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1.
Glob Public Health ; 19(1): 2334316, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is a common mental disorder and the sixth leading cause of disability in Thailand. Chiang Mai has historically been a city of attraction for labour migration for Shan migrants from the adjacent Southern Shan State of Myanmar. Currently, only infectious diseases are screened during the pre-employment period. Prevention and early detection of noncommunicable diseases can improve a healthy workforce and reduce the healthcare burden on the host country. Therefore, we aimed to determine the prevalence of depression and associated factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was done among Myanmar migrant adults legally working in Chiang Mai, Thailand. RESULTS: The final analysis included 360 participants and the prevalence of depression was 14.4%. Being female, duration of stay in Thailand of more than 10 years, co-residence with co-workers, and marginalisation pattern of acculturation were significant associated factors affecting depression in a multivariate regression analysis model. CONCLUSION: Although the culture and dialect were not different between the host and country of origin, Myanmar migrant workers of Shan ethnicity suffered from depression. Our findings highlighted the importance of social determinants beyond common predictors of depression among migrants and the need for public health measures to promote migrants' integration into the host culture.


Assuntos
Migrantes , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde
2.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2020): 20232546, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565153

RESUMO

Fossilized mating insects are irreplaceable material for comprehending the evolution of the mating behaviours and life-history traits in the deep-time record of insects as well as the potential sexual conflict. However, cases of mating pairs are particularly rare in fossil insects, especially aquatic or semi-aquatic species. Here, we report the first fossil record of a group of water striders in copulation (including three pairs and a single adult male) based on fossils from the mid-Cretaceous of northern Myanmar. The new taxon, Burmogerris gen. nov., likely represents one of the oldest cases of insects related to the marine environment, such as billabongs formed by the tides. It exhibits conspicuous dimorphism associated with sexual conflict: the male is equipped with a specialized protibial comb as a grasping apparatus, likely representing an adaptation to overcome female resistance during struggles. The paired Burmogerris show smaller males riding on the backs of the females, seemingly recording a scene of copulatory struggles between the sexes. Our discovery reveals a mating system dominated by males and sheds light on the potential sexual conflicts of Burmogerris in the Cretaceous. It indicates the mating behaviour remained stable over long-term geological time in these water-walking insects.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Traços de História de Vida , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Insetos , Reprodução , Copulação , Fósseis , Mianmar
3.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 139, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parasitic infestations have a substantial economic impact on pig production. This study aimed to investigate the gastrointestinal (GI) helminths in pigs and to molecularly characterise two important nematodes, Ascaris and Trichuris species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 500 pig faecal samples were collected from small holder backyard pig farms in five townships within Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar. Microscopic examination was conducted to estimate the prevalence of GI helminth infestation in the pigs. DNA extraction and PCR were performed on faecal samples that were morphologically positive for Ascaris and Trichuris eggs. Molecular analysis was then conducted to characterise A. suum and T. suis, the most common and zoonotic helminths. RESULTS: According to microscopic examination, 69.2% (346/500) were positive for GI helminth eggs. The GI helminth species observed were A. suum, Strongyle, Strongyloides spp., T. suis, Metastrongylus spp., Hyostrongylus spp., Fasciolopsis spp., Paragonimus spp., and Schistosoma spp., with occurrences of 34.8%, 29.6%, 21.4%, 20.0%, 4.0%, 1.6%, 1.0%, 1.0%, and 0.4%, respectively. Mixed infections of GI helminths were noted in 31.0% of the samples. Overall, sampled pigs excreted mostly low levels (< 100 EPG) or moderate levels (> 100-500 EPG) of GI helminth eggs. The highest mean EPG for each parasite species was noted in A. suum. The presence of A. suum and T. suis was confirmed molecularly. The sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of A. suum showed high similarity with previously reported sequences. Likewise, the sequences of T. suis exhibited high similarity with the sequences reported from humans and pigs. Age was noted as an associated factor (P < 0.05) for GI helminth infection status. CONCLUSIONS: In this report, A. suum and T. suis were molecularly identified for the first time in Myanmar. It is important to extend the information among the farmers to be aware of the necessity of preventing zoonotic parasites by practicing regular deworming, proper use of anthelmintics and maintaining hygienic conditions in their pig farms.


