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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(10): 6817-6829, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427023

RESUMO

N-Acetyl muramic acid (NAM) probes containing alkyne or azide groups are commonly used to investigate aspects of cell wall synthesis because of their small size and ability to incorporate into bacterial peptidoglycan (PG). However, copper-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) reactions are not compatible with live cells, and strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition (SPAAC) reaction rates are modest and, therefore, not as desirable for tracking the temporal alterations of bacterial cell growth, remodeling, and division. Alternatively, the tetrazine-trans-cyclooctene ligation (Tz-TCO), which is the fastest known bioorthogonal reaction and not cytotoxic, allows for rapid live-cell labeling of PG at biologically relevant time scales and concentrations. Previous work to increase reaction kinetics on the PG surface by using tetrazine probes was limited because of low incorporation of the probe. Described here are new approaches to construct a minimalist tetrazine (Tz)-NAM probe utilizing recent advancements in asymmetric tetrazine synthesis. This minimalist Tz-NAM probe was successfully incorporated into pathogenic and commensal bacterial PG where fixed and rapid live-cell, no-wash labeling was successful in both free bacterial cultures and in coculture with human macrophages. Overall, this probe allows for expeditious labeling of bacterial PG, thereby making it an exceptional tool for monitoring PG biosynthesis for the development of new antibiotic screens. The versatility and selectivity of this probe will allow for real-time interrogation of the interactions of bacterial pathogens in a human host and will serve a broader utility for studying glycans in multiple complex biological systems.


Assuntos
Compostos Heterocíclicos , Peptidoglicano , Humanos , Azidas , Ácidos Murâmicos , Reação de Cicloadição , Alcinos
2.
Protein Sci ; 33(4): e4969, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38532715

RESUMO

The peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway plays a vital role in bacterial cells, and facilitates peptidoglycan layer formation, a fundamental structural component of the bacterial cell wall. The enzymes in this pathway are candidates for antibiotic development, as most do not have mammalian homologues. The UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UNAG) enolpyruvyl transferase enzyme (MurA) in the peptidoglycan pathway cytoplasmic step is responsible for the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-UNAG catalytic reaction, forming UNAG enolpyruvate and inorganic phosphate. Reportedly, UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid (UNAM) binds tightly to MurA forming a dormant UNAM-PEP-MurA complex and acting as a MurA feedback inhibitor. MurA inhibitors are complex, owing to competitive binding interactions with PEP, UNAM, and UNAG at the MurA active site. We used computational methods to explore UNAM and UNAG binding. UNAM showed stronger hydrogen-bond interactions with the Arg120 and Arg91 residues, which help to stabilize the closed conformation of MurA, than UNAG. Binding free energy calculations using end-point computational methods showed that UNAM has a higher binding affinity than UNAG, when PEP is attached to Cys115. The unbinding process, simulated using τ-random acceleration molecular dynamics, showed that UNAM has a longer relative residence time than UNAG, which is related to several complex dissociation pathways, each with multiple intermediate metastable states. This prevents the loop from opening and exposing the Arg120 residue to accommodate UNAG and potential new ligands. Moreover, we demonstrate the importance of Cys115-linked PEP in closed-state loop stabilization. We provide a basis for evaluating novel UNAM analogues as potential MurA inhibitors. PUBLIC SIGNIFICANCE: MurA is a critical enzyme involved in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis and is involved in antibiotic resistance development. UNAM can remain in the target protein's active site for an extended time compared to its natural substrate, UNAG. The prolonged interaction of this highly stable complex known as the 'dormant complex' comprises UNAM-PEP-MurA and offers insights into antibiotic development, providing potential options against drug-resistant bacteria and advancing our understanding of microbial biology.


