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1.
PLoS Pathog ; 20(2): e1012025, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346075

RESUMO

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) induces a unique T cell response, where antigen-specific populations do not contract, but rather inflate during viral latency. It has been proposed that subclinical episodes of virus reactivation feed the inflation of CMV-specific memory cells by intermittently engaging T cell receptors (TCRs), but evidence of TCR engagement has remained lacking. Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) is a family of transcription factors, where NFATc1 and NFATc2 signal downstream of TCR in mature T lymphocytes. We show selective impacts of NFATc1 and/or NFATc2 genetic ablations on the long-term inflation of MCMV-specific CD8+ T cell responses despite largely maintained responses to acute infection. NFATc1 ablation elicited robust phenotypes in isolation, but the strongest effects were observed when both NFAT genes were missing. CMV control was impaired only when both NFATs were deleted in CD8+ T cells used in adoptive immunotherapy of immunodeficient mice. Transcriptome analyses revealed that T cell intrinsic NFAT is not necessary for CD8+ T cell priming, but rather for their maturation towards effector-memory and in particular the effector cells, which dominate the pool of inflationary cells.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Muromegalovirus , Animais , Camundongos , Muromegalovirus/fisiologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Citomegalovirus , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T , Memória Imunológica
2.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 34(3): 663-672, 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38303144

RESUMO

The use of nanoparticles as a delivery system for a specific antigen could solve many limitations of mucosal vaccine applications, such as low immunogenicity, or antigen protection and stabilization. In this study, we tested the ability of nasally administered chitosan nanoparticles loaded with glycoprotein B of murine cytomegalovirus to induce an immune response in an animal model. The choice of chitosan nanoparticle type was made by in vitro evaluation of sorption efficiency and antigen release. Three types of chitosan nanoparticles were prepared: crosslinked with tripolyphosphate, coated with hyaluronic acid, and in complex with polycaprolactone. The hydrodynamic size of the nanoparticles by dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, stability, loading efficiency, and release kinetics with ovalbumin were evaluated. Balb/c mice were immunized intranasally using the three-dose protocol with nanoparticles, gB, and adjuvants Poly(I:C) and CpG ODN. Subsequently, the humoral and cell-mediated antigen-specific immune response was determined. On the basis of the properties of the tested nanoparticles, the cross-linked nanoparticles were considered optimal for further investigation. The results show that nanoparticles with Poly(I:C) and with gB alone raised IgG antibody levels above the negative control. In the case of mucosal IgA, only gB alone weakly induced the production of IgA antibodies compared to saline-immunized mice. The number of activated cells increased slightly in mice immunized with nanoparticles and gB compared to those immunized with gB alone or to negative control. The results demonstrated that chitosan nanoparticles could have potential in the development of mucosal vaccines.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Muromegalovirus , Nanopartículas , Vacinas , Animais , Camundongos , Quitosana/química , Administração Intranasal , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Imunização , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Imunoglobulina A , Glicoproteínas , Nanopartículas/química , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
3.
Viruses ; 16(2)2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38399983

RESUMO

Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection may cause life-threatening disease and permanent damage to the central nervous system. The mouse model of CMV infection is most commonly used to study mechanisms of infection and pathogenesis. While essential to limit mouse CMV (MCMV) replication, the inflammatory responses, particularly IFNγ and TNFα, cause neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Other soluble mediators of the immune response in most tissues remain largely unexplored. To address this gap, we quantified 48 soluble mediators of the immune response, including 32 cytokines, 10 chemokines, 3 growth factors/regulators, and 3 soluble receptors in the spleen, liver, lungs, and brain at 9 and 14 days postinfection (dpi). Our analysis found 25 induced molecules in the brain at 9 dpi, with an additional 8 showing statistically elevated responses at 14 dpi. Specifically, all analyzed CCL group cytokines (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, and CCL11) were upregulated at 14 dpi in the brain. Furthermore, data revealed differentially regulated analytes across tissues, such as CCL11, CXCL5, and IL-10 in the brain, IL-33/IL-33R in the liver, and VEGF-a and IL-5 in the lungs. Overall, this study provides an overview of the immune dynamics of soluble mediators in congenital CMV.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Muromegalovirus , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Citocinas , Encéfalo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 20(1): e1011852, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38236791

