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1.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 35: 88-104, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336374

RESUMO

As humanity begins to venture further into space, approaches to better protect astronauts from the hazards found in space need to be developed. One particular hazard of concern is the complex radiation that is ever present in deep space. Currently, it is unlikely enough spacecraft shielding could be launched that would provide adequate protection to astronauts during long-duration missions such as a journey to Mars and back. In an effort to identify other means of protection, prophylactic radioprotective drugs have been proposed as a potential means to reduce the biological damage caused by this radiation. Unfortunately, few radioprotectors have been approved by the FDA for usage and for those that have been developed, they protect normal cells/tissues from acute, high levels of radiation exposure such as that from oncology radiation treatments. To date, essentially no radioprotectors have been developed that specifically counteract the effects of chronic low-dose rate space radiation. This review highlights how high-throughput screening (HTS) methodologies could be implemented to identify such a radioprotective agent. Several potential target, pathway, and phenotypic assays are discussed along with potential challenges towards screening for radioprotectors. Utilizing HTS strategies such as the ones proposed here have the potential to identify new chemical scaffolds that can be developed into efficacious radioprotectors that are specifically designed to protect astronauts during deep space journeys. The overarching goal of this review is to elicit broader interest in applying drug discovery techniques, specifically HTS towards the identification of radiation countermeasures designed to be efficacious towards the biological insults likely to be encountered by astronauts on long duration voyages.


Assuntos
Radiação Cósmica , Protetores contra Radiação , Voo Espacial , Humanos , Radiação Cósmica/efeitos adversos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Astronautas , Astronave , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia , Doses de Radiação
2.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 93(10): 746-748, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36243906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) provide guidance on allowable chemical exposures for nominal and emergency situations aboard spacecraft. SMACs are set to mitigate or preclude potential crew health effects and performance degradation. Hydrogen fluoride (HF) gas is highly irritating. Inhaled HF produces irritation primarily in the upper respiratory tract. HF is not routinely present in spacecraft atmospheres. However, it can be produced in spacecraft due to overheating or combustion events involving materials containing fluorinated organics.METHODS: Toxicological data relevant to SMAC development were collected from electronic databases using principles of systematic review, and from previous assessments and reviews of HF.RESULTS: The human inhalation data of Lund (short-term) and Largent (subchronic) showed that HF at approximately 3 ppm caused very mild respiratory irritation. NASA HF SMACs are based on these findings.DISCUSSION: The 1-h and 24-h SMACs are set at 3 ppm, a value consistent with NASA short-term SMAC criteria where crew may experience mild irritation. The 7-d, 30-d, 180-d, and 1000-d SMACs are set at 0.3 ppm to protect against any long-term crew health or performance effects that could be produced from HF exposures.Lam C-W, Ryder VE. Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for hydrogen fluoride. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2022; 93(10):746-748.


Assuntos
Ácido Fluorídrico , Astronave , Humanos , Ácido Fluorídrico/efeitos adversos , Concentração Máxima Permitida
3.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 93(10): 760-763, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36243909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the increase in crewed commercial spaceflight and expeditions to the Moon and Mars, the risk of critical surgical problems and need for procedures increases. Appendicitis and appendectomy are the most common surgical pathology and procedure performed, respectively. The habitable volume of current spacecraft ranges from 4 m³ (Soyuz) to 425 m³ (International Space Station). We investigated the minimum volume required to perform an appendectomy and compared that to habitable spacecraft volumes.METHODS: The axes of a simulated operating room were marked and cameras placed to capture movements. An expert surgeon, chief surgical resident, junior surgical resident, and a nonsurgeon physician each performed a Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma and an appendectomy on a simulated patient. Dimensions and volume needed were collected and compared using unpaired t-tests.RESULTS: Mean volume (± SD) needed was 3.83 m³ ± 0.47 m³ for standing and 3.68 m³ ± 0.49 m³ for kneeling (P = 0.638). Minimal volume needed was 3.20 m³ for standing and 3.26 m³ for kneeling. Minimal theoretical volume was 2.99 m³ for standing and 2.87 m³ for kneeling.DISCUSSION: The unencumbered volume needed for an appendectomy is between 2.87 m³ and 4.3 m³. It may be technically feasible to perform an open appendectomy inside the smallest of currently operating spacecraft, at 4 m³ (Soyuz-MS). Space vessels operating without rapid evacuation to Earth will need to consider this volume for potential surgical emergencies. Additional investigation on microgravity and standardization of procedures for novices must be completed.Kamine TH, Siu M, Kramer K, Kelly E, Alouidor R, Fernandez G, Levin D. Spatial volume necessary to perform open appendectomy in a spacecraft. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2022; 93(10):760-763.