Assuntos
Ascaris suum , Helmintos , Doenças dos Suínos , Humanos , Animais , Suínos , Trichuris/genética , Mianmar , Óvulo , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle
4.
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law ; 52(1): 71-79, 2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467437

RESUMO

Forensic evaluators may have little experience and knowledge of the political context of Myanmar, the Burmese people, and the refugee crisis. Oppression of several ethnic minority groups has marked Burmese military rule of Myanmar for several decades. Protracted trauma exposure, both pre- and post-migration, among refugee populations increases the risk for mental health disorders, particularly depression, anxiety, alcohol abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder. These experiences may result in anger and psychiatric manifestations that bring Burmese refugees in conflict with the law in their host country. Culture influences how mental distress is experienced and reported, and it can influence a forensic evaluator's assessment of psychological-legal matters, such as competency to stand trial and asylum evaluations. The salience of cultural competence becomes particularly pressing given the small number of those of Burmese background in the United States. Most evaluations will be performed by forensic mental health professionals who are not Burmese in ethnicity, nor familiar with Burmese culture. In this article, we provide a backdrop of the military suppression of ethnic minorities prior to discussing the integration of cultural matters in forensic assessments of competency to stand trial, competency for extradition, and asylum seekers in Burmese refugees.


Assuntos
Refugiados , População do Sudeste Asiático , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Etnicidade , Mianmar , Grupos Minoritários , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico
5.
Zootaxa ; 5406(3): 481-486, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480137

RESUMO

A curious micropteous gaudy grasshopper (family Pyrgomorphidae), Burmorthacris subaptera was described by Kevan, Singh and Akbar in 1964 as a sole member of its genus based on a female and a male collected in Yenangyaung (upper Myanmar) on 27th and 28th August 1937 and which were deposited at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. The species has never been reported since then. The genus Burmorthacris is the northernmost of the Orthacris genus group genera, which includes mostly genera from Sri Lanka and Malaysia. Recently we rediscovered this B. subaptera in its type locality (Yenangyaung township in the Magway Region) in Myanmar, 85 years after the holotype and the paratype were collected in the same place, and furthermore herewith we present one more locality in another region where the species has been found (Nyaung-U township in the Mandalay Region). Due to the lack of basically any information on this species distribution and habitat, including also photographs of its natural coloration in this habitat, the present study provides the first-time photographs of B. subaptera in its natural habitat from both localities, as well as some insights into its morphology, especially coloration, habitat, and behavior.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Gafanhotos , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Mianmar
6.
Zootaxa ; 5423(1): 1-66, 2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480303

