HE staining, p-EGFR, Claudin1, MUC5AC, p-ERK1/2, p-JNK, p-p38 in rats lung tissue were detected by immunohistochemical and WB, the expression level of miR-133b-5p in rats lung tissue were detected by qPCR. RESULTS: After the rats were exposed to PM2.5, the content of inflammatory factors in serum increased, the inflammatory damage of lung tissues occurred, the expression of miR-133b-5p was down-regulated, and the expression of MUC5AC protein was increased. The ELISA test results showed that the expression of IL-1 and TNF-α in the model group was significantly higher than that in the control group, and the model +AG1478 treatment group was down-regulated compared with the model group, and the +miR-133b-5p agomir treatment group was significantly lower than that in the control group, the model group and the model +Claudin1 overexpression blank load group, and the model +Claudin1 overexpression group was down-regulated compared with the model group and the model +Claudin1 overexpression blank load group. The protein detection results showed that the expression of p-EGFR, MUC5AC, p-ERK1/2, p-JNK and p-p38 proteins was increased and the expression of Claudin1 protein was decreased in the model group compared with the control group. In the model + AG1478 treatment group, model + miR-133b-5p agomir treatment group and model + Claudin1 overexpression group, compared with the model group, p-EGFR, MUC5AC, p-ERK1/2, p-JNK, p-p38 protein expression was down-regulated, and Claudin1 protein expression was up-regulated. CONCLUSIONS: PM2.5 inhibited the expression of miR-133b-5p to activate the EGFR/MAPK signal pathway, induce the hypersecretion of MUC5AC, thus aggravating PM2.5-related airway inflammation in rats.


Assuntos
Claudina-1 , Receptores ErbB , MicroRNAs , Mucina-5AC , Material Particulado , Animais , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Mucina-5AC/metabolismo , Mucina-5AC/genética , Ratos , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/genética , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Claudina-1/metabolismo , Claudina-1/genética , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Muco/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases
8.
Biofabrication ; 16(3)2024 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38788705

RESUMO

Fabrication of engineered intestinal tissues with the structures and functions as humans is crucial and promising as the tools for developing drugs and functional foods. The aim of this study is to fabricate an engineered intestinal tissue from Caco-2 cells by air-liquid interface culture using a paper-based dual-layer scaffold and analyze its structure and functions. Just by simply placing on a folded paper soaked in the medium, the electrospun gelatin microfiber mesh as the upper cell adhesion layer of the dual-layer scaffold was exposed to the air, while the lower paper layer worked to preserve and supply the cell culture medium to achieve stable culture over several weeks. Unlike the flat tissue produced using the conventional commercial cultureware, Transwell, the engineered intestinal tissue fabricated in this study formed three-dimensional villous architectures. Microvilli and tight junction structures characteristic of epithelial tissue were also formed at the apical side. Furthermore, compared to the tissue prepared by Transwell, mucus production was significantly larger, and the enzymatic activities of drug metabolism and digestion were almost equivalent. In conclusion, the air-liquid interface culture using the paper-based dual-layer scaffold developed in this study was simple but effective in fabricating the engineered intestinal tissue with superior structures and functions.


Assuntos
Muco , Papel , Engenharia Tecidual , Alicerces Teciduais , Alicerces Teciduais/química , Humanos , Células CACO-2 , Muco/metabolismo , Intestinos/citologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Ar , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos
9.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 136: 112329, 2024 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38815351

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our team identified a new cardiac glycoside, Toxicarioside H (ToxH), in a tropical plant. Previous research has indicated the potential of cardenolides in mitigating inflammation, particularly in the context of NETosis. Therefore, this study sought to examine the potential of ToxH in attenuating allergic airway inflammation by influencing the immune microenvironment. METHODS: An OVA-induced airway inflammation model was established in BALB/c mice. After the experiment was completed, serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung tissue samples were collected and further examined using H&E and PAS staining, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence observation, and Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Treatment with ToxH was found to be effective in reducing airway inflammation and mucus production. This was accompanied by an increase in Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-ß), and the Th17 cytokine IL-17, while levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) and Treg cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-ß1) were decreased in both the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the CD45+ immune cells in the lungs. Additionally, ToxH inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells and decreased the number of pulmonary CD44+ memory T cells, while augmenting the numbers of Th17 and Treg cells. Furthermore, the neutrophil elastase inhibitor GW311616A was observed to suppress airway inflammation and mucus production, as well as alter the secretion of immune Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cytokines in the lung CD45+ immune cells. Moreover, our study also demonstrated that treatment with ToxH efficiently inhibited ROS generation, thereby rectifying the dysregulation of immune cells in the immune microenvironment in OVA-induced allergic asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that ToxH could serve as a promising therapeutic intervention for allergic airway inflammation and various other inflammatory disorders. Modulating the balance of Th1/Th2 and Treg/Th17 cells within the pulmonary immune microenvironment may offer an effective strategy for controlling allergic airway inflammation.