RESUMO

Conventional antiviral memory CD4 T cells typically arise during the first two weeks of acute infection. Unlike most viruses, cytomegalovirus (CMV) exhibits an extended persistent replication phase followed by lifelong latency accompanied with some gene expression. We show that during mouse CMV (MCMV) infection, CD4 T cells recognizing an epitope derived from the viral M09 protein only develop after conventional memory T cells have already peaked and contracted. Ablating these CD4 T cells by mutating the M09 genomic epitope in the MCMV Smith strain, or inducing them by introducing the epitope into the K181 strain, resulted in delayed or enhanced control of viral persistence, respectively. These cells were shown to be unique compared to their conventional memory counterparts; producing higher IFNγ and IL-2 and lower IL-10 levels. RNAseq analyses revealed them to express distinct subsets of effector genes as compared to classical CD4 T cells. Additionally, when M09 cells were induced by epitope vaccination they significantly enhanced protection when compared to conventional CD4 T cells alone. These data show that late-rising CD4 T cells are a unique memory subset with excellent protective capacities that display a development program strongly differing from the majority of memory T cells.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Muromegalovirus , Animais , Camundongos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Epitopos , Glândulas Salivares , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos
5.
J Gen Virol ; 105(1)2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38271001

RESUMO

Host control of mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection of MHCII- salivary gland acinar cells is mediated by CD4+ T cells, but how they protect is unclear. Here, we show CD4+ T cells control MCMV indirectly in the salivary gland, via IFNγ engagement with uninfected, but antigen+ MHCII+ APC and recruitment of NK cells to infected cell foci. This immune mechanism renders direct contact of CD4+ T cells with infected cells unnecessary and may represent a host strategy to overcome viral immune evasion.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Muromegalovirus , Camundongos , Animais , Linfócitos T , Citoproteção , Células Matadoras Naturais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
6.
J Immunol ; 212(5): 813-824, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38224204

RESUMO

The MHC class I molecule H-2Dk conveys resistance to acute murine CMV infection in both C57L (H-2Dk transgenic) and MA/My mice. M.H2k/b mice are on an MA/My background aside from a C57L-derived region spanning the MHC (Cmv5s), which diminishes this resistance and causes significant spleen histopathology. To hone in on the effector elements within the Cmv5s interval, we generated several Cmv5-recombinant congenic mouse strains and screened them in vivo, allowing us to narrow the phenotype-associated interval >6-fold and segment the genetic mechanism to at least two independent loci within the MHC region. In addition, we sought to further characterize the Cmv5s-associated phenotypes in their temporal appearance and potential direct relationship to viral load. To this end, we found that Cmv5s histopathology and NK cell activation could not be fully mirrored in the MA/My mice with increased viral dose, and that marginal zone destruction was the first apparent Cmv5s phenotype, being reliably quantified as early as 2 d postinfection in the M.H2k/b mice, prior to divergence in viral load, weight loss, or NK cell phenotype. Finally, we further dissect NK cell involvement, finding no intrinsic differences in NK cell function, despite increased upregulation of activation markers and checkpoint receptors. In conclusion, these data dissect the genetic and immunologic underpinnings of Cmv5 and reveal a model in which polymorphism within the MHC region of the genome leads to the development of tissue damage and corrupts protective NK cell immunity during acute viral infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Muromegalovirus , Camundongos , Animais , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Células Matadoras Naturais , Tecido Linfoide , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
7.
Laryngoscope ; 134(1): 433-438, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37421238