RESUMO

This study provides a comprehensive account of 40 species (52 valid names and one preoccupied name) of the genus Nemophora Hoffmannsegg, 1798 described or recorded from Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. A key to the species based on external characters and on male genitalia is provided; 14 new species are described: N. auricapitella Kozlov, sp. nov., N. chalcoptera Kozlov, sp. nov., N. karsholti Kozlov, sp. nov., N. kuznetzovi Kozlov, sp. nov., N. meyi Kozlov, sp. nov., N. nielseni Kozlov, sp. nov., N. nieukerkeni Kozlov, sp. nov., N. nigripunctella Kozlov, sp. nov., N. punctifasciella Kozlov, sp. nov., N. rubicunda Kozlov, sp. nov., N. szabokyi Kozlov, sp. nov., N. thailandensis Kozlov, sp. nov., N. vietnamensis Kozlov, sp. nov. and N. yeni Kozlov, sp. nov. Lectotypes are designated for four species, including one junior synonym: Nemotois diplophragma Meyrick, 1938, Nemotois sinicella Walker, 1863, Nemotois cleodoxa Meyrick, 1922 and Adela satrapodes Meyrick, 1894. Eight new synonyms for four species are proposed: Nemophora badagongshana Liao, Hirowatari & Huang in Liao, Hirowatari, Yagi, Wang, Wang & Huang, 2023, syn. nov. of Nemophora aurifera (Butler, 1881); Nemotois chrysocharis Caradja, 1938, syn. nov. of Nemophora sinicella (Walker, 1863); Nemotois diplophragma Meyrick, 1938, syn. nov. of Nemophora melichlorias (Meyrick, 1907); Nemophora basalistriata Liao, Hirowatari & Huang in Liao, Hirowatari, Yagi, Wang, Wang & Huang, 2023, syn. nov. of Nemophora melichlorias (Meyrick, 1907); Nemotois limenites Meyrick, 1914, syn. nov. of Nemophora aurifera (Butler, 1881); Nemophora quadrata Liao, Hirowatari & Huang in Liao, Hirowatari, Yagi, Wang, Wang & Huang, 2023, syn. nov. of Nemophora aurifera (Butler, 1881); Nemotois rubrofascia formosicola Matsumura, 1931, syn. nov. of Nemophora sakaii (Matsumura, 1931); Nemotois servata Meyrick in Caradja, 1925, syn. nov. of Nemophora aurifera (Butler, 1881). Four new combinationsare introduced: Nemophora aglaospila (Meyrick, 1928), comb. nov.; Nemophora cleodoxa (Meyrick, 1922), comb. nov.; Nemophora melichlorias (Meyrick, 1907), comb. nov.; and Nemophora sinicella (Walker, 1863), comb. nov. Of 40 species considered, 16 were recorded in Myanmar, 21 in Thailand, 4 in Laos, 4 in Cambodia and 13 in Vietnam.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Masculino , Animais , Camboja , Vietnã , Laos , Mianmar , Tailândia , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Tamanho do Órgão
7.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 269, 2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38468205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt), Plasmodium falciparum multi-drug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) and Plasmodium falciparum kelch 13-propeller (pfk13) genes are accepted as valid molecular markers of quinoline antimalarials and artemisinins. This study investigated the distribution patterns of these genes in P. falciparum isolates from the areas along the Thai-Myanmar border during the two different periods of antimalarial usage in Thailand. RESULTS: Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) were used to detect pfcrt mutations at codons 76, 220, 271, 326, 356, and 371 as well as pfmdr1 mutation at codon 86. The prevalence of pfcrt mutations was markedly high (96.4-99.7%) in samples collected during both periods. The proportions of mutant genotypes (number of mutant/total isolate) at codons 76, 220, 271, 326, 356 and 371 in the isolates collected during 1993-1998 (period 1) compared with 2002-2008 (period 2) were 97.9% (137/140) vs. 97.1% (401/413), 97.9% (140/143) vs. 98.8% (171/173), 97.2% (139/143) vs. 97.1% (333/343), 98.6% (140/142) vs. 99.7% (385/386), 96.4% (134/139) vs. 98.2% (378/385) and 97.8% (136/139) vs. 98.9% (375/379), respectively. Most isolates carried pfmdr1 wild-type at codon 86, with a significant difference in proportions genotypes (number of wild type/total sample) in samples collected during period 1 [92.9% (130/140)] compared with period 2 [96.9% (379/391)]. Investigation of pfmdr1 copy number was performed by real-time PCR. The proportions of isolates carried 1, 2, 3 and 4 or more than 4 copies of pfmdr1 (number of isolates carried correspondent copy number/total isolate) were significantly different between the two sample collecting periods (65.7% (90/137) vs. 87.8% (390/444), 18.2% (25/137) vs. 6.3%(28/444), 5.1% (7/137) vs. 1.4% (6/444) and 11.0% (15/137) vs. 4.5% (20/444), for period 1 vs. period 2, respectively). No pfk13 mutation was detected by nested PCR and nucleotide sequencing in all samples with successful analysis (n = 68). CONCLUSIONS: The persistence of pfcrt mutations and pfmdr1 wild-types at codon 86, along with gene amplification in P. falciparum, contributes to the continued resistance of chloroquine and mefloquine in P. falciparum isolates in the study area. Regular surveillance of antimalarial drug resistance in P. falciparum, incorporating relevant molecular markers and treatment efficacy assessments, should be conducted.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Malária Falciparum , Humanos , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Plasmodium falciparum , Tailândia , Mianmar , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/genética , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Biomarcadores , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Códon
8.
BMJ Open ; 14(3): e076646, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503412