Assuntos
Alquil e Aril Transferases , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ácidos Murâmicos , Peptidoglicano , Alquil e Aril Transferases/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Difosfato de Uridina
3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 256(Pt 2): 128468, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38035962

RESUMO

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BA) is considered as an important industrial strain for heterologous proteins production. However, its severe autolytic behavior leads to reduce the industrial production capacity of the chassis cells. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the autolysis of N-acetylmuranyl-L-alanine amidase in BA TCCC11018, and further slowed down the cell lysis for improved the heterologous protein production by a series of modifications. Firstly, we identified six N-acetylmuramic acid-L-alanines by bioinformatics, and analyzed the transcriptional levels at different culture time points by transcriptome and quantitative real-time PCR. Then, by establishing an efficient CRISPR-nCas9 gene editing method, N-acetylmuramic acid-L-alanine genes were knocked out or overexpressed to verify its effect on cell lysis. Then, by single or tandem knockout N-acetylmuramic acid-L-alanines, it was determined that the reasonable modification of LytH and CwlC1 can slow down cell lysis. After 48 h of culture, the autolysis rate of the mutant strain BA ΔlytH-cwlC1 decreased by 4.83 %, and the amylase activity reached 176 U/mL, which was 76.04 % higher than that of the control strain BA Δupp. The results provide a reference for mining the functional characteristics of autolysin in Bacillus spp., and provide from this study reveal valuable insights delaying the cell lysis and increasing heterologous proteins production.


Assuntos
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens , N-Acetil-Muramil-L-Alanina Amidase , N-Acetil-Muramil-L-Alanina Amidase/genética , N-Acetil-Muramil-L-Alanina Amidase/metabolismo , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/genética , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/metabolismo , Ácidos Murâmicos , Alanina
4.
ACS Sens ; 8(12): 4554-4565, 2023 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37992233

RESUMO

Imaging infections in patients is challenging using conventional methods, motivating the development of positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers targeting bacteria-specific metabolic pathways. Numerous techniques have focused on the bacterial cell wall, although peptidoglycan-targeted PET tracers have been generally limited to the short-lived carbon-11 radioisotope (t1/2 = 20.4 min). In this article, we developed and tested new tools for infection imaging using an amino sugar component of peptidoglycan, namely, derivatives of N-acetyl muramic acid (NAM) labeled with the longer-lived fluorine-18 (t1/2 = 109.6 min) radioisotope. Muramic acid was reacted directly with 4-nitrophenyl 2-[18F]fluoropropionate ([18F]NFP) to afford the enantiomeric NAM derivatives (S)-[18F]FMA and (R)-[18F]FMA. Both diastereomers were easily isolated and showed robust accumulation by human pathogens in vitro and in vivo, including Staphylococcus aureus. These results form the basis for future clinical studies using fluorine-18-labeled NAM-derived PET radiotracers.


Assuntos
Ácidos Murâmicos , Peptidoglicano , Humanos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Radioisótopos de Flúor , Bactérias , Parede Celular
5.
J Biol Chem ; 299(9): 105076, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37481208

RESUMO

The bacterial cell wall consists of a three-dimensional peptidoglycan layer, composed of peptides linked to the sugars N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc) and GlcNAc. Unlike other bacteria, the pathogenic Tannerella forsythia, a member of the red complex group of bacteria associated with the late stages of periodontitis, lacks biosynthetic pathways for MurNAc production and therefore obtains MurNAc from the environment. Sugar kinases play a crucial role in the MurNAc recycling process, activating the sugar molecules by phosphorylation. In this study, we present the first crystal structures of a MurNAc kinase, called murein sugar kinase (MurK), in its unbound state as well as in complexes with the ATP analog ß-γ-methylene adenosine triphosphate (AMP-PCP) and with MurNAc. We also determined the crystal structures of K1058, a paralogous MurNAc kinase of T. forsythia, in its unbound state and in complex with MurNAc. We identified the active site and residues crucial for MurNAc specificity as the less bulky side chains of S133, P134, and L135, which enlarge the binding cavity for the lactyl ether group, unlike the glutamate or histidine residues present in structural homologs. In establishing the apparent kinetic parameters for both enzymes, we showed a comparable affinity for MurNAc (Km 180 µM and 30 µM for MurK and K1058, respectively), with MurK being over two hundred times faster than K1058 (Vmax 80 and 0.34 µmol min-1 mg-1, respectively). These data might support a structure-guided approach to development of inhibitory MurNAc analogs for pathogen MurK enzymes.


