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1.
Parasite ; 31: 35, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38949637

RESUMO

Myxidium rhodei Léger, 1905 (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) is a kidney-infecting myxosporean that was originally described from the European bitterling Rhodeus amarus. Subsequently, it has been documented based on spore morphology in more than 40 other cypriniform species, with the roach Rutilus rutilus being the most commonly reported host. This study introduces the first comprehensive data assessment of M. rhodei, conducted through morphological, ecological and molecular methods. The morphological and phylogenetic analyses of SSU rDNA sequences of Myxidium isolates obtained from European bitterling and roach did not support parasite conspecificity from these fish. In fact, the roach-infecting isolates represent three distinct parasite species. The first two, M. rutili n. sp. and M. rutilusi n. sp., are closely related cryptic species clustering with other myxosporeans in the freshwater urinary clade, sharing the same tissue tropism. The third one, M. batuevae n. sp., previously assigned to M. cf. rhodei, clustered in the hepatic biliary clade sister to bitterling-infecting M. rhodei. Our examination of diverse cypriniform fishes, coupled with molecular and morphological analyses, allowed us to untangle the cryptic species nature of M. rhodei and discover the existence of novel species. This underscores the largely undiscovered range of myxozoan diversity and highlights the need to incorporate sequence data in diagnosing novel species.


Title: Résoudre le casse-tête de Myxidium rhodei (Myxozoa) : aperçu de sa phylogénie et de sa spécificité d'hôte chez les Cypriniformes. Abstract: Myxidium rhodei Léger, 1905 (Cnidaria : Myxozoa) est un Myxosporea infectant les reins qui a été décrit à l'origine chez la bouvière, Rhodeus amarus. Par la suite, il a été documenté, sur la base de la morphologie des spores, chez plus de 40 autres espèces de cypriniformes, le gardon Rutilus rutilus étant l'hôte le plus fréquemment signalé. Cette étude présente la première évaluation complète des données sur M. rhodei, réalisée par des méthodes morphologiques, écologiques et moléculaires. Les analyse morphologiques et phylogénétiques des séquences d'ADNr SSU des isolats de Myxidium obtenus à partir de bouvières et de gardons européens n'ont pas confirmé la conspécificité du parasite de ces poissons. En fait, les isolats infectant les gardons représentent trois espèces distinctes de parasites. Les deux premières, M. rutili n. sp. et M. rutilusi n. sp., sont des espèces cryptiques étroitement apparentées, regroupées avec d'autres Myxosporea du clade urinaire d'eau douce, partageant le même tropisme tissulaire. La troisième, M. batuevae n. sp., précédemment attribuée à M. cf. rhodei, appartient au clade biliaire hépatique, groupe-frère de M. rhodei infectant la bouvière. Notre examen de divers poissons cypriniformes, couplé à des analyses moléculaires et morphologiques, nous a permis de démêler la nature cryptique des espèces de M. rhodei et de découvrir l'existence de nouvelles espèces. Cela souligne la diversité largement méconnue des Myxozoaires et souligne la nécessité d'incorporer des données de séquence dans le diagnostic de nouvelles espèces.


Assuntos
Cipriniformes , Doenças dos Peixes , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Myxozoa , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Filogenia , Animais , Myxozoa/classificação , Myxozoa/genética , Myxozoa/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Cipriniformes/parasitologia , DNA Ribossômico , Rim/parasitologia , Cyprinidae/parasitologia
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13539, 2024 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38866937

RESUMO

The thermotactic response of brown trout (Salmo trutta) was examined with the goal to investigate potential effects of the emerging temperature-dependent fatal trout disease PKD (proliferative kidney disease). First the differences in cold-water preferences of two forms of brown trout, lacustrine (migratory) and riverine, were determined. Second, it was studied whether this preference was changed in fish infected with PKD. The experiment involved a one-week habituation period at 14 °C in a two-chamber runway followed by a week of 3 °C temperature difference between the two runways. The fish could freely move between lanes via an opening at the end where food was provided. The temperature manipulation was repeated twice, and there were 3 trials per experimental group. All fish developed a clear spatial preference in the test. Lacustrine trout demonstrated a preference for warmer water, while riverine trout preferred cooler water. This may increase the risk to PKD in the lacustrine form. Most strikingly, riverine trout experimentally exposed to Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, the parasite that causes PKD, demonstrated stronger cold-seeking behaviour than control fish. Cold seeking behaviour suggests the occurrence of a disease-induced behavioural chill response, which may play an important role in disease recovery. This demonstrates the significance of protecting river connectivity and cold-water sanctuaries as management strategies for preserving salmonid populations in a warming climate.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Doenças dos Peixes , Truta , Animais , Truta/parasitologia , Truta/fisiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Temperatura , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Rios , Myxozoa/fisiologia , Myxozoa/patogenicidade , Temperatura Baixa , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/fisiopatologia , Resposta Táctica/fisiologia
3.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0303702, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833454