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess inequalities in skilled birth attendance and utilisation of caesarean section (CS) in Myanmar. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study design. SETTING AND POPULATION: We used secondary data from the Myanmar Demographic and Health Survey (2015-2016). Our outcome measures of skilled birth attendance and utilisation of CS were taken from the most recent birth of interviewed women. Absolute and relative inequalities across several sociodemographic characteristics were assessed and evaluated by calculating rate differences, rate ratio and concentration indexes. RESULTS: More than one-third (36%, 95% CI 32.5% to 39.4%) of women gave birth without a skilled birth attendant present at their most recent birth. 40.7% (95% CI 37.8% to 43.7%) gave birth in healthcare facilities, and the CS rate was 19.7% (95% CI 17.9% to 21.8%) for their most recent birth. The highest proportion of birth without a skilled provider was found in the hilly regions and rural residents, poorest and less educated women, and those with less than four antenatal care visits. Inequalities in birth without a skilled provider were observed across regions, place of residence, wealth quintile, education level and number of antenatal care taken. The highest rate of CS was found among plain regions and urban residents, richest women, more than secondary education, those with more than four antenatal care visits and in private health facilities. Inequalities in CS utilisation were observed across place of residence, wealth quintiles, education level, number of antenatal care taken and type of health facilities. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence regarding inequalities in maternal health service utilisation in Myanmar. Increasing maternal health service availability and accessibility, promoting quality of care and health education campaigns to increase maternal health services utilisation are recommended.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Pobreza , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Parto Obstétrico
9.
Talanta ; 273: 125910, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492284

RESUMO

Paw San rice, also known as "Myanmar pearl rice", is considered the highest quality rice in Myanmar. There are considerable differences in terms of the premium commercial value of Paw San rice, which is an incentive for fraud, e.g. adulteration with cheaper rice varieties or mislabelling its geographical origin. Shwe Bo District is one of the most popular rice growing areas in the Sagaing region of Myanmar which produces the most valued and highly priced Paw San rice (Shwe Bo Paw San). The verification of the geographical origin of Paw San rice is not readily undertaken in the rice supply chain because the existing analytical approaches are time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, there is a need for rapid, robust and cost-effective analytical techniques for monitoring the authenticity and geographical origin of Paw San rice. In this 4-year study, two rapid screening techniques, Fourier-transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy and headspace-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (HS-GC-IMS), coupled with chemometric modelling, were applied and compared for the regional differentiation of Paw San rice. In addition, low-level fusion of the FT-NIR and HS-GC-IMS data was performed and its effect on the discriminative power of the chemometric models was assessed. Extensive model validation, including the validation using independent samples from a different production year, was performed. Furthermore, the effect of the sample preparation technique (grinding versus no sample preparation) on the performance of the discriminative model, obtained with FT-NIR spectral data, was assessed. The study discusses the suitability of FT-NIR spectroscopy, HS-GC-IMS and the combination of both approaches for rapid determination of the geographical origin of Paw San rice. The results demonstrated the excellent potential of the FT-NIR spectroscopy as well as HS-GC-IMS for the differentiation of Paw San rice cultivated in two distinct geographical regions. The OPLS-DA model, built using FT-NIR data of rice from 3 production years, achieved 96.67% total correct classification rate of an independent dataset from the 4th production year. The DD-SIMCA model, built using FT-NIR data of ground rice, also demonstrated the highest performance: 94% sensitivity and 97% specificity. This study has demonstrated that FT-NIR spectroscopy can be used as an accessible, rapid and cost-effective screening tool to discriminate between Paw San rice cultivated in the Shwe Bo and Ayeyarwady regions of Myanmar.


Assuntos
Oryza , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Quimiometria , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Espectrometria de Mobilidade Iônica/métodos , Mianmar
10.
Forensic Sci Int ; 357: 111974, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447346

RESUMO

Afghanistan and Myanmar are two overwhelming opium production places. In this study, rapid and efficient methods for distinguishing opium from Afghanistan and Myanmar were developed using infrared spectroscopy (IR) coupled with multiple machine learning (ML) methods for the first time. A total of 146 authentic opium samples were analyzed by mid-IR (MIR) and near-IR (NIR), within them 116 were used for model training and 30 were used for model validation. Six ML methods, including partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), orthogonal PLS-DA (OPLS-DA), k-nearest neighbour (KNN), support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF), and artificial neural networks (ANNs) were constructed and compared to get the best classification effect. For MIR data, the average of precision, recall and f1-score for all classification models were 1.0. For NIR data, the average of precision, recall and f1-score for different classification models ranged from 0.90 to 0.94. The comparison results of six ML models for MIR and NIR data showed that MIR was more suitable for opium geography classification. Compared with traditional chromatography and mass spectrometry profiling methods, the advantages of MIR are simple, rapid, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly. The developed IR chemical profiling methodology may find wide application in classification of opium from Afghanistan and Myanmar, and also to differentiate them from opium originating from other opium producing countries. This study presented new insights into the application of IR and ML to rapid drug profiling analysis.