Assuntos
Apendicite , Voo Espacial , Ausência de Peso , Apendicectomia/métodos , Apendicite/cirurgia , Humanos , Astronave
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(18)2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36146415

RESUMO

Over the past four decades, space debris has been identified as a growing hazard for near-Earth space systems. With limited access to space debris tracking databases and only recent policy advancements made to secure a sustainable space environment and mission architecture, this manuscript aims to establish an autonomous trajectory maneuver to de-orbit spacecrafts back to Earth using collision avoidance techniques for the purpose of decommissioning or re-purposing spacecrafts. To mitigate the risk of colliding with another object, the spacecraft attitude slew maneuver requires high levels of precision. Thus, the manuscript compares two autonomous trajectory generations, sinusoidal and Pontragin's method. In order to determine the Euler angles (roll, pitch, and yaw) necessary for the spacecraft to safely maneuver around space debris, the manuscript incorporates way-point guidance as a collision avoidance approach. When the simulation compiled with both sinusoidal and Pontryagin trajectories, there were differences within the Euler angle spacecraft tracking that could be attributed to the increased fuel efficiency by over five orders of magnitude and lower computation time by over 15 min for that of Pontryagin's trajectory compared with that of the sinusoidal trajectory. Overall, Pontryagin's method produced an autonomous trajectory that is more optimal by conserving 37.9% more fuel and saving 40.5% more time than the sinusoidal autonomous trajectory.


Assuntos
Órbita , Astronave , Simulação por Computador , Planeta Terra
6.
J Appl Microbiol ; 133(5): 2893-2901, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932163

RESUMO

AIMS: Inactivation processes using heat are widely used for disinfection and sterilization. Dry heat sterilization of spacecraft equipment has been the preferred microbial inactivation method as part of interplanetary travel protection strategies. An antimicrobial model, based on temperature and exposure time based on experimental data, was developed to provide reliable sterilization processes to be used for interplanetary applications. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bacillus atrophaeus spores, traditionally used to challenge dry heat sterilization processes, were tested over a range of temperatures in comparison with spores of Bacillus canaveralius that have been shown to have a higher heat resistance profile. D-value and Z-values were determined and used to develop a mathematical model for parametric sterilization applications. The impact of the presence of a contaminating soil, representative of Mars dust, was also tested to verify the practical application of the model to reduce the risk of microbial contamination in such environments. CONCLUSION: The sterilization model developed can be used as an intrinsic part of risk reduction strategies for interplanetary protection. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT: Forward and backward planetary protection strategies to reduce the risks of microbial contamination during interplanetary exploration and research is an important consideration. The development of a modern sterilization model, with consideration of microorganisms identified with higher levels of heat resistance than traditionally deployed in terrestrial applications, allows for the consideration of optimal inactivation processes to define minimum criteria for engineering design. The ability to inactivate living microorganisms, as well as to degrade biomolecules, provides a reliable method to reduce the risk of known and potentially unknown contaminants in future applications.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Astronave , Esterilização/métodos , Desinfecção , Poeira , Solo , Esporos Bacterianos/fisiologia
7.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry ; 198(9-11): 611-616, 2022 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36005980

RESUMO

A new Open-Source dosemeter, SPACEDOS, has been developed for measurements of cosmic radiation on board spacecraft and small satellites. Its main advantages are that it is small and lightweight with low power consumption. It can be adjusted for specific applications, e.g. used in pressurized cabins of spacecraft or in vacuum environments in CubeSats or larger satellites. The open-source design enables better portability and reproduction of the results than other similar detectors. The detector has already successfully performed measurements on board the International Space Station. The obtained results are discussed and compared with those measured with thermoluminescent detectors located in the same position as SPACEDOS.