RESUMO

Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is valued in aquaculture because of its quick development and ability to thrive in various environments. Myxosporeans are among the fish parasites that affect fish productivity, as they impact fish growth and reproduction, resulting in large fish deaths in farms and hatcheries. This study has been focused on morpho-molecular identification for the myxosporean parasites infecting Nile tilapia from three governorates in Egypt and assessment of gene expression of different cytokines (Interleukin-1ßeta (IL-1ß), major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II), and clusters of differentiation 4 (CD-4) and 8 (CD-8)) in tissues. Additionally, this work aimed to correlate the developed histopathological alterations and inflammatory reactions in gills with immunohistochemical expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Finally, the infected fish's cortisol levels and blood glucose were assessed. Results of BLAST sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA for the collected protozoans confirmed Myxobolus agolus, M. brachysporus, M. tilapiae, and Henneguya species. The molecular characterization of the immunological status of gills revealed marked upregulation of different inflammatory cytokines in the gills of infected fish. There was a significantly increased serum cortisol and glucose level in infected fish compared with control, non-infected ones. Severe histopathological alterations were observed in the infected fish gills, associated with increased expression of iNOS and TNF-α and related to myxosporean infection. The present study provides new insights into oxidative stress biomarkers in Nile tilapia infected with Myxosporeans and elucidates the gill's immune status changes as a portal of entry for protozoa that contribute to tissue damage.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Doenças dos Peixes , Brânquias , Myxozoa , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Animais , Brânquias/parasitologia , Brânquias/patologia , Brânquias/imunologia , Ciclídeos/parasitologia , Ciclídeos/imunologia , Ciclídeos/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/imunologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/patologia , Myxozoa/fisiologia , Biomarcadores , Imuno-Histoquímica , Citocinas/metabolismo , Egito , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética
4.
Syst Parasitol ; 101(3): 37, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700664

RESUMO

A synopsis of Ortholinea Shulman, 1962 (Cnidaria: Myxosporea: Ortholineidae) is presented and identifies 26 nominal species presently allocated within this genus. Species morphological and morphometric features, tissue tropism, type-host, and type-locality are provided from original descriptions. Data from subsequent redescriptions and reports is also given. Accession numbers to sequences deposited in GenBank are indicated when available, and the myxospores were redrawn based on original descriptions. The information gathered shows that Ortholinea infect a wide taxonomic variety of freshwater and marine fish. Nonetheless, the broad host specificity reported for several species is not fully supported by morphological descriptions and requires molecular corroboration. The members of this genus are coelozoic and mainly parasitize the urinary system, with few species occurring in the gallbladder. Ortholinea visakhapatnamensis is the only exception, being histozoic in the visceral peritoneum. Molecular data of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) is available for about one third of Ortholinea species, with genetic interspecific variation ranging between 1.65% and 29.1%. Phylogenetic analyses reveal Ortholinea to be polyphyletic, with available SSU rDNA sequences clustering within the subclades of the highly heterogenous freshwater urinary clade of the oligochaete-infecting lineage. The life cycles of two Ortholinea species have been clarified based on molecular inferences and identify triactinomyxon actinospores as counterparts, and marine oligochaetes of the family Naididae as permissive hosts to this genus.