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Compare hearing outcomes utilizing standard, prolonged and delayed ganciclovir (GCV) therapy in a murine model of cytomegalovirus (CMV). METHODS: BALB/c mice were inoculated with mouse cytomegalovirus (mCMV) or saline via intracerebral injection on postnatal day 3 (p3). Intraperitoneal GCV or saline was administered at 12 h intervals for the duration of the standard (p3-p17), delayed (p30-p44), or prolonged treatment windows (p3-p31). Auditory thresholds were assessed using distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) and auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing at 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age. Blood and tissue samples were harvested from mice on p17 and p37 one hour after GCV administration, and their concentrations were assessed via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: A delayed course of GCV improved ABR but not DPOAE thresholds in mCMV-infected mice. A prolonged course of GCV did not provide better hearing thresholds than those administered standard treatment. The average GCV concentration in all 17-day-old mice tissue was significantly higher than those in older 37-day-old mice. CONCLUSION: Delayed GCV treatment provided a hearing benefit on ABR over untreated mCMV infected mice. Prolonged CGV administration showed no benefit compared to a shorter duration GCV treatment. GCV drug concentrations both systemically and in the cochlea are much lower in older mice. These results have potential implications for the clinical management of cCMV infected children. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA Laryngoscope, 134:433-438, 2024.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Muromegalovirus , Humanos , Criança , Animais , Camundongos , Idoso , Ganciclovir/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Citomegalovirus , Emissões Otoacústicas Espontâneas , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Antivirais/uso terapêutico
8.
PLoS Pathog ; 19(12): e1011793, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38064525

RESUMO

Like all herpesviruses, cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) code for many immunomodulatory proteins including chemokines. The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) CC chemokine pUL128 has a dual role in the infection cycle. On one hand, it forms the pentameric receptor-binding complex gHgLpUL(128,130,131A), which is crucial for the broad cell tropism of HCMV. On the other hand, it is an active chemokine that attracts leukocytes and shapes their activation. All animal CMVs studied so far have functionally homologous CC chemokines. In murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV), the CC chemokine is encoded by the m131/m129 reading frames. The MCMV CC chemokine is called MCK2 and forms a trimeric gHgLMCK2 entry complex. Here, we have generated MCK2 mutant viruses either unable to form gHgLMCK2 complexes, lacking the chemokine function or lacking both functions. By using these viruses, we could demonstrate that gHgLMCK2-dependent entry and MCK2 chemokine activity are independent functions of MCK2 in vitro and in vivo. The gHgLMCK2 complex promotes the tropism for leukocytes like macrophages and dendritic cells and secures high titers in salivary glands in MCMV-infected mice independent of the chemokine activity of MCK2. In contrast, reduced early antiviral T cell responses in MCMV-infected mice are dependent on MCK2 being an active chemokine and do not require the formation of gHgLMCK2 complexes. High levels of CCL2 and IFN-γ in spleens of infected mice and MCMV virulence depend on both, the formation of gHgLMCK2 complexes and the MCK2 chemokine activity. Thus, independent and concerted functions of MCK2 serving as chemokine and part of a gHgL entry complex shape antiviral immunity and virus dissemination.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Muromegalovirus , Animais , Camundongos , Humanos , Citomegalovirus/metabolismo , Quimiocinas CC , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Tropismo , Proteínas Virais/genética
9.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1192057, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38077365

RESUMO

Dendritic cells (DC) play a crucial role in generating and maintaining antiviral immunity. While DC are implicated in the antiviral defense by inducing T cell responses, they can also become infected by Cytomegalovirus (CMV). CMV is not only highly species-specific but also specialized in evading immune protection, and this specialization is in part due to characteristic genes encoded by a given virus. Here, we investigated whether rat CMV can infect XCR1+ DC and if infection of DC alters expression of cell surface markers and migration behavior. We demonstrate that wild-type RCMV and a mutant virus lacking the γ-chemokine ligand xcl1 (Δvxcl1 RCMV) infect splenic rat DC ex vivo and identify viral assembly compartments. Replication-competent RCMV reduced XCR1 and MHCII surface expression. Further, gene expression of infected DC was analyzed by bulk RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq). RCMV infection reverted a state of DC activation that was induced by DC cultivation. On the functional level, we observed impaired chemotactic activity of infected XCR1+ DC compared to mock-treated cells. We therefore speculate that as a result of RCMV infection, DC exhibit diminished XCR1 expression and are thereby blocked from the lymphocyte crosstalk.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Muromegalovirus , Ratos , Animais , Citomegalovirus/genética , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas
10.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1272166, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38149242