Assuntos
Ópio , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Afeganistão , Mianmar , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho , Análise Discriminante , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
11.
Environ Pollut ; 347: 123718, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447651

RESUMO

Air pollution has emerged as a significant global concern, particularly in urban centers. This study aims to investigate the temporal distribution of air pollutants, including PM2.5, PM10, and O3, utilizing multiple linear regression modeling. Additionally, the research incorporates the calculation of the Air Quality Index (AQI) and Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) time series modeling to predict the AQI for PM2.5 and PM10. The concentrations and AQI values for PM2.5 ranged from 0 to 93.6 µg/m3 and 0 to 171, respectively, surpassing the Word Health Organization's (WHO) acceptable threshold levels. Similarly, concentrations and AQI values for PM10 ranged from 0.1 to 149.27 µg/m3 and 2-98 µg/m3, respectively, also exceeding WHO standards. Particulate matter pollution exhibited notable peaks during summer and winter. Key meteorological factors, including dew point temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall, showed a significant negative association with all pollutants, while ambient temperature exhibited a significant positive correlation with particulate matter. Multiple linear regression models of particulate matter for winter season demonstrated the highest model performance, explaining most of the variation in particulate matter concentrations. The annual multiple linear regression model for PM2.5 exhibited the most robust performance, explaining 60% of the variation, while the models for PM10 and O3 explained 45% of the variation in their concentrations. Time series modeling projected an increasing trend in the AQI for particulate matter in 2022. The precise and accurate results of this study serve as a valuable reference for developing effective air pollution control strategies and raising awareness of AQI in Myanmar.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Mianmar , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 91, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38414050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the past two decades, dengue fever (DF) has emerged as a significant arboviral disease in Yunnan province, China, particularly in the China-Myanmar border area. Aedes aegypti, an invasive mosquito species, plays a crucial role in transmitting the dengue virus to the local population. Insecticide-based vector control has been the primary tool employed to combat DF, but the current susceptibility status of Ae. aegypti to commonly used insecticides is unknown. Assessment of Ae. aegypti resistance to pyrethroid insecticides and an understanding of the underlying mechanisms of this resistance in the China-Myanmar border region is of significant strategic importance for effectively controlling the DF epidemic in the area. METHODS: Aedes aegypti larvae collected from Ruili and Gengma counties in Yunnan Province were reared to adults in the laboratory and tested for susceptibility to three pyrethroid insecticides (3.20% permethrin, 0.08% lambda-cyhalothrin and 0.20% deltamethrin) by the standard WHO susceptibility bioassay. Genotyping of mutations in the knockdown gene (kdr), namely S989P, V1016G and F1534C, that are responsible for resistance to pyrethroid insecticides was performed using allele-specific PCR methods. A possible association between the observed resistant phenotype and mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene (VGSC) was also studied. RESULTS: Aedes aegypti mosquitoes collected from the two counties and reared in the laboratory were resistant to all of the pyrethroids tested, with the exception of Ae. aegypti from Gengma County, which showed sensitivity to 0.20% deltamethrin. The mortality rate of Ae. aegypti from Ruili county exposed to 3.20% permethrin did not differ significantly from that of Ae. aegypti from Gengma County (χ2 = 0.311, P = 0.577). By contrast, the mortality rate of Ae. aegypti from Ruili County exposed to 0.08% lambda-cyhalothrin and 0.20% deltamethrin, respectively, was significantly different from that of Ae. aegypti from Gengma. There was no significant difference in the observed KDT50 of Ae. aegypti from the two counties to various insecticides. Four mutation types and 12 genotypes were detected at three kdr mutation sites. Based on results from all tested Ae. aegypti, the V1016G mutation was the most prevalent kdr mutation (100% prevalence), followed by the S989P mutation (81.6%) and the F1534C mutation (78.9%). The constituent ratio of VGSC gene mutation types was significantly different in Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from Ruili and those Gengma. The triple mutant S989P + V1016G + F1534C was observed in 274 Ae. aegypti mosquitoes (60.8%), with the most common genotype being SP + GG + FC (31.4%). The prevalence of the F1534C mutation was significantly higher in resistant Ae. aegypti from Ruili (odds ratio [OR] 7.43; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.71-32.29; P = 0.01) and Gengma (OR 9.29; 95% CI 3.38-25.50; P = 0.00) counties than in susceptible Ae. aegypti when exposed to 3.20% permethrin and 0.08% lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively. No significant association was observed in the triple mutation genotypes with the Ae. aegypti population exposed to 3.20% permethrin and 0.20% deltamethrin resistance (P > 0.05), except for Ae. aegypti from Gengma County when exposed to 0.08% lambda-cyhalothrin (OR 2.86; 95% CI 1.20-6.81; P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Aedes aegypti from Ruili and Gengma counties have developed resistance to various pyrethroid insecticides. The occurrence of multiple mutant sites in VGSC strongly correlated with the high levels of resistance to pyrethroids in the Ae. aegypti populations, highlighting the need for alternative strategies to manage the spread of resistance. A region-specific control strategy for dengue vectors needs to be implemented in the future based on the status of insecticide resistance and kdr mutations.