Assuntos
Myxozoa , Especificidade da Espécie , Animais , Myxozoa/classificação , Myxozoa/genética , Myxozoa/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Peixes/parasitologia , DNA Ribossômico/genética
5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1369615, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38803570

RESUMO

Introduction: Little is known about the proteomic changes at the portals of entry in rainbow trout after infection with the myxozoan parasites, Myxobolus cerebralis, and Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. Whirling disease (WD) is a severe disease of salmonids, caused by the myxosporean M. cerebralis, while, proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is caused by T. bryosalmonae, which instead belongs to the class Malacosporea. Climate change is providing more suitable conditions for myxozoan parasites lifecycle, posing a high risk to salmonid aquaculture and contributing to the decline of wild trout populations in North America and Europe. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide the first proteomic profiles of the host in the search for evasion strategies during single and coinfection with M. cerebralis and T. bryosalmonae. Methods: One group of fish was initially infected with M. cerebralis and another group with T. bryosalmonae. After 30 days, half of the fish in each group were co-infected with the other parasite. Using a quantitative proteomic approach, we investigated proteomic changes in the caudal fins and gills of rainbow trout before and after co-infection. Results: In the caudal fins, 16 proteins were differentially regulated post exposure to M. cerebralis, whereas 27 proteins were differentially modulated in the gills of the infected rainbow trout post exposure to T. bryosalmonae. After co-infection, 4 proteins involved in parasite recognition and the regulation of host immune responses were differentially modulated between the groups in the caudal fin. In the gills, 11 proteins involved in parasite recognition and host immunity, including 4 myxozoan proteins predicted to be virulence factors, were differentially modulated. Discussion: The results of this study increase our knowledge on rainbow trout co-infections by myxozoan parasites and rainbow trout immune responses against myxozoans at the portals of entry, supporting a better understanding of these host-parasite interactions.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Doenças dos Peixes , Myxobolus , Myxozoa , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Proteômica , Animais , Oncorhynchus mykiss/parasitologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/imunologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Coinfecção/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Proteoma , Brânquias/parasitologia , Brânquias/imunologia , Brânquias/metabolismo
6.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 204: 108105, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38614293

RESUMO

Myxozoans are obligate parasites with complex life cycles, typically infecting fish and annelids. Here, we examined annelids from fish farm pond sediments in the Beit Shean Valley, in the Syrian-African Rift Valley, Israel, for myxozoan infections. We examined 1486 oligochaetes, and found 74 (5 %) were infected with actinospore stages. We used mitochondrial 16S sequencing to infer identity of 25 infected annelids as species of Potamothrix, Psammoryctides, Tubifex and Dero. We identified 7 myxozoan types from collective groups Neoactinomyxum and Sphaeractinomyxon, and characterized them by small subunit ribosomal DNA sequencing. The Neoactinomyxum type was genetically most similar (∼93 %) to cyprinid fish-infecting Myxobolus spp. The six Sphaeractinomyxon types were genetically similar (93-100 %) to Mugilid-infecting Myxobolus spp.; with one being the previously unknown actinospore stage of a myxospore that infects mullet from aquaculture from the Israeli coast of the Mediterranean Sea. As the farm pond system is artificial and geographically isolated from the Mediterranean, the presence of at least seven myxozoans in their annelid hosts demonstrates introduction and establishment of these parasites in a novel, brackish environment.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Myxozoa , Lagoas , Animais , Myxozoa/genética , Myxozoa/fisiologia , Lagoas/parasitologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Israel , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia
7.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 388, 2024 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38649808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myxozoa is a class of cnidarian parasites that encompasses over 2,400 species. Phylogenetic relationships among myxozoans remain highly debated, owing to both a lack of informative morphological characters and a shortage of molecular markers. Mitochondrial (mt) genomes are a common marker in phylogeny and biogeography. However, only five complete myxozoan mt genomes have been sequenced: four belonging to two closely related genera, Enteromyxum and Kudoa, and one from the genus Myxobolus. Interestingly, while cytochrome oxidase genes could be identified in Enteromyxum and Kudoa, no such genes were found in Myxobolus squamalis, and another member of the Myxobolidae (Henneguya salminicola) was found to have lost its entire mt genome. To evaluate the utility of mt genomes to reconstruct myxozoan relationships and to understand if the loss of cytochrome oxidase genes is a characteristic of myxobolids, we sequenced the mt genome of five myxozoans (Myxobolus wulii, M. honghuensis, M. shantungensis, Thelohanellus kitauei and, Sphaeromyxa zaharoni) using Illumina and Oxford Nanopore platforms. RESULTS: Unlike Enteromyxum, which possesses a partitioned mt genome, the five mt genomes were encoded on single circular chromosomes. An mt plasmid was found in M. wulii, as described previously in Kudoa iwatai. In all new myxozoan genomes, five protein-coding genes (cob, cox1, cox2, nad1, and nad5) and two rRNAs (rnl and rns) were recognized, but no tRNA. We found that Myxobolus and Thelohanellus species shared unidentified reading frames, supporting the view that these mt open reading frames are functional. Our phylogenetic reconstructions based on the five conserved mt genes agree with previously published trees based on the 18S rRNA gene. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the loss of cytochrome oxidase genes is not a characteristic of all myxobolids, the ancestral myxozoan mt genome was likely encoded on a single circular chromosome, and mt plasmids exist in a few lineages. Our findings indicate that myxozoan mt sequences are poor markers for reconstructing myxozoan phylogenetic relationships because of their fast-evolutionary rates and the abundance of repeated elements, which complicates assembly.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Genoma Mitocondrial , Myxozoa , Filogenia , Animais , Myxozoa/genética , Myxozoa/classificação , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética
8.
Parasitology ; 151(5): 485-494, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443982