Assuntos
Modelos Moleculares , Ácidos Murâmicos , Fosfotransferases , Tannerella forsythia , Ácidos Murâmicos/metabolismo , Peptidoglicano/metabolismo , Tannerella forsythia/enzimologia , Fosfotransferases/química , Fosfotransferases/metabolismo , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Cristalografia por Raios X , Domínio Catalítico , Ativação Enzimática
6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 13: 1089911, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37009497

RESUMO

The lack of effective therapeutics against emerging multi-drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) prompts the identification of novel anti-tuberculosis targets. The essential nature of the peptidoglycan (PG) layer of the mycobacterial cell wall, which features several distinctive modifications, such as the N-glycolylation of muramic acid and the amidation of D-iso-glutamate, makes it a target of particular interest. To understand their role in susceptibility to beta-lactams and in the modulation of host-pathogen interactions, the genes encoding the enzymes responsible for these PG modifications (namH and murT/gatD, respectively) were silenced in the model organism Mycobacterium smegmatis using CRISPR interference (CRISPRi). Although beta-lactams are not included in TB-therapy, their combination with beta-lactamase inhibitors is a prospective strategy to treat MDR-TB. To uncover synergistic effects between the action of beta-lactams and the depletion of these PG modifications, knockdown mutants were also constructed in strains lacking the major beta-lactamase of M. smegmatis BlaS, PM965 (M. smegmatis ΔblaS1) and PM979 (M. smegmatis ΔblaS1 ΔnamH). The phenotyping assays affirmed the essentiality of the amidation of D-iso-glutamate to the survival of mycobacteria, as opposed to the N-glycolylation of muramic acid. The qRT-PCR assays confirmed the successful repression of the target genes, along with few polar effects and differential knockdown level depending on PAM strength and target site. Both PG modifications were found to contribute to beta-lactam resistance. While the amidation of D-iso-glutamate impacted cefotaxime and isoniazid resistance, the N-glycolylation of muramic acid substantially promoted resistance to the tested beta-lactams. Their simultaneous depletion provoked synergistic reductions in beta-lactam MICs. Moreover, the depletion of these PG modifications promoted a significantly faster bacilli killing by J774 macrophages. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that these PG modifications are highly conserved in a set of 172 clinical strains of Mtb, demonstrating their potential as therapeutic targets against TB. Our results support the development of new therapeutic agents targeting these distinctive mycobacterial PG modifications.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose , Humanos , Peptidoglicano/genética , Ácidos Murâmicos/farmacologia , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Resistência beta-Lactâmica , Parede Celular , beta-Lactamas/farmacologia , Glutamatos/genética , Glutamatos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
7.
Poult Sci ; 102(6): 102619, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37068354

RESUMO

The objective of these studies was to evaluate the impact of dietary muramidase (MUR) on endogenous amino acids (AA) losses and digestibility of nutrients in wheat and corn-based broiler diets. In experiment 1, the effect of dietary MUR on the flow of endogenous AA (EAA) at the jejunum and terminal ileum of broilers were assessed using either the nitrogen (N) free diet method (NFD) or the highly digestible protein diet method (HDP; 100 g casein/kg diet). Sialic acid and muramic acid concentrations were measured in the jejunal content. In experiment 2, a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 base grains (wheat or corn), with low or high metabolizable energy (ME) levels, and without or with MUR supplementation was implemented. All diets contained phytase, xylanase, and cellulase. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of dry matter (DM), protein (CP), amino acids (AA), crude fat, and energy, as well as the apparent total tract metabolizability (ATTM) of DM, CP, and gross energy (GE) were determined. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA was obtained by correcting AID values for basal ileal EAA obtained from chicks fed with NFD or HDP in experiment 1, jejunal EAA flow of all AA was higher (P < 0.001) compared to the ileum, but this effect was method dependent. Jejunal, but not ileal, EAA flow measured with HDP was higher compared to NFD, as well as sialic acid (P < 0.001) and muramic acid (P < 0.004) concentrations. Muramidase inclusion had no effect on basal EAA flow, independently of the segment and the method used. In experiment 2, dietary MUR supplementation increased the AID of CP (P < 0.05), all AA, and tended (P = 0.07) to increase the AID of GE, independently of the cereal type used. However, ATTM of DM and GE, but not CP, increased with MUR inclusion compared with the control treatments, especially in wheat and low ME diets (P < 0.05). In conclusion, MUR supplementation improved AID of CP and AA without affecting EAA losses and increases energy utilization.