Assuntos
Citocinas , Pulmão , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ovalbumina , Animais , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Feminino , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Asma/imunologia , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Muco/metabolismo , Muco/imunologia , Alérgenos/imunologia
10.
Anal Chem ; 96(23): 9416-9423, 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38809415

RESUMO

A noninvasive sampling technology was conceived, employing a disposable acupuncture needle in conjunction with high-resolution mass spectrometry (termed as noninvasive direct sampling extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, NIDS-EESI-MS) to scrutinize the epidermal mucus of Nile tilapia for insights into the metabolic dysregulation induced by polypropylene nano- and microplastics. This analytical method initiates with the dispensing of an extraction solvent onto the needles coated with the mucus sample, almost simultaneously applying a high voltage to generate analyte ions. This innovative strategy obliterates the necessitation for laborious sample preparation, thereby simplifying the sampling process. Employing this technique facilitated the delineation of a plethora of metabolites, encompassing, but not confined to, amino acids, peptides, carbohydrates, ketones, fatty acids, and their derivatives. Follow-up pathway enrichment analysis exposed notable alterations within key metabolic pathways, including the biosynthesis of phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, lysine degradation, as well as the biosynthesis and metabolism of valine, leucine, and isoleucine pathways in Nile tilapia, consequent to increased concentrations of polypropylene nanoplastics. These metabolic alterations portend potential implications such as immune suppression, among other deleterious outcomes. This trailblazing application of this methodology not only spares aquatic life from sacrifice but also inaugurates an ethical paradigm for conducting longitudinal studies on the same organisms, facilitating detailed investigations into the long-term effects of environmental pollutants. This technique enhances the ability to observe and understand the subtle yet significant impacts of such contaminants over time.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Microplásticos , Muco , Polipropilenos , Animais , Microplásticos/análise , Polipropilenos/química , Ciclídeos/metabolismo , Muco/metabolismo , Muco/química , Epiderme/metabolismo , Epiderme/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
11.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 242: 106542, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735340

RESUMO

The sustainability of commercial aquaculture production depends critically on prioritizing fish welfare management. Besides monitoring welfare parameters such as fish behaviour and water quality, fish stress level can also provide a reliable measure of the welfare status of farmed fish. Cortisol and 5 of its metabolites (5ß-THF, cortisone, 5ß-DHE, 5ß-THE, ß-cortolone) were previously identified by the authors as suitable stress biomarkers of farmed Atlantic salmon. Based on this knowledge, the present study aimed to investigate the time-related dynamics of these metabolites in plasma, skin mucus, bile and faeces over a 72 h- period. The objective was to determine the optimal sampling time for each matrix and to understand the clearance pathway of these metabolites following stress. An experiment was carried out using a total of 90 Atlantic salmon with an average weight of 438 (±132) g. The average sea temperature was 6.9 °C during the experimental period. A control group of 10 fish was first collected before the remaining 80 fish were submitted to a stress of netting and subsequent relocation into two separate cages. From each of these two stress groups, 10 fish were sampled at 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h and 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h after the stress event respectively. The concentrations of cortisol and its metabolites were measured at each of the sampling timepoint. The results demonstrated that plasma cortisol metabolites reached the highest concentration 4 h after stress and remained elevated despite the slight decrease for the remaining timepoints. The peak level was observed at 12 h post-stress in skin mucus and 24 h in bile and faeces. The findings suggest that these timepoints are the optimal for sampling Atlantic salmon post-smolt following stressful events in acute stress studies. Furthermore, the results reveal that analysing cortisol and its metabolites, both in free and conjugated forms, rather than free cortisol provides greater flexibility as their concentrations are less affected by sampling procedure. This study confirms the appropriateness of skin mucus and faeces as less-invasive sample matrices for fish stress evaluation and provides a basis for further developing low invasive tools for monitoring the welfare of farmed salmonid.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Salmo salar , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Salmo salar/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Aquicultura/métodos , Fezes/química , Bile/metabolismo , Bile/química , Muco/metabolismo , Muco/química , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/química , Fatores de Tempo , Bem-Estar do Animal , Pesqueiros , Cortisona/sangue , Cortisona/metabolismo
12.
Aquat Toxicol ; 272: 106943, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733942