RESUMO

Members of the genus Ortholinea are among the worldwide distributed myxozoan parasites that mainly infect marine fish. In this study, a new myxosporean species, Ortholinea hamsiensis n. sp., was isolated from the urinary bladder of European anchovy Engraulis engrasicolus collected from the Sinop coasts of the Black Sea. The prevalence and density values of infection were 1.4% and 1­5 individuals in the field of view (1 + ), respectively. Mature myxospores are subspherical with slight tapering down to the less pronounced tip in the frontal view and subspherical in the sutural view. Myxospores measured 9.1 ± 0.25 (8.8­9.9) µm in length, 9.2 ± 0.11 (8.9­9.4) µm in thickness, and 8.4 ± 0.33 (8.2-9.1) µm in width. Two polar capsules equal in size measured 3.1 ± 0.11 (3.0­3.3) µm in length and 2.7 ± 0.11 (2.6­2.9) µm in width. The polar tubule had 3­4 coils. Along with morphological peculiarities, the results of the 18S rDNA also revealed it to be a new species for science compared to the other species of the genus. In this study, another myxosporean species O. gobiusi was also detected in round goby Neogobius melanostomus with a prevalence of infection value of 4.8% and a density of 1­5 individuals in the field of view (1 + ). The present study also provided the first data of 18S rDNA of O. gobiusi from N. melanostomus and type species of the genus O. divergens from Gobius niger and the phylogenetic relationships of these species with other Ortholinea species have been revealed.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Peixes , Myxozoa , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Filogenia , Bexiga Urinária , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Mar Negro , Myxozoa/genética , Myxozoa/classificação , Myxozoa/isolamento & purificação , Myxozoa/fisiologia , Bexiga Urinária/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/análise , Prevalência , Doenças da Bexiga Urinária/parasitologia , Doenças da Bexiga Urinária/veterinária , DNA Ribossômico
9.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 712024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38526292

RESUMO

Two previously undescribed myxozoan species, Henneguya sardellae sp. n. and H. margaritae sp. n., found infecting connective tissues of the Neotropical characid fish Oligosarcus jenynsii (Günther) from Argentina are morphologically and molecularly characterised. Mature spores of H. sardellae sp. n. are ellipsoid, with two, straight and visibly fused caudal appendages cleaved at its blunt terminal end; measuring 33.5 ± 1.2 (30.9-35.5) µm in total length, spore body 17.5 ± 0.6 (16.3-18.6) µm, 7.8 ± 0.4 (7.0-8.8) µm wide and 6.9 ± 0.2 (6.6-7.2) µm thick, with two elongated, unequally-sized polar capsules situated at anterior end, and 11-13 turns of polar tubules. Mature spores of H. margaritae sp. n. are pyriform, with two caudal appendages visible fused together and much longer than spore body, with unequal endings; measuring 35.9 ± 2.8 (29.2-40.7) µm in total length, spore body 11.5 ± 0.9 (9.2-13.0) µm long, 5.8 ± 0.4 (5.1-6.7) µm wide and 5.5 ± 0.2 (5.1-5.8) µm thick, with two polar capsules similar in size, pyriform polar capsules containing polar tubules with 4-5 coils. Both species showed a membraneous sheath surrounding the spore body and caudal appendages; in H. sardellae sp. n. this feature can deploy laterally. Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rDNA sequences showed that H. sardellae sp. n. and H. margaritae sp. n. clustered with other myxobolids parasitising Characiformes in Brazil, Cichliformes in Mexico and Cyprinodontiformes in Mexico and the United States. The description of these two new species of Henneguya as the first described species of the genus that parasitise freshwater fish in Argentina highlights the importance of further research on the diversity and distribution of myxozoans in this region.