Assuntos
Triticum , Zea mays , Animais , Triticum/química , Zea mays/química , Muramidase/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ácidos Murâmicos/metabolismo , Ácidos Murâmicos/farmacologia , Digestão , Dieta/veterinária , Íleo/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Ácidos Siálicos/metabolismo , Ácidos Siálicos/farmacologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
8.
Biochemistry ; 62(8): 1337-1341, 2023 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36971350

RESUMO

Characterization of the turnover mechanism of bisubstrate enzymes is a tedious task. Molecular tools for studying the enzymatic mechanism are not readily available for all enzymes (e.g., radioactive substrates, substrate-competitive inhibitors, etc.). Wang and Mittermaier recently introduced two-dimensional isothermal titration calorimetry (2D-ITC) for determining the bisubstrate mechanism at high resolution while simultaneously quantifying the kinetic parameters for substrate turnover in a single reporter-free experiment. We demonstrate the utility of 2D-ITC in studying N-acetylmuramic acid/N-acetylglucosamine kinase (AmgK) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This enzyme is involved in cytoplasmic cell-wall-recycling events as a step in the peptidoglycan salvage pathway. Furthermore, AmgK phosphorylates N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid, linking the recycling events to de novo cell-wall synthesis. We document in a 2D-ITC experiment that AmgK follows an ordered-sequential mechanism, where ATP binds first and ADP is released last. We also show that classical enzyme kinetic methods support the results of 2D-ITC and that 2D-ITC could overcome the shortcomings of these classical methodologies. We provide evidence for inhibition of AmgK by the catalytic product ADP, but not by the phosphorylated sugar product. These results provide a full kinetic characterization of the bacterial kinase AmgK. This work highlights 2D-ITC as a versatile tool for the mechanistic evaluation of bisubstrate enzymes, as an alternative for classical methods.


Assuntos
Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool) , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/metabolismo , Ácidos Murâmicos/metabolismo , Acetilglucosamina/metabolismo , Cinética
9.
J Chromatogr A ; 1688: 463708, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36528898

RESUMO

Inhalation of airborne bacteria in indoor environments is known to be associated with respiratory diseases. Analytical methods for the determination of 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OHFAs) and muramic acid (MA) as chemical markers of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively, were developed for airborne particle and dust samples in this study. 3-OHFAs as markers of endotoxin were released and esterified during the hydrolysis process under methanolic acid conditions, and their hydrolysates, i.e., 3-OHFA methyl esters, were cleaned up by solid-phase extraction using silica sorbent that provided more effective separation from interferents than polymeric sorbent through elution pattern. The SPE eluent was analyzed by GC-MS/MS measurement after the trimethylsilylation reaction. The recovery of the method ranged from 82.1 % to 103.2 %, with a limit of detection ranging from 0.5 to 1.1 ng/filter and good linearity (R2 > 0.991). For the analysis of MA, muramic acid methyl ester (MAME), a product formed during methanolic hydrolysis, was selected as a specific marker of peptidoglycan. It was the first proposed compound identified and confirmed with MS and MS/MS spectra using high-resolution measurement. In particular, the measurement of MAME providing 12.5 times greater sensitivity than MA with the application of the LC-MS/MS method is one of the notable findings of this study. The recovery by simple liquid extraction was 99.4 % following the removal of the hydrophobic matrix and neutralization with solvent reconstruction. The method displayed a LOD of 0.7 ng/filter and linearity (R2) of 0.997 through a simple pretreatment process. Both developed methods were applied and evaluated by determining 3-OHFAs and MA in airborne particles collected from multipurpose facilities and settled dust in the laboratory and office.