Assuntos
Aedes , Dengue , Inseticidas , Nitrilas , Piretrinas , Canais de Sódio Disparados por Voltagem , Animais , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Aedes/genética , Permetrina , Mianmar , China/epidemiologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Mutação , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Canais de Sódio Disparados por Voltagem/genética , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças , Mosquitos Vetores/genética
13.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 145, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internet use has both positive and negative effects on mental health. However, few studies have examined the association between internet use and mental health among older adults in developing countries. This study aimed to investigate the association between Internet use and depressive symptoms among older adults in two regions of Myanmar. METHODS: Data based on a visit to 1,200 older adults in urban and rural Myanmar were obtained through stratified random sampling using the cross-sectional baseline survey of the longitudinal study titled "Healthy and Active Aging in Myanmar." Our analysis included 1,186 participants. The dependent variable was depressive symptoms, and the 15-item version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was used as a continuous variable; the higher the score, the more likely a person was to be depressed. Internet use (one of the questions about household property ownership) was used as an independent variable. After confirming the absence of multicollinearity, we adjusted for age, gender, educational background, activities of daily living, residential area, and frequency of meeting friends, and stratified by subjective economic status (above or below average). We also examined the interaction between internet use and subjective economic status. A linear regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: Among the 1,186 participants included in the analysis (women: 59.5%; median age: 68 years old), 202 (17.0%) were Internet users (95% Confidential Interval [CI]: 0.15, 0.19), and they had significantly lower GDS scores than the participants who did not use the Internet (B: -1.59, 95% CI: -2.04, -1.13).GDS showed a negative association with Internet use even in the multivariate analysis (B: -0.95, 95% CI: -1.41, -0.50). However, the interaction term for GDS between Internet use and subjective economic status was not significantly associated (B: 0.43, 95% CI: -1.11, 1.98). CONCLUSIONS: Internet use and depressive symptoms were associated especially among the older adults. However, there were no significant interaction between Internet use and subjective economic status for GDS.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Depressão , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/complicações , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Uso da Internet , Estudos Longitudinais , Mianmar/epidemiologia
14.
J Clin Virol ; 171: 105653, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38408420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Developing countries experience limited access to HCV laboratory tests for different reasons. Providing near to real-time HCV testing and results especially to at-risk populations including those in rural settings for timely initiation to treatment is key. Within a rural Myanmar setting, we compared HCV diagnostic detection and quantification of the GeneXpert, and Advanced Biological Laboratories UltraGene-HCV assays against the gold standard and reference method Roche real-time HCV in Myanmar. METHODS: Blood samples from 158 high-risk individuals were assessed using three different methods at baseline. Results were checked for normality and log transformed. Log differences and bias between methods were calculated and correlated. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the association of HCV viral loads across all methods. The level of agreement with the standard method (Roche real time HCV) was assessed using Bland-Altman analyses. RESULTS: There was a strong positive correlation coefficient between all three methods with GeneXpert and Roche having the strongest, r = 0.96, (p<0.001). Compared to Roche, ABL (mean difference, 95 % limits of agreement; -0.063 and -1.4 to 1.3 Log10IU/mL) and GeneXpert (mean difference, 95 % limits of agreement; -0.28 and -0.7 to 1.8 Log10IU/mL) showed a good level of agreement with the GeneXpert being slightly superior. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate the excellent performance and no-inferiority, in terms of levels of agreements of both GeneXpert and ABL compared to the Roche platform and supporting the use of the POC assays as alternative a cost-effective methods in HCV detection and diagnosis in developing and low resource settings countries.