Assuntos
Characidae , Caraciformes , Cnidários , Myxozoa , Animais , Lagos , Argentina/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Myxozoa/genética
10.
J Parasitol ; 110(1): 40-48, 2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38344775

RESUMO

During May 2022 and again in March 2023, 5 quillbacks, Carpiodes cyprinus, were collected from the Verdigris River, Wagoner County, Oklahoma (n = 1), and the Black River, Lawrence County, Arkansas (n = 4), and their gill, gallbladder, fins, integument, musculature, and other major organs were macroscopically examined for myxozoans. Gill lamellae from the single quillback from the Verdigris River was infected with a new myxozoan, Thelohanellus oklahomaensis n. sp. Qualitative and quantitative morphological data were obtained from fresh and formalin-fixed preserved myxospores, and molecular data consisted of a 1,767 base pair sequence of the partial small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene. Phylogenetic analysis grouped T. oklahomaensis n. sp. with myxozoans known to infect North American catostomids and Eurasian cyprinids. Histological examination localized plasmodia to an intralamellar developmental site and revealed a possible vestige of a second polar capsule. Although plasmodia markedly expanded lamellae, there were no associated epithelial or inflammatory changes. Thelohanellus oklahomaensis n. sp. is the only member of the genus known to infect the gills of C. cyprinus.


Assuntos
Carpas , Cnidários , Cipriniformes , Doenças dos Peixes , Myxozoa , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Animais , Myxozoa/genética , Brânquias , Filogenia , Oklahoma/epidemiologia , Arkansas , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia
11.
Acta Parasitol ; 69(1): 681-690, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38349602

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The present study provides the complete morphological and molecular description of two new species of myxosporeans, Ceratomyxa zancli n. sp. and Ceratomyxa cornuti n. sp. infecting the gallbladder of Zanclus cornutus from the Lakshadweep Islands, Arabian Sea. METHODS: Zanclus cornutus were screened for the presence of myxosporeans, and the recovered myxospores were morphologically characterized using Nomarski Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) optics. The sequences of SSU rDNA were employed for molecular and phylogenetic studies. RESULTS: Both the parasites exhibited a prevalence of 21% each. C. zancli n. sp. is characterized by broadly cresentic myxospores with convex anterior and slightly concave to straight posterior margins and rounded ends. Spore valves two, unequal, measured 9.6 ± 0.7 µm × 25.2 ± 1.3 µm. Polar capsules two, unequal, spherical, measured 4 ± 0.6 µm × 3.5 ± 0.6 µm. Polar filament exceptionally long and arranged irregularly. Myxospores of C. cornuti n. sp. are elongated with convex anterior and slightly concave to straight posterior margins. Spore valves two, unequal, measured 7.00 ± 0.4 µm × 26.56 ± 1.8 µm. Polar capsules spherical, unequal, measured 3.52 ± 0.2 × 3.36 ± 0.35. Molecular analysis of C. zancli n. sp. (ON818297) and C. cornuti n. sp. (ON818298) resulted in 1469 and 1491 bp long SSU rDNA sequences, respectively. Molecularly C. zancli n. sp. is close to C. diplodae and C. barnesi with 91.39% similarity, while C. cornuti n. sp. appears closer to C. robertsthomsoni with 97.46% similarity. In phylogenetic analyses, C. zancli n. sp. branched separately within the Ceratomyxa clade while C. cornuti n. sp. clustered with C. robertsthomsoni and C. thalassomae. CONCLUSION: Based on the differences in morphological, morphometric, molecular, and phylogenetic characteristics, as well as differences in the host and geographic location, the above two species of myxosporeans are considered novel. The study forms the first report of a species of Ceratomyxa from Z. cornutus.