Assuntos
Poeira , Ácidos Murâmicos , Poeira/análise , Ácidos Murâmicos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida , Bactérias/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17834, 2022 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36284223

RESUMO

Soil microorganisms are critical for soil carbon (C) cycling. They primarily regulate the turnover of the soil organic C (SOC) by adjusting their community structure, and contributing residues with a considerable amount to the resistant SOC. Nevertheless, how long-term fertilization (e.g., the combination of manure and chemical fertilizer) affects the spatial distribution of both living microbial communities and dead microbial residue within soil aggregate fractions remains largely unclear. In this study, we analyzed changes in microbial community (lipid biomarkers) and microbial residue retention (amino sugar biomarkers), and also calculated the contribution of microbial residue to organic C in bulk soil and different soil aggregates (> 2 mm, 1-2 mm, 0.25-1 mm, and < 0.25 mm) in Alfisols treated with 29 years fertilization or no fertilization (control). Our results showed that long-term fertilization significantly increased the mean weight diameter (MWD) of aggregates and organic C contents in all aggregate fractions. The fertilization treatment increased the contents of PLFAs and microbial residue C, but the relative contribution of microbial residue to SOC was higher in the control (56.8% vs. 49.0%), due to the low SOC background caused by much lower level of non-microbially derived C input. These results suggested that long-term fertilization could increase SOC by accumulating both plant- and microbial-derived C, while the C deficient soil is more dependent on the accumulation of microbial residues. Long-term fertilization promoted the enrichment of bacterial-derived muramic acid in micro aggregates, but increased the proportion of fungal-derived glucosamine in macro aggregates. Meanwhile, the contribution of bacterial residue to organic C in the fertilization treatment was higher in micro aggregates (7.6% for > 2 mm vs. 9.2% for < 0.25 mm aggregate), while the contribution of fungal residue was higher in macro aggregate fractions (40.9% for > 2 mm vs. 35.7% for < 0.25 mm aggregate). The above results indicated that long-term fertilization could drive the differentiation of heterogeneous microbial residue accumulation patterns that significantly alter the contribution of fungal- versus bacterial-derived C to organic C within soil aggregate fractions.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Solo , Solo/química , Fertilizantes/análise , Esterco , Ácidos Murâmicos , Carbono , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias , Amino Açúcares , Glucosamina , Lipídeos
11.
ACS Infect Dis ; 8(9): 1831-1838, 2022 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35924866

RESUMO

The human oral microbiome is the second largest microbial community in humans, harboring over 700 bacterial species, which aid in digestion and protect from growth of disease-causing pathogens. One such oral pathogen, Tannerella forsythia, along with other species, contributes to the pathogenesis of periodontitis. T. forsythia is unable to produce its own N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM) sugar, essential for peptidoglycan biosynthesis and therefore must scavenge NAM from other species with which it cohabitates. Here, we explore the recycling potential of T. forsythia for NAM uptake with a bioorthogonal modification into its peptidoglycan, allowing for click-chemistry-based visualization of the cell wall structure. Additionally, we identified NAM recycling enzyme homologues in T. forsythia that are similar to the enzymes found in Pseudomonas putida. These homologues were then genetically transformed into a laboratory safe Escherichia coli strain, resulting in the efficient incorporation of unnatural NAM analogues into the peptidoglycan backbone and its visualization, alone or in the presence of human macrophages. This strain will be useful in further studies to probe NAM recycling and peptidoglycan scavenging pathways of T. forsythia and other cohabiting bacteria.