RESUMO

CD8 T cells are important antiviral effectors in the adaptive immune response to cytomegaloviruses (CMV). Naïve CD8 T cells can be primed by professional antigen-presenting cells (pAPCs) alternatively by "direct antigen presentation" or "antigen cross-presentation". In the case of direct antigen presentation, viral proteins are expressed in infected pAPCs and enter the classical MHC class-I (MHC-I) pathway of antigen processing and presentation of antigenic peptides. In the alternative pathway of antigen cross-presentation, viral antigenic material derived from infected cells of principally any cell type is taken up by uninfected pAPCs and eventually also fed into the MHC class-I pathway. A fundamental difference, which can be used to distinguish between these two mechanisms, is the fact that viral immune evasion proteins that interfere with the cell surface trafficking of peptide-loaded MHC-I (pMHC-I) complexes are absent in cross-presenting uninfected pAPCs. Murine cytomegalovirus (mCMV) models designed to disrupt either of the two presentation pathways revealed that both are possible in principle and can substitute each other. Overall, however, the majority of evidence has led to current opinion favoring cross-presentation as the canonical pathway. To study priming in the normal host genetically competent in both antigen presentation pathways, we took the novel approach of enhancing or inhibiting direct antigen presentation by using recombinant viruses lacking or overexpressing a key mCMV immune evasion protein. Against any prediction, the strongest CD8 T-cell response was elicited under the condition of intermediate direct antigen presentation, as it exists for wild-type virus, whereas the extremes of enhanced or inhibited direct antigen presentation resulted in an identical and weaker response. Our findings are explained by direct antigen presentation combined with a negative feedback regulation exerted by the newly primed antiviral effector CD8 T cells. This insight sheds a completely new light on the acquisition of viral immune evasion genes during virus-host co-evolution.


Assuntos
Apresentação de Antígeno , Muromegalovirus , Camundongos , Animais , Citomegalovirus , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Proteínas Virais , Antivirais
11.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 64(14): 20, 2023 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37971734

RESUMO

Purpose: To observe the similarities and differences between herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV)-induced viral anterior uveitis (VAU), both in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Primary rat trabecular meshwork cells (RTMCs) were infected by HSV-1 or MCMV to clarify the pattern of virus replication and the effect on cells. In vivo, intracameral injection of HSV-1 or MCMV was performed to establish the VAU rat models. The clinical manifestation, intraocular pressure (IOP), histological characteristics, ultrastructural changes, and the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the anterior segment were observed and compared between these two types of VAU models. Results: Both viruses could infect the RTMCs but HSV-1 exhibited an earlier and greater cytopathic effect in vitro. In vivo, both VAU rats showed typical acute VAU signs, and the IOP elevation seemed to be correlated with the inflammatory progression. Histopathological findings and ultrastructural changes revealed tissue damage and cell infiltration in the anterior chamber angle. In both models, similar proinflammatory cytokines were upregulated. HSV-1 and MCMV viral particles were identified under transmission electron microscopy. Conclusions: HSV-1 and MCMV infection share certain similarities but have significant differences both in vitro and in vivo. HSV-1 usually has a stronger anterior segment inflammation with a longer duration compared with MCMV in VAU models. Our results provided a valuable animal model for investigating pathogenesis and exploring therapeutic strategies for clinical VAU.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Herpes Simples , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Muromegalovirus , Uveíte Anterior , Camundongos , Ratos , Animais , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Citocinas , Uveíte Anterior/diagnóstico , Herpes Simples/diagnóstico
12.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 13: 1249894, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38029264