RESUMO

The Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) is an endangered freshwater mega-fish (IUCN-red listed) that survives in the Yangtze River Basin, but the population of which has declined significantly in response to environmental pressures generated by human activities. In order to evaluate the interaction between Chinese sturgeon and microplastics (MPs) for the first time, we examined the gut and gills of historical samples (n = 27), in conjunction with the blood and mucus of live samples (n = 10), to explore the potential pathways involved in MP uptake. We detected MPs in 62.9 % of the field fish, with no significant difference between guts (mean=0.9 items/individual) and gills (mean=0.8 items/individual). The abundance of MPs in fish from 2017 was significantly higher than that from 2015 to 2016 with regards to both gills and gut samples. The size of MPs in gills was significantly smaller than those in guts, yet both contained mostly fibers (90.2 %). No MPs were confirmed in blood, however 62.5 % of mucus samples contained MPs. The MPs in mucus indicated the possibility of MPs entering Chinese sturgeons if their skins were damaged. The body size of Chinese sturgeons affected their MPs uptake by ingestion and inhalation, as less MPs were detected in the gut and gills of smaller individuals. Combining the evidence from historical and live samples, we revealed the presence of MPs in different tissues of Chinese sturgeon and their potential relevance to exposure pathways. Our work expands the understanding of multiple exposure pathways between MPs and long-lived mega-fish, while emphasizing the potential risks of long-term exposure in the field.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Peixes , Brânquias , Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Peixes/metabolismo , Brânquias/metabolismo , Brânquias/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Exposição Ambiental , Muco , China
14.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4578, 2024 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38811586

RESUMO

Modulation of the cervix by steroid hormones and commensal microbiome play a central role in the health of the female reproductive tract. Here we describe organ-on-a-chip (Organ Chip) models that recreate the human cervical epithelial-stromal interface with a functional epithelial barrier and production of mucus with biochemical and hormone-responsive properties similar to living cervix. When Cervix Chips are populated with optimal healthy versus dysbiotic microbial communities (dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus and Gardnerella vaginalis, respectively), significant differences in tissue innate immune responses, barrier function, cell viability, proteome, and mucus composition are observed that are similar to those seen in vivo. Thus, human Cervix Organ Chips represent physiologically relevant in vitro models to study cervix physiology and host-microbiome interactions, and hence may be used as a preclinical testbed for development of therapeutic interventions to enhance women's health.


Assuntos
Colo do Útero , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Imunidade Inata , Microbiota , Humanos , Feminino , Colo do Útero/microbiologia , Colo do Útero/imunologia , Microbiota/imunologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Gardnerella vaginalis/imunologia , Lactobacillus crispatus/imunologia , Muco/imunologia , Muco/microbiologia , Muco/metabolismo , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip
15.
Food Res Int ; 187: 114343, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763636

RESUMO

Human breast milk promotes maturation of the infant gastrointestinal barrier, including the promotion of mucus production. In the quest to produce next generation infant milk formula (IMF), we have produced IMF by membrane filtration (MEM-IMF). With a higher quantity of native whey protein, MEM-IMF more closely mimics human breast milk than IMF produced using conventional heat treatment (HT-IMF). After a 4-week dietary intervention in young pigs, animals fed a MEM-IMF diet had a higher number of goblet cells, acidic mucus and mucin-2 in the jejunum compared to pigs fed HT-IMF (P < 0.05). In the duodenum, MEM-IMF fed pigs had increased trypsin activity in the gut lumen, increased mRNA transcript levels of claudin 1 in the mucosal scrapings and increased lactase activity in brush border membrane vesicles than those pigs fed HT-IMF (P < 0.05). In conclusion, MEM-IMF is superior to HT-IMF in the promotion of mucus production in the young gut.


Assuntos
Filtração , Fórmulas Infantis , Muco , Animais , Fórmulas Infantis/química , Muco/metabolismo , Suínos , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Tripsina/metabolismo , Humanos , Células Caliciformes/metabolismo , Claudina-1/metabolismo , Claudina-1/genética , Lactase/metabolismo , Lactase/genética , Mucina-2/metabolismo , Mucina-2/genética , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Duodeno/metabolismo , Jejuno/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Proteínas do Leite/metabolismo , Proteínas do Leite/análise
16.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 13(1): 2352520, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713593

RESUMO

Vaginal transmission from semen of male Ebola virus (EBOV) survivors has been implicated as a potential origin of Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks. While EBOV in semen must traverse cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) to reach target cells, the behaviour of EBOV in CVM is poorly understood. CVM contains substantial quantities of IgG, and arrays of IgG bound to a virion can develop multiple Fc-mucin bonds, immobilizing the IgG/virion complex in mucus. Here, we measured the real-time mobility of fluorescent Ebola virus-like-particles (VLP) in 50 CVM specimens from 17 women, with and without ZMapp, a cocktail of 3 monoclonal IgGs against EBOV. ZMapp-mediated effective trapping of Ebola VLPs in CVM from a subset of women across the menstrual cycle, primarily those with Lactobacillus crispatus dominant microbiota. Our work underscores the influence of the vaginal microbiome on IgG-mucin crosslinking against EBOV and identifies bottlenecks in the sexual transmission of EBOV.