Assuntos
Peptidoglicano , Pseudomonas putida , Parede Celular/química , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Humanos , Ácidos Murâmicos , Pseudomonas putida/genética , Tannerella forsythia/metabolismo
12.
Chemistry ; 28(43): e202200788, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35560956

RESUMO

The biosynthesis, breakdown, and modification of peptidoglycan (PG) play vital roles in both bacterial viability and in the response of human physiology to bacterial infection. Studies on PG biochemistry are hampered by the fact that PG is an inhomogeneous insoluble macromolecule. Chemical synthesis is therefore an important means to obtain PG fragments that may serve as enzyme substrates and elicitors of the human immune response. This review outlines the recent advances in the synthesis and biochemical studies of PG fragments, PG biosynthetic intermediates (such as Park's nucleotides and PG lipids), and PG breakdown products (such as muramyl dipeptides and anhydro-muramic acid-containing fragments). A rich variety of synthetic approaches has been applied to preparing such compounds since carbohydrate, peptide, and phospholipid chemical methodologies must all be applied.


Assuntos
Ácidos Murâmicos , Peptidoglicano , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Humanos , Substâncias Macromoleculares , Ácidos Murâmicos/química , Ácidos Murâmicos/metabolismo , Peptidoglicano/metabolismo
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163070

RESUMO

The article describes an NMR spectroscopy study of interactions between vancomycin and a muramyl pentapeptide in two complexes: vancomycin and a native muramyl pentapeptide ended with D-alanine (MPP-D-Ala), and vancomycin and a modified muramyl pentapeptide ended with D-serine (MPP-D-Ser). The measurements were made in a 9:1 mixture of H2O and D2O. The obtained results confirmed the presence of hydrogen bonds previously described in the literature. At the same time, thanks to the pentapeptide model used, we were able to prove the presence of two more hydrogen bonds formed by the side chain amino group of L-lysine and oxygen atoms from the vancomycin carboxyl and amide groups. This type of interaction has not been described before. The existence of these hydrogen bonds was confirmed by the 1H NMR and molecular modeling. The formation of these bonds incurs additional through-space interactions, visible in the NOESY spectrum, between the protons of the L-lysine amino group and a vancomycin-facing hydrogen atom in the benzylic position. The presence of such interactions was also confirmed by molecular dynamics trajectory analysis.


Assuntos
Ácidos Murâmicos/química , Peptidoglicano/química , Vancomicina/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antibacterianos , Sequência de Carboidratos , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular
14.
Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom ; 1870(2): 140745, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906734

RESUMO

Bacteriophage endolysins are crucial for progeny release at the end of the lytic cycle. Mycobacteriophage's genomes carry a lysin A essential gene, whose product cleaves the peptidoglycan (PG) layer and a lysin B, coding for an esterase, that cleaves the linkage between the mycolic acids and the arabinogalactan-PG complex. Lysin A mycobacteriophage proteins are highly modular and in gp29 (LysA) of phage TM4 three distinctive domains were identified. By bioinformatics analysis the central module was previously found to be similar to an amidase-2 domain family with an N-acetylmuramoyl -L-alanine amidase activity. We demonstrated experimentally that purified LysA is able to lyse a suspension of Micrococcus lysodeikticus and can promote cell lysis when expressed in E. coli and Mycobacterium smegmatis. After incubation of LysA with MDP (Muramyl dipeptide, N-acetyl-muramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine) we detected the presence of N-acetylmuramic acid (NAcMur) and L-Ala- D- isoGlutamine (L-Ala-D-isoGln) corroborating the proposed muramidase activity of this enzyme. This protein was stabilized at acidic pH in the presence of Zn consistent with the increase of the enzymatic activity under these conditions. By homology modeling, we predicted that the Zn ion is coordinated by His 226, His 335, and Asp 347 and we also identified the amino acid Glu 290 as the catalytic residue. LysA activity was completely abolished in derived mutants on these key residues, suggesting that the PG hydrolysis solely relies on the central domain of the protein.