RESUMO

Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) are scavenger cells with a remarkably high capacity for clearance of several blood-borne macromolecules and nanoparticles, including some viruses. Endocytosis in LSEC is mainly via the clathrin-coated pit mediated route, which is dynamin-dependent. LSEC can also be a site of infection and latency of betaherpesvirus, but mode of virus entry into these cells has not yet been described. In this study we have investigated the role of dynamin in the early stage of muromegalovirus muridbeta1 (MuHV-1, murid betaherpesvirus 1, murine cytomegalovirus) infection in mouse LSECs. LSEC cultures were freshly prepared from C57Bl/6JRj mouse liver. We first examined dose- and time-dependent effects of two dynamin-inhibitors, dynasore and MitMAB, on cell viability, morphology, and endocytosis of model ligands via different LSEC scavenger receptors to establish a protocol for dynamin-inhibition studies in these primary cells. LSECs were challenged with MuHV-1 (MOI 0.2) ± dynamin inhibitors for 1h, then without inhibitors and virus for 11h, and nuclear expression of MuHV-1 immediate early antigen (IE1) measured by immune fluorescence. MuHV-1 efficiently infected LSECs in vitro. Infection was significantly and independently inhibited by dynasore and MitMAB, which block dynamin function via different mechanisms, suggesting that initial steps of MuHV-1 infection is dynamin-dependent in LSECs. Infection was also reduced in the presence of monensin which inhibits acidification of endosomes. Furthermore, competitive binding studies with a neuropilin-1 antibody blocked LSEC infection. This suggests that MuHV-1 infection in mouse LSECs involves virus binding to neuropilin-1 and occurs via endocytosis.


Assuntos
Muromegalovirus , Camundongos , Animais , Muromegalovirus/fisiologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Neuropilina-1/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Dinaminas/metabolismo
13.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 7200, 2023 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37938555

RESUMO

Immunological memory is a hallmark of the adaptive immune system. Although natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune cells important for the immediate host defence, they can differentiate into memory NK cells. The molecular mechanisms controlling this differentiation are yet to be fully elucidated. Here we identify the scaffold protein Themis2 as a critical regulator of memory NK cell differentiation and function. Themis2-deficient NK cells expressing Ly49H, an activating NK receptor for the mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) antigen m157, show enhanced differentiation into memory NK cells and augment host protection against MCMV infection. Themis2 inhibits the effector function of NK cells after stimulation of Ly49H and multiple activating NK receptors, though not specific to memory NK cells. Mechanistically, Themis2 suppresses Ly49H signalling by attenuating ZAP70/Syk phosphorylation, and it also translocates to the nucleus, where it promotes Zfp740-mediated repression to regulate the persistence of memory NK cells. Zfp740 deficiency increases the number of memory NK cells and enhances the effector function of memory NK cells, which further supports the relevance of the Themis2-Zfp740 pathway. In conclusion, our study shows that Themis2 quantitatively and qualitatively regulates NK cell memory formation.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais , Muromegalovirus , Animais , Camundongos , Diferenciação Celular , Citomegalovirus , Células Matadoras Naturais , Fosforilação
14.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 6412, 2023 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37828009

RESUMO

Infections in early life can elicit substantially different immune responses and pathogenesis than infections in adulthood. Here, we investigate the consequences of murine cytomegalovirus infection in newborn mice on NK cells. We show that infection severely compromised NK cell maturation and functionality in newborns. This effect was not due to compromised virus control. Inflammatory responses to infection dysregulated the expression of major transcription factors governing NK cell fate, such as Eomes, resulting in impaired NK cell function. Most prominently, NK cells from perinatally infected mice have a diminished ability to produce IFN-γ due to the downregulation of long non-coding RNA Ifng-as1 expression. Moreover, the bone marrow's capacity to efficiently generate new NK cells is reduced, explaining the prolonged negative effects of perinatal infection on NK cells. This study demonstrates that viral infections in early life can profoundly impact NK cell biology, including long-lasting impairment in NK cell functionality.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Muromegalovirus , Camundongos , Animais , Células Matadoras Naturais , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/genética
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(18)2023 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37762404

RESUMO

Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV), and, in particular, recombinant virus derived from MCMV-bacmid pSM3fr, is widely used as the small animal infection model for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). We sequenced the complete genomes of MCMV strains and recombinants for quality control. However, we noticed deviances from the deposited reference sequences of MCMV-bacmid pSM3fr. This prompted us to re-analyze pSM3fr and reannotate the reference sequence, as well as that for the commonly used MCMV-m157luc reporter virus. A correct reference sequence for this frequently used pSM3fr, containing a repaired version of m129 (MCK-2) and the luciferase gene instead of ORF m157, was constructed. The new reference also contains the original bacmid sequence, and it has a hybrid origin from MCMV strains Smith and K181.