Assuntos
DNA Ribossômico , Doenças dos Peixes , Vesícula Biliar , Myxozoa , Filogenia , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Myxozoa/genética , Myxozoa/classificação , Myxozoa/isolamento & purificação , Vesícula Biliar/parasitologia , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Oceanos e Mares , Peixes/parasitologia , Ilhas
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3545, 2024 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347054

RESUMO

RNA interference (RNAi) is an effective approach to suppress gene expression and monitor gene regulation. Despite its wide application, its use is limited in certain taxonomic groups, including cnidarians. Myxozoans are a unique group of cnidarian parasites that diverged from their free-living ancestors about 600 million years ago, with several species causing acute disease in farmed and wild fish populations. In this pioneering study we successfully applied RNAi in blood stages of the myxozoan Sphaerospora molnari, combining a dsRNA soaking approach, real-time PCR, confocal microscopy, and Western blotting. For proof of concept, we knocked down two unusual actins, one of which is known to play a critical role in S. molnari cell motility. We observed intracellular uptake of dsRNA after 30 min and accumulation in all cells of the typical myxozoan cell-in-cell structure. We successfully knocked down actin in S. molnari in vitro, with transient inhibition for 48 h. We observed the disruption of the cytoskeletal network within the primary cell and loss of the characteristic rotational cell motility. This RNAi workflow could significantly advance functional research within the Myxozoa, offering new prospects for investigating therapeutic targets and facilitating drug discovery against economically important fish parasites.


Assuntos
Cnidários , Doenças dos Peixes , Myxozoa , Parasitos , Animais , Cnidários/genética , Interferência de RNA , Myxozoa/genética , Movimento Celular , Peixes , Actinas/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Filogenia
13.
Trends Parasitol ; 40(4): 352-353, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38220474
14.
J Aquat Anim Health ; 36(1): 91-96, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38243678

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: During routine histological examination of tissues from mortality events of anadromous Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis from Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada, myxospores consistent with Myxobolus were observed infecting the central nervous system. The objective of this study was to identify the species of Myxobolus infecting the nervous system of anadromous Brook Trout from PEI, Canada. METHODS: Myxospore morphology, small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence data, and histology were used to identify myxospores isolated from infected Brook Trout. RESULT: Myxospore measurements from the PEI samples matched those reported in the description of Myxobolus neurofontinalis from North Carolina. A 1057-bp fragment of the SSU rDNA from myxospores collected from Brook Trout in PEI was identical to an isolate of M. neurofontinalis (MN191598) collected previously from the type locality, New River basin, North Carolina. Histological sections confirmed infections were intercellular in the central nervous system. Minimal host response was observed, with only sparse mononuclear inflammatory infiltrates present at the periphery of and within dispersed myxospores, suggesting that infections are not pathogenic to Brook Trout. CONCLUSION: Myxospores were identified as M. neurofontinalis, which was previously described from the central nervous system of Brook Trout from the New River basin, North Carolina, USA. This constitutes the first time M. neurofontinalis has been documented outside of the New River basin in North Carolina.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Myxobolus , Myxozoa , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Animais , Myxobolus/genética , Ilha do Príncipe Eduardo/epidemiologia , Myxozoa/genética , Truta , Canadá/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Filogenia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia
15.
Syst Parasitol ; 101(2): 13, 2024 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38193985

RESUMO

We describe a new kudoid species, Kudoa tanakai n. sp., in the scalpel sawfish, Prionurus scalprum (Actinopterygii: Acanthuriformes: Acanthuridae), from the natural water around western Japan. The plasmodia were filamentous, localized in pseudocysts in the myofibers of the trunk muscles. The occurrence of plasmodia in the trunk muscle showed no site preference. Its myxospores were spheroid, measuring 6.6-7.6 (7.0) µm by 5.8-6.9 (6.3) µm in apical view (width) and 5.7-6.6 (6.2) in length (n = 30), with four shell valves and a corresponding number of spheroid polar capsules. Shell valves lacked apical protrusions, but scanning electron microscopy revealed that one of the four shell valves had two semi-lunar flaps at its apical terminus. Nucleotide sequencing of the small and large subunit ribosomal RNA genes of the present isolate showed phylogenetic affinities to kudoid species characterized by spheroid myxospores, such as K. musculoliquefaciens, K. hemiscylli, and K. carcharhini, but was molecularly and morphometrically distinct from these and other kudoid species. For direct comparison, Kudoa hemiscylli was collected from the Pacific spadenose shark, Scoliodon macrorhynchos (Elasmobranchii: Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae), in the South China Sea off Guangdong Province, China, and the myxospore surface of the species was observed using scanning electron microscopy. Our study describes the new host and distribution record of this kudoid species originally described from a variety of elasmobranchs in the Australian Coral Sea.