Assuntos
Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Micobacteriófagos/metabolismo , N-Acetil-Muramil-L-Alanina Amidase/metabolismo , Peptidoglicano/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Endopeptidases/química , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Galactanos , Hidrólise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Micrococcus/metabolismo , Ácidos Murâmicos/metabolismo , Mycobacterium smegmatis/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/química
15.
ChemMedChem ; 17(3): e202100514, 2022 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613662

RESUMO

Galectin-8 has gained attention as a potential new pharmacological target for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and disorders associated with bone mass reduction. To that end, new molecular probes are needed in order to better understand its role and its functions. Herein we aimed to improve the affinity and target selectivity of a recently published galectin-8 ligand, 3-O-[1-carboxyethyl]-ß-d-galactopyranoside, by introducing modifications at positions 1 and 3 of the galactose. Affinity data measured by fluorescence polarization show that the most potent compound reached a KD of 12 µM. Furthermore, reasonable selectivity versus other galectins was achieved, making the highlighted compound a promising lead for the development of new selective and potent ligands for galectin-8 as molecular probes to examine the protein's role in cell-based and in vivo studies.


Assuntos
Galectinas/metabolismo , Ácidos Murâmicos/farmacologia , Polarização de Fluorescência , Humanos , Ligantes , Estrutura Molecular , Ácidos Murâmicos/síntese química , Ácidos Murâmicos/química
16.
Curr Med Chem ; 29(7): 1293-1312, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525907

RESUMO

The bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan (PG) is a dynamic structure that is constantly synthesized, re-modeled and degraded during bacterial division and growth. Postsynthetic modifications modulate the action of endogenous autolysis during PG lysis and remodeling for growth and sporulation, but also they are a mechanism used by pathogenic bacteria to evade the host innate immune system. Modifications of the glycan backbone are limited to the C-2 amine and C-6 hydroxyl moieties of either GlcNAc or MurNAc residues. This paper reviews the functional roles and properties of peptidoglycan de-Nacetylases (distinct PG GlcNAc and MurNAc deacetylases) and recent progress through genetic studies and biochemical characterization to elucidate their mechanism of action, 3D structures, substrate specificities and biological functions. Since they are virulence factors in pathogenic bacteria, peptidoglycan deacetylases are potential targets for the design of novel antimicrobial agents.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Peptidoglicano , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Parede Celular/química , Ácidos Murâmicos/análise , Ácidos Murâmicos/química , Ácidos Murâmicos/metabolismo , Peptidoglicano/metabolismo
17.
Nat Microbiol ; 6(12): 1583-1592, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819646

RESUMO

Peptidoglycan-a mesh sac of glycans that are linked by peptides-is the main component of bacterial cell walls. Peptidoglycan provides structural strength, protects cells from osmotic pressure and contributes to shape. All bacterial glycans are repeating disaccharides of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) ß-(1-4)-linked to N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc). Borrelia burgdorferi, the tick-borne Lyme disease pathogen, produces glycan chains in which MurNAc is occasionally replaced with an unknown sugar. Nuclear magnetic resonance, liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy and genetic analyses show that B. burgdorferi produces glycans that contain GlcNAc-GlcNAc. This unusual disaccharide is chitobiose, a component of its chitinous tick vector. Mutant bacteria that are auxotrophic for chitobiose have altered morphology, reduced motility and cell envelope defects that probably result from producing peptidoglycan that is stiffer than that in wild-type bacteria. We propose that the peptidoglycan of B. burgdorferi probably evolved by adaptation to obligate parasitization of a tick vector, resulting in a biophysical cell-wall alteration to withstand the atypical torque associated with twisting motility.