Assuntos
Hepatite C , Laboratórios , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Mianmar , Carga Viral/métodos , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , RNA Viral/genética
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 327: 117875, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346522

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Shan people of Myanmar live under conditions of longtime social instability and public medical resources inadequate, which tend to strengthen the reliance on local traditional primary healthcare system. The documentation of this kind of resource, however, was rarely and inadequate to support any kind of dynamic trend evaluation. Being an ethnobotanical study, we conducted field survey in the Southern Shan State of Myanmar and aimed to 1) document the local plant species that adopted for primary healthcare purpose, 2) clarify how these species collectively address the broad range of primary medication needs for local people, and 3) lay foundation for dynamic trend evaluation of the role of local medicinal plants under this kind of social and cultural context. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Field surveys were conducted with 124 informants in eight villages. We collected 1259 use reports and documented all the plant species used for treating all the mentioned ailment types. The ailments were translated into their emic meaning and then classified into common disease categories. The top ranked and newly recorded plants or ailment types were analyzed based on historical records from the region. RESULTS: Totally 156 plant species were used for treating 91 ailments belonging to 16 disease categories, with skin problems and digestive tract were the top cited diseases, and with Fabaceae and Lamiaceae were the top cited plant families. A total of 19 newly recorded plant species were suggested as new member of Myanmar medicinal plant list. Besides, we filled the gaps (for 24 species) and enriched the types (for 83 species) of applicable ailments for known Myanmar medicinal plants. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed that the Shan people in Southern Shan State used rich plant species for various therapeutic purposes. Our findings indicate the crucial role of local plant resources for local people's primary healthcare needs and support further study about cultural or regional comparation or historical dynamic trend of the medicinal plants uses in areas facing longtime official or public medical resource inadequate.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , População do Sudeste Asiático , Humanos , Fitoterapia , Mianmar , Etnobotânica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Atenção Primária à Saúde
16.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e47703, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38345833