Assuntos
Radiação Cósmica , Monitoramento de Radiação , Voo Espacial , Doses de Radiação , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Astronave , Dosimetria Termoluminescente
8.
Microbiome ; 10(1): 134, 2022 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35999570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has a detrimental impact on human health on Earth and it is equally concerning in other environments such as space habitat due to microgravity, radiation and confinement, especially for long-distance space travel. The International Space Station (ISS) is ideal for investigating microbial diversity and virulence associated with spaceflight. The shotgun metagenomics data of the ISS generated during the Microbial Tracking-1 (MT-1) project and resulting metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) across three flights in eight different locations during 12 months were used in this study. The objective of this study was to identify the AMR genes associated with whole genomes of 226 cultivable strains, 21 shotgun metagenome sequences, and 24 MAGs retrieved from the ISS environmental samples that were treated with propidium monoazide (PMA; viable microbes). RESULTS: We have analyzed the data using a deep learning model, allowing us to go beyond traditional cut-offs based only on high DNA sequence similarity and extending the catalog of AMR genes. Our results in PMA treated samples revealed AMR dominance in the last flight for Kalamiella piersonii, a bacteria related to urinary tract infection in humans. The analysis of 226 pure strains isolated from the MT-1 project revealed hundreds of antibiotic resistance genes from many isolates, including two top-ranking species that corresponded to strains of Enterobacter bugandensis and Bacillus cereus. Computational predictions were experimentally validated by antibiotic resistance profiles in these two species, showing a high degree of concordance. Specifically, disc assay data confirmed the high resistance of these two pathogens to various beta-lactam antibiotics. CONCLUSION: Overall, our computational predictions and validation analyses demonstrate the advantages of machine learning to uncover concealed AMR determinants in metagenomics datasets, expanding the understanding of the ISS environmental microbiomes and their pathogenic potential in humans. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Astronave , Algoritmos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Metagenômica/métodos , Microbiota/genética
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13617, 2022 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948565

RESUMO

Shielding from space radiation, especially galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), is a significant safety challenge for future human activities in deep space. In this study, the shielding performances of potential materials [aluminum (Al), polyethylene (PE), and carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP)] were investigated using Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation considering two types of biological scale parameters, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) quality factor (QFICRP) and the plausible biological effectiveness (RBEγacute), for GCRs. The effective dose equivalent was reduced by 50% for QFICRP and 38% for RBEγacute when shielding using 20 g/cm2 of CFRP. A spacecraft made from CFRP will have a better radiation shielding performance than conventional Al-based spacecraft. The contribution of heavy ions for QFICRP based effective dose equivalent was larger by a factor of ~ 3 compared to that for RBEγacute based effective dose equivalent. The shielding materials efficiently reduced the effective dose equivalent due to ions with QFICRP > 3.36 and RBEγacute > 2.26. QFICRP and RBEγacute have advantages and disadvantages in quantifying the dose equivalent of space radiation, and the establishment of a standard parameter specified for a mixed radiation environment occupied by protons and heavy ions is necessary for practical dose assessment in deep space.


Assuntos
Radiação Cósmica , Proteção Radiológica , Voo Espacial , Radiação Cósmica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Doses de Radiação , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Astronave
10.
Science ; 377(6603): 285-291, 2022 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857591

RESUMO

Carbonaceous asteroids, such as (101955) Bennu, preserve material from the early Solar System, including volatile compounds and organic molecules. We report spacecraft imaging and spectral data collected during and after retrieval of a sample from Bennu's surface. The sampling event mobilized rocks and dust into a debris plume, excavating a 9-meter-long elliptical crater. This exposed material is darker, spectrally redder, and more abundant in fine particulates than the original surface. The bulk density of the displaced subsurface material was 500 to 700 kilograms per cubic meter, which is about half that of the whole asteroid. Particulates that landed on instrument optics spectrally resemble aqueously altered carbonaceous meteorites. The spacecraft stored 250 ± 101 grams of material, which will be delivered to Earth in 2023.