Assuntos
Borrelia burgdorferi/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Animais , Borrelia burgdorferi/genética , Parede Celular/química , Parede Celular/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Ácidos Murâmicos/metabolismo , Peptidoglicano/metabolismo , Açúcares/química , Carrapatos/metabolismo
18.
ACS Chem Biol ; 16(10): 1908-1916, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506714

RESUMO

Metabolic glycan probes have emerged as an excellent tool to investigate vital questions in biology. Recently, methodology to incorporate metabolic bacterial glycan probes into the cell wall of a variety of bacterial species has been developed. In order to improve this method, a scalable synthesis of the peptidoglycan precursors is developed here, allowing for access to essential peptidoglycan immunological fragments and cell wall building blocks. The question was asked if masking polar groups of the glycan probe would increase overall incorporation, a common strategy exploited in mammalian glycobiology. Here, we show, through cellular assays, that E. coli do not utilize peracetylated peptidoglycan substrates but do employ methyl esters. The 10-fold improvement of probe utilization indicates that (i) masking the carboxylic acid is favorable for transport and (ii) bacterial esterases are capable of removing the methyl ester for use in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. This investigation advances bacterial cell wall biology, offering a prescription on how to best deliver and utilize bacterial metabolic glycan probes.


Assuntos
Sondas Moleculares/metabolismo , Ácidos Murâmicos/metabolismo , Peptidoglicano/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Sondas Moleculares/síntese química , Ácidos Murâmicos/síntese química , Polissacarídeos/síntese química
19.
PLoS Genet ; 17(9): e1009791, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570752

RESUMO

Spore-forming pathogens like Clostridioides difficile depend on germination to initiate infection. During gemination, spores must degrade their cortex layer, which is a thick, protective layer of modified peptidoglycan. Cortex degradation depends on the presence of the spore-specific peptidoglycan modification, muramic-∂-lactam (MAL), which is specifically recognized by cortex lytic enzymes. In C. difficile, MAL production depends on the CwlD amidase and its binding partner, the GerS lipoprotein. To gain insight into how GerS regulates CwlD activity, we solved the crystal structure of the CwlD:GerS complex. In this structure, a GerS homodimer is bound to two CwlD monomers such that the CwlD active sites are exposed. Although CwlD structurally resembles amidase_3 family members, we found that CwlD does not bind Zn2+ stably on its own, unlike previously characterized amidase_3 enzymes. Instead, GerS binding to CwlD promotes CwlD binding to Zn2+, which is required for its catalytic mechanism. Thus, in determining the first structure of an amidase bound to its regulator, we reveal stabilization of Zn2+ co-factor binding as a novel mechanism for regulating bacterial amidase activity. Our results further suggest that allosteric regulation by binding partners may be a more widespread mode for regulating bacterial amidase activity than previously thought.


Assuntos
Amidoidrolases/metabolismo , Clostridioides difficile/fisiologia , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Esporos Bacterianos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação Alostérica , Amidoidrolases/química , Catálise , Domínio Catalítico , Cromatografia em Gel , Clostridioides difficile/enzimologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Lactamas/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Ácidos Murâmicos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2775, 2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986273

RESUMO

The pathway for the biosynthesis of the bacterial cell wall is one of the most prolific antibiotic targets, exemplified by the widespread use of ß-lactam antibiotics. Despite this, our structural understanding of class A penicillin binding proteins, which perform the last two steps in this pathway, is incomplete due to the inherent difficulty in their crystallization and the complexity of their substrates. Here, we determine the near atomic resolution structure of the 83 kDa class A PBP from Escherichia coli, PBP1b, using cryogenic electron microscopy and a styrene maleic acid anhydride membrane mimetic. PBP1b, in its apo form, is seen to exhibit a distinct conformation in comparison to Moenomycin-bound crystal structures. The work herein paves the way for the use of cryoEM in structure-guided antibiotic development for this notoriously difficult to crystalize class of proteins and their complex substrates.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/metabolismo , Peptidoglicano Glicosiltransferase/metabolismo , D-Ala-D-Ala Carboxipeptidase Tipo Serina/metabolismo , beta-Lactamas/farmacologia , Acetilglucosamina/química , Aldeídos/química , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Ácidos Murâmicos/química , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Peptidoglicano/biossíntese , Conformação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos/fisiologia
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