Assuntos
Myxozoa , Perciformes , Tubarões , Animais , Myxozoa/genética , Japão , Filogenia , Austrália , Especificidade da Espécie , Peixes
16.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0295668, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38198465

RESUMO

The purple-spotted bigeye, Priacanthus tayenus, is a marine benthic fish native to the Indian and Pacific Oceans, including the Arabian Gulf in Saudi Arabia. This study identified a myxozoan parasite infecting wild P. tayenus from the Saudi Arabian Gulf. These parasites produced spherical to ovoid-shaped, white plasmodia enclosed within pseudocysts in the fish musculature. The annual infection rate was 5.1%, with the highest prevalence in summer (7.6%), followed by spring (6%), and autumn (2.5%), while no infections were observed in winter. The number of plasmodia per fish ranged from 100 to 150 (135.1 ± 16.2). Their dimensions were 4-4.7 mm (4.3 ± 0.3 mm) in length and 4.5-7 mm (6 ± 1.1 mm) in width. Milky-colored exudates within the plasmodia contained mature spores measuring 8-9 µm (8.6 ± 0.4 µm) x 6-7.5 µm (6.9 ± 0.5 µm). The polar capsules of the spores exhibited dimensions of 2-5 µm (3.5 ± 0.5 µm) x 2.5-4.5 µm (3 ± 0.45 µm). Both morphological and genetic analyses confirmed these plasmodia as a novel Kudoa species. Histopathological examination revealed atrophy in the surrounding muscles without an inflammatory response. This study documents the first occurrence of a novel Kudoa sp. in P. tayenus at the Jubail landing site in Saudi Arabia, emphasizing the need for further surveillance and investigations to elucidate its pathogenesis and implications for wild fish stocks.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Myxozoa , Perciformes , Animais , Atrofia , Myxozoa/genética , Myxozoa/isolamento & purificação , Perciformes/parasitologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia
17.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 203: 108043, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38104963

RESUMO

Three new aurantiactinomyxon types are described from the oligochaete Ilyodrilus templetoni (Southern, 1909) (Naididae) collected from a northern Portuguese estuary, based on light microscopy and sequencing of the 18S rDNA. The addition of I. templetoni to the group of freshwater annelids known to be permissive for aurantiactinomyxon development reinforces the crucial role of naidids in the evolution and settlement of myxozoans in estuarine environments. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses of a comprehensive 18S rDNA dataset placed the novel types within the Paramyxidium clade. This positioning suggests them as probable life cycle counterparts to Paramyxidium spp. that most likely infect the European eel Anguilla anguilla, as the sole representative of Elopomorpha in Portuguese rivers. Although distance estimation revealed a genetic difference of only 0.4 % between Aurantiactinomyxon types 1 and 3, this value was determined to be representative of interspecific variability based on the consistent matching of both genotypes with distinct actinospore morphologies, and potential richness of closely related species of Paramyxidium infecting the European eel in Portuguese waters. The clustering of aurantiactinomyxon types within distinct myxosporean lineages, representative of the suborders Variisporina and Platysporina, demonstrates that the aurantiactinomyxon morphotype is highly functional in promoting myxozoan infections in estuarine environments.


Assuntos
Cnidários , Doenças do Cão , Doenças dos Peixes , Myxozoa , Oligoquetos , Cães , Animais , Myxozoa/genética , Cnidários/genética , Filogenia , Teorema de Bayes , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Oligoquetos/genética
18.
J Aquat Anim Health ; 36(1): 70-83, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38143312