Assuntos
Ebolavirus , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola , Vagina , Humanos , Feminino , Ebolavirus/fisiologia , Vagina/virologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/transmissão , Vírion , Imunoglobulina G , Adulto , Muco do Colo Uterino/virologia , Muco/virologia
18.
J Biomed Opt ; 29(4): 046004, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38690122

RESUMO

Significance: Assessing the nanostructure of polymer solutions and biofluids is broadly useful for understanding drug delivery and disease progression and for monitoring therapy. Aim: Our objective is to quantify bronchial mucus solids concentration (wt. %) during hypertonic saline (HTS) treatment in vitro via nanostructurally constrained diffusion of gold nanorods (GNRs) monitored by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). Approach: Using PS-OCT, we quantified GNR translational (DT) and rotational (DR) diffusion coefficients within polyethylene oxide solutions (0 to 3 wt. %) and human bronchial epithelial cell (hBEC) mucus (0 to 6.4 wt. %). Interpolation of DT and DR data is used to develop an assay to quantify mucus concentration. The assay is demonstrated on the mucus layer of an air-liquid interface hBEC culture during HTS treatment. Results: In polymer solutions and mucus, DT and DR monotonically decrease with increasing concentration. DR is more sensitive than DT to changes above 1.5 wt. % of mucus and exhibits less intrasample variability. Mucus on HTS-treated hBEC cultures exhibits dynamic mixing from cilia. A region of hard-packed mucus is revealed by DR measurements. Conclusions: The extended dynamic range afforded by simultaneous measurement of DT and DR of GNRs using PS-OCT enables resolving concentration of the bronchial mucus layer over a range from healthy to disease in depth and time during HTS treatment in vitro.


Assuntos
Ouro , Muco , Nanotubos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Humanos , Nanotubos/química , Ouro/química , Muco/química , Muco/metabolismo , Difusão , Brônquios/diagnóstico por imagem , Células Epiteliais/química , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Solução Salina Hipertônica/farmacologia , Solução Salina Hipertônica/química , Células Cultivadas
20.
BMC Biotechnol ; 24(1): 28, 2024 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702622

RESUMO

Scientists know very little about the mechanisms underlying fish skin mucus, despite the fact that it is a component of the immune system. Fish skin mucus is an important component of defence against invasive infections. Recently, Fish skin and its mucus are gaining interest among immunologists. Characterization was done on the obtained silver nanoparticles Ag combined with Clarias gariepinus catfish epidermal mucus proteins (EMP-Ag-NPs) through UV-vis, FTIR, XRD, TEM, and SEM. Ag-NPs ranged in size from 4 to 20 nm, spherical in form and the angles were 38.10°, 44.20°, 64.40°, and 77.20°, Where wavelength change after formation of EMP-Ag-NPs as indicate of dark brown, the broad band recorded at wavelength at 391 nm. Additionally, the antimicrobial, antibiofilm and anticancer activities of EMP-Ag-NPs was assessed. The present results demonstrate high activity against unicellular fungi C. albicans, followed by E. faecalis. Antibiofilm results showed strong activity against both S. aureus and P. aeruginosa pathogens in a dose-dependent manner, without affecting planktonic cell growth. Also, cytotoxicity effect was investigated against normal cells (Vero), breast cancer cells (Mcf7) and hepatic carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines at concentrations (200-6.25 µg/mL) and current results showed highly anticancer effect of Ag-NPs at concentrations 100, 5 and 25 µg/mL exhibited rounding, shrinkage, deformation and granulation of Mcf7 and HepG2 with IC50 19.34 and 31.16 µg/mL respectively while Vero cells appeared rounded at concentration 50 µg/mL and normal shape at concentration 25, 12.5 and 6.25 µg/ml with IC50 35.85 µg/mL. This study evidence the potential efficacy of biologically generated Ag-NPs as a substitute medicinal agent against harmful microorganisms. Furthermore, it highlights their inhibitory effect on cancer cell lines.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Peixes-Gato , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Prata , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Prata/química , Prata/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos , Muco/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Células Vero , Proteínas de Peixes/farmacologia , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Chlorocebus aethiops , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Epiderme/metabolismo
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