Assuntos
Muromegalovirus , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Muromegalovirus/genética , Citomegalovirus/genética , Modelos Animais , Controle de Qualidade , Proteínas Virais , Quimiocinas CC
16.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1169869, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37638012

RESUMO

Introduction: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in infants can lead to severe diseases, including neonatal hepatitis. The single-cell dimensional changes in immune cells after the initial CMV infection remain elusive, as do the effects of CMV infection on hepatic lipid metabolism. Methods: We employed single-cell RNA-sequencing to investigate the changes in liver cell types and immune responses in infant mice following murine CMV (MCMV) infection. Additionally, we examined alterations in protein expression profiles related to lipid metabolism in hepatocytes and the role of the key transcription factor PPAR-γ in hepatocytes during CMV infection. Results: Our study revealed that MCMV infects most liver cell types in infant mice, leading to an increase in the proportion of proliferating CD8 effector T cells and a subset of Nos2+ monocytes, potentially playing an essential role in early anti-viral responses. Furthermore, MCMV infection resulted in altered protein expression of lipid metabolism in hepatocytes. Knocking down the transcription factor PPAR-γ in hepatocytes effectively inhibited CMV infection. Discussion: Our findings underscore the immune system's response to early-stage MCMV infection and the subsequent impact on hepatic lipid metabolism in infant mice. This research provides new insights into the mechanisms of CMV infection and could pave the way for novel therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Muromegalovirus , Lactente , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado , Hepatócitos , PPAR gama
17.
Elife ; 122023 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37440306

RESUMO

Inhibitory CD4+ T cells have been linked with suboptimal immune responses against cancer and pathogen chronicity. However, the mechanisms that underpin the development of these regulatory cells, especially in the context of ongoing antigen exposure, have remained obscure. To address this knowledge gap, we undertook a comprehensive functional, phenotypic, and transcriptomic analysis of interleukin (IL)-10-producing CD4+ T cells induced by chronic infection with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV). We identified these cells as clonally expanded and highly differentiated TH1-like cells that developed in a T-bet-dependent manner and coexpressed arginase-1 (Arg1), which promotes the catalytic breakdown of L-arginine. Mice lacking Arg1-expressing CD4+ T cells exhibited more robust antiviral immunity and were better able to control MCMV. Conditional deletion of T-bet in the CD4+ lineage suppressed the development of these inhibitory cells and also enhanced immune control of MCMV. Collectively, these data elucidated the ontogeny of IL-10-producing CD4+ T cells and revealed a previously unappreciated mechanism of immune regulation, whereby viral persistence was facilitated by the site-specific delivery of Arg1.


Assuntos
Citomegalovirus , Muromegalovirus , Camundongos , Animais , Interleucina-10 , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Arginase/genética , Muromegalovirus/fisiologia
18.
J Virol ; 97(6): e0040023, 2023 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37289084