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: As part of the National Disease Surveillance Program for Taiwanese Aquaculture, we investigated the causative agent of disease outbreaks in farmed Chicken Grunts Parapristipoma trilineatum. METHODS: In this study, outbreak cases on two separate farms were noticed in coastal Pingtung County, Taiwan. In total, 50 juvenile fish showing clinical signs (such as emaciation and erratic swimming behavior) and broodstock (two females and two males) from both farms were collected to perform gross lesion assessment, histopathological examination, and molecular identification of the pathogen. RESULT: Clinical symptoms were infected fish exhibited erratic swimming behavior, such as whirling and floating on the surface of the water. In the following months, cumulative mortality had reached 19% and 24%, respectively. The gross lesions in the infected fish included white oval cysts in the muscle, serosa of the internal organs, sclera of the eyes, and cerebral meninges. After conducting a wet mount examination of cysts using a light microscope, we observed a significant quantity of spores with morphological characteristics, suggesting their affiliation with the Myxosporea group. The spores were semiquadrate, with four tiny suture notches at the periphery; the mean spore length was 7.3 µm (SD = 0.5), and the mean spore width was 8.2 µm (SD = 0.6). The mean length and width of the pyriform polar capsules (nematocysts) were 3.6 µm (SD = 0.5) and 2.2 µm (SD = 0.5), respectively. The 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA sequences of these specimens were identical to those of Kudoa lutjanus. CONCLUSION: As this was the first time an outbreak of K. lutjanus in Chicken Grunts was confirmed, its reappearance with substantial mortality should serve as a warning to the aquaculture industry.


Assuntos
Cistos , Doenças dos Peixes , Myxozoa , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Galinhas/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Sequência de Bases , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Peixes/genética , Myxozoa/genética , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Cistos/epidemiologia , Cistos/genética , Cistos/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia
19.
J Fish Dis ; 47(1): e13865, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37731267

RESUMO

Enteromyxum leei and Enteromyxum fugu, which are myxosporean parasites, were first found in cultured tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes in Korea. We collected four tiger puffers that showed severe emaciation signs for our experiments. DNA sequencing was confirmed that the tiger puffers were coinfected with E. leei and E. fugu. Furthermore, similar amounts of E. leei and E. fugu were confirmed using real-time PCR in the intestine. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports of E. fugu infection in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. However, the diagnosis of inflowing water, discharged water and olive flounder samples using highly sensitive diagnostic methods confirmed the presence of E. fugu in water and fish samples from olive flounder farms near the tiger puffer farm. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop highly sensitive diagnostic methods such as real-time and two-step PCR for early diagnosis and follow-up of the emaciation disease and multiplex PCR for rapid diagnosis. The multiplex PCR method exhibited the same sensitivity as the one-step PCR method developed in this study, demonstrating its efficacy for rapid diagnosis. Therefore, the suggested methods can be utilized for the early diagnosis and rapid diagnosis of emaciation diseases and reduction of economic losses through rapid disease control.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Linguado , Myxozoa , Animais , Takifugu , Emaciação , Doenças dos Peixes/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Linguado/parasitologia , Myxozoa/genética , República da Coreia , Água
20.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 411: 110520, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38141353

RESUMO

Small pelagic fishes represent one of the most important food resources off the Northwest coast of Africa. Despite their economic significance, little is known about the infections with flesh invading myxosporean parasites of genus Kudoa (Cnidaria, Myxozoa). Heavy infections in the flesh may be associated with post-mortem myoliquefaction, commonly known as 'soft flesh'. This condition may reduce the quality and marketability of the fish fillet, resulting in both economic losses to the fishing industry and loss of consumer confidence. In this study, we investigated Kudoa-induced 'soft flesh' occurrence in European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus, European pilchard Sardina pilchardus, and Atlantic chub mackerel Scomber colias caught in 2019 off the Moroccan Atlantic coast. Five hundred specimens of each fish species were examined for 'soft flesh' by texture testing and visual inspection 48 h post-catch. 'Soft flesh' occurred in 0.2 % of the European anchovies, 1.4 % of the European pilchard, and in 4.4 % of the Atlantic chub mackerel. Microscopic examination of muscle samples revealed that 'soft flesh'-affected fish were infected with myxospores of K. thyrsites-like morphotype. Analysis of the kudoid SSU rDNA sequence obtained from European pilchard and the Atlantic chub mackerel identified these as K. thyrsites (100 % identity), whereas analysis of the sequence from European anchovy identified the presence of K. encrasicoli (100 % identity). Even if there are no known human health consequences associated with the ingestion of these Kudoa species, the unsightly appearance of some infected fillets is a food quality issue, that can eventually lead to reduced marketability and value.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Myxozoa , Parasitos , Perciformes , Animais , Humanos , Myxozoa/genética , Parasitos/genética , Marrocos , Músculos/parasitologia , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Perciformes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Filogenia
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