RESUMO

Electronic data capture (EDC) is a crucial component in the design, evaluation, and sustainment of population health interventions. Low-resource settings, however, present unique challenges for developing a robust EDC system due to limited financial capital, differences in technological infrastructure, and insufficient involvement of those who understand the local context. Current literature focuses on the evaluation of health interventions using EDC but does not provide an in-depth description of the systems used or how they are developed. In this viewpoint, we present case descriptions from 2 low- and middle-income countries: Ethiopia and Myanmar. We address a gap in evidence by describing each EDC system in detail and discussing the pros and cons of different approaches. We then present common lessons learned from the 2 case descriptions as recommendations for considerations in developing and implementing EDC in low-resource settings, using a sociotechnical framework for studying health information technology in complex adaptive health care systems. Our recommendations highlight the importance of selecting hardware compatible with local infrastructure, using flexible software systems that facilitate communication across different languages and levels of literacy, and conducting iterative, participatory design with individuals with deep knowledge of local clinical and cultural norms.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Software , Humanos , Etiópia , Mianmar , Eletrônica
18.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 57(2): 238-245, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38233293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is an important reemerging pathogen that causes severe acute respiratory infection and acute flaccid paralysis, mainly in children. Since 2014, EV-D68 outbreaks have been reported in the United States, Europe, and east Asia; however, no outbreaks have been reported in southeast Asian countries, including Myanmar, during the previous 10 years. METHODS: EV-D68 was detected in nasopharyngeal swabs from children with acute lower respiratory infections in Myanmar. The samples were previously collected from children aged 1 month to 12 years who had been admitted to the Yankin Children Hospital in Yangon, Myanmar, between May 2017 and January 2019. EV-D68 was detected with a newly developed EV-D68-specific real-time PCR assay. The clade was identified by using a phylogenetic tree created with the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method. RESULTS: During the study period, nasopharyngeal samples were collected from 570 patients. EV-D68 was detected in 42 samples (7.4 %)-11 samples from 2017 to 31 samples from 2018. The phylogenetic tree revealed that all strains belonged to clade B3, which has been the dominant clade worldwide since 2014. We estimate that ancestors of currently circulating genotypes emerged during the period 1980-2004. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report of EV-D68 detection in children with acute lower respiratory infections in Yangon, Myanmar, in 2017-2018. Detection and detailed virologic analyses of EV-D68 in southeast Asia is an important aspect of worldwide surveillance and will likely be useful in better understanding the worldwide epidemiologic profile of EV-D68 infection.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano D , Infecções por Enterovirus , Enterovirus , Pneumonia , Infecções Respiratórias , Criança , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Enterovirus Humano D/genética , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Teorema de Bayes , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Enterovirus/genética
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 80, 2024 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38229074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, 56.8 million people are living with hepatitis C and over three-quarters of those reside in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Barriers and enablers to hepatitis C care among people who inject drugs in high-income countries are well documented. However, there is scant literature describing the patient experience in LMICs. Understanding the barriers and enablers to care from the patient perspective is important to inform service refinements to improve accessibility and acceptability of hepatitis C care. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative evaluation of the patient experience of accessing the national hepatitis C program at eight hospital sites in Myanmar. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with four to five participants per site. Interview data were analysed thematically, with deductive codes from Levesque et al.'s (2013) Framework on patient-centred access to healthcare. RESULTS: Across the eight sites, 38 participants who had completed treatment were interviewed. Barriers to accessing care were mostly related to attending for care and included travel time and costs, multiple appointments, and wait times. Some participants described how they did not receive adequate information on hepatitis C, particularly its transmission routes, and on the level of cirrhosis of their liver and what they were required to do after treatment (i.e. reduce alcohol consumption, liver cirrhosis monitoring). Many participants commented that they had few or no opportunities to ask questions. Provision of treatment at no cost was essential to accessibility, and gratitude for free treatment led to high acceptability of care, even when accessing care was inconvenient. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the importance of streamlining and decentralising health services, adequate human resourcing and training, and affordable treatment in maximising the accessibility and acceptability of hepatitis C care in LMICs. Findings from this work will inform future service delivery refinements for national program and other decentralised programs to improve accessibility and acceptability of hepatitis C care in Myanmar.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hepatite C , Humanos , Mianmar , Serviços de Saúde , Pacientes , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
20.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 31, 2024 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38184546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the impact of dental caries and other potential socio-demographic factors on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of preschool children from Myanmar. This was done using the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for 5-year-old children (SOHO-5) as reported by both the children and their parents. METHODS: A structured questionnaire was conducted to collect demographic information about the children and their caregivers, as well as socioeconomic data. The OHRQoL was assessed by interviewing the children and their parents using the Myanmar versions of SOHO-5c and SOHO-5p, respectively. Caries experience was assessed by two calibrated examiners and recorded using the dmft index. The Poisson regression model was adopted to investigate the association between OHRQoL and dental caries including socioeconomic factors. RESULTS: A total of 454 pairs participated in the study. Among them, 64% of children and 70% of parents reported a negative impact on OHRQoL (with SOHO-5c and SOHO-5p scores exceeding 0). The mean score (SD) of the child self-report and parental version of the SOHO-5 was 1.86 (2.27) and 2.65 (3.13), respectively. Difficulties in eating and sleeping were the most commonly reported by both children and parents. The overall prevalence of dental caries was 87% (mean dmft score:5.59, SD:4.65). The final multivariate-adjusted model revealed that children with higher caries experiences were more likely to have lower OHRQoL for both child self-report (RR 4.38, 95% CI 3.16-6.14, p < 0.001) and parental report (RR 6.07, 95% CI 4.38-8.41, p < 0.001), respectively. A lower family income had a negative impact on the children's OHRQoL in child self-report (RR 1.59, 95% CI 1.26-2.04, p < 0.001) and parental report (RR 1.46, 95% CI 1.19-1.78, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Two-thirds of the study children and their parents perceived the negative impact on children's OHRQoL. Higher caries experience and lower family income were associated with poorer OHRQoL of 5-year-old Myanmar children.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Autorrelato , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida
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