RESUMO

Induction of type I interferon (IFN) gene expression is among the first lines of cellular defense a virus encounters during primary infection. We previously identified the tegument protein M35 of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) as an essential antagonist of this antiviral system, showing that M35 interferes with type I IFN induction downstream of pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) activation. Here, we report structural and mechanistic details of M35's function. Determination of M35's crystal structure combined with reverse genetics revealed that homodimerization is a key feature for M35's immunomodulatory activity. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs), purified M35 protein specifically bound to the regulatory DNA element that governs transcription of the first type I IFN gene induced in nonimmune cells, Ifnb1. DNA-binding sites of M35 overlapped with the recognition elements of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), a key transcription factor activated by PRR signaling. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) showed reduced binding of IRF3 to the host Ifnb1 promoter in the presence of M35. We furthermore defined the IRF3-dependent and the type I IFN signaling-responsive genes in murine fibroblasts by RNA sequencing of metabolically labeled transcripts (SLAM-seq) and assessed M35's global effect on gene expression. Stable expression of M35 broadly influenced the transcriptome in untreated cells and specifically downregulated basal expression of IRF3-dependent genes. During MCMV infection, M35 impaired expression of IRF3-responsive genes aside of Ifnb1. Our results suggest that M35-DNA binding directly antagonizes gene induction mediated by IRF3 and impairs the antiviral response more broadly than formerly recognized. IMPORTANCE Replication of the ubiquitous human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in healthy individuals mostly goes unnoticed but can impair fetal development or cause life-threatening symptoms in immunosuppressed or -deficient patients. Like other herpesviruses, CMV extensively manipulates its hosts and establishes lifelong latent infections. Murine CMV (MCMV) presents an important model system as it allows the study of CMV infection in the host organism. We previously showed that during entry into host cells, MCMV virions release the evolutionary conserved protein M35 protein to immediately dampen the antiviral type I interferon (IFN) response induced by pathogen detection. Here, we show that M35 dimers bind to regulatory DNA elements and interfere with recruitment of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), a key cellular factor for antiviral gene expression. Thereby, M35 interferes with expression of type I IFNs and other IRF3-dependent genes, reflecting the importance for herpesviruses to avoid IRF3-mediated gene induction.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon , Interferon Tipo I , Proteínas da Matriz Viral , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/metabolismo , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Interferon beta/genética , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Muromegalovirus/genética , Muromegalovirus/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/metabolismo
19.
Cell Rep ; 42(6): 112597, 2023 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37289588

RESUMO

Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection of macrophages relies on MCMV-encoded chemokine 2 (MCK2), while infection of fibroblasts occurs independently of MCK2. Recently, MCMV infection of both cell types was found to be dependent on cell-expressed neuropilin 1. Using a CRISPR screen, we now identify that MCK2-dependent infection requires MHC class Ia/ß-2-microglobulin (B2m) expression. Further analyses reveal that macrophages expressing MHC class Ia haplotypes H-2b and H-2d, but not H-2k, are susceptible to MCK2-dependent infection with MCMV. The importance of MHC class I expression for MCK2-dependent primary infection and viral dissemination is highlighted by experiments with B2m-deficient mice, which lack surface expression of MHC class I molecules. In those mice, intranasally administered MCK2-proficient MCMV mimics infection patterns of MCK2-deficient MCMV in wild-type mice: it does not infect alveolar macrophages and subsequently fails to disseminate into the salivary glands. Together, these data provide essential knowledge for understanding MCMV-induced pathogenesis, tissue targeting, and virus dissemination.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Muromegalovirus , Camundongos , Animais , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I , Macrófagos , Glândulas Salivares , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
20.
Exp Eye Res ; 231: 109477, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37137438

RESUMO

As a special type of glaucoma, Posner-Schlossman syndrome (PSS) is characterized by elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and anterior uveitis. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) anterior chamber infection has now been considered the leading cause of PSS. We used murine CMV (MCMV) intracameral injection to establish a rat model manifested in IOP elevation and mild anterior uveitis, much like PSS; viral localization and gene expression at various time points and inflammatory cell infiltration derived from innate and adaptive immunity were investigated, as well as pathogenetic changes of the trabecular meshwork (TM). The IOP and uveitic manifestations peaked at 24 h post-infection (p.i.) and returned to normal after 96 h; the iridocorneal angle remained open consistently. At 24 h p.i., leucocytes gathered at the chamber angle. Maximum transcription of MCMV immediate early 1 (IE1) was reached at 24 h in the cornea and 48 h in the iris and ciliary body. MCMV localized in aqueous humor outflow facilities and the iris from 24 h to 28 d p.i. and was detected by in situ hybridization, though it did not transcribe after 7 d p.i. TM and iris pigment epithelial cells harboring viral inclusion bodies and autophagosomes were present at 28 d p.i. These findings shed light on how and where innate and adaptive immunity reacted after MCMV was found and transcribed in a highly ordered cascade, as well as pathogenetic changes in TM as a result of virus and uveitis behaviors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto , Glaucoma , Muromegalovirus , Uveíte Anterior , Uveíte , Camundongos , Animais , Ratos , Malha Trabecular , Uveíte/metabolismo , Glaucoma/metabolismo , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/metabolismo , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/metabolismo , Uveíte Anterior/metabolismo , Humor Aquoso/metabolismo , Pressão Intraocular
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