Assuntos
Meteoroides , Astronave , Planeta Terra , Minerais
11.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 93(6): 480-486, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35729763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Manually controlled docking of a spacecraft to a space station is an operational task that poses high demands on cognitive and perceptual functioning. Effective processing of visual information is crucial for success. Eye tracking can reveal the operator's attentional focus unobtrusively and objectively. Therefore, our aim was to test the feasibility of eye tracking during a simulation of manual docking and to identify links between visual information processing and performance.METHODS: We hypothesized that duration and number of gazes to specific regions of interest of the simulation (total dwell time and number of dwells) would be associated with docking accuracy. Eye movements were recorded in 10 subjects (30% women, M = 33.4 yr old) during the 6° head-down tilt bed rest study AGBRESA during 20 training sessions with the 6df learning program for spacecraft docking.RESULTS: Subjects' gaze was directed most frequently and longest to the vizor (185 dwells and 22,355 ms per task) followed by the two instrument displays (together 75 dwells and 4048 ms per task). We observed a significant positive relationship between number and duration of visual checks of speed and distance to the docking point and the accuracy of the docking maneuver.DISCUSSION: In conclusion, eye tracking provides valuable information related to docking accuracy that might prospectively offer the opportunity to improve docking training effectiveness.Piechowski S, Johannes B, Pustowalow W, Arz M, Mulder E, Jordan J, Wolf OT, Rittweger J. Visual attention relates to operator performance in spacecraft docking training. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2022; 93(6):480-486.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Astronave , Cognição , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 369(1)2022 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35675219

RESUMO

Astronauts undergo space travel to bring scientific information to benefit humanity under various missions of space agencies such as NASA, European Space Agency, Indian Space Research Organization etc. During space missions, they encounter several stressors namely microgravity, fluid shifts, cosmic radiation, sleep deprivation and alteration in the circadian rhythm perturbing the quality of sleep. In addition, confined spaces makes pathogen interaction more likely if a pathobiont gets introduced into spacecraft. Microbiota is the first line оf resistаnсe tо vаriоus disorders and diseаses. It direсtly influenсes the biосhemiсаl, рhysiоlоgiсаl, аnd immunоlоgiсаl раthwаys. 'Gut microbiota' is essential for maintenance of healthy gut barrier functions. 'Dysbiosis' refers to perturbation of microbiota which is correlated with several metabolic and psychological disorders. Microbial metabolites are implicated in maintenance of human health. Investigations conducted on astronauts in international space missions and on analog terrestrial models have indicated a 'dysbiosis' of the gut microbiota associated with spaceflights. 'Dysbiosis' of the gut microbiome observed in astronauts has been implicated in immune dysregulation and a probiotic enriched diet is proposed to restore immune homeostasis. This article not just summarizes the state of art research on dysbiosis of the gut microbiome of astronauts, but also a diet mediated correction plan to restore their health especially during long term space missions. A characterization of microbial metabolites of the gut to enable administration of astronaut specific probiotic, postbiotic or synbiotic to alleviate space associated dysbiosis is proposed. It is also recommended that astronauts maintain a balanced nutritious diet throughout life to promote a resilient microbiota that is not perturbed by space missions. Further, a bioregenerative life support system wherein a probiotic may be produced in space station is proposed.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Voo Espacial , Astronautas , Dieta , Disbiose , Humanos , Astronave
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(11)2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684842

RESUMO

In recent years, image segmentation techniques based on deep learning have achieved many applications in remote sensing, medical, and autonomous driving fields. In space exploration, the segmentation of spacecraft objects by monocular images can support space station on-orbit assembly tasks and space target position and attitude estimation tasks, which has essential research value and broad application prospects. However, there is no segmentation network designed for spacecraft targets. This paper proposes an end-to-end spacecraft image segmentation network using the semantic segmentation network DeepLabv3+ as the basic framework. We develop a multi-scale neural network based on sparse convolution. First, the feature extraction capability is improved by the dilated convolutional network. Second, we introduce the channel attention mechanism into the network to recalibrate the feature responses. Finally, we design a parallel atrous spatial pyramid pooling (ASPP) structure that enhances the contextual information of the network. To verify the effectiveness of the method, we built a spacecraft segmentation dataset on which we conduct experiments on the segmentation algorithm. The experimental results show that the encoder+ attention+ decoder structure proposed in this paper, which focuses on high-level and low-level features, can obtain clear and complete masks of spacecraft targets with high segmentation accuracy. Compared with DeepLabv3+, our method is a significant improvement. We also conduct an ablation study to research the effectiveness of our network framework.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Astronave , Algoritmos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Redes Neurais de Computação
14.
Astrobiology ; 22(9): 1061-1071, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35675686

RESUMO

Modeling risks for the forward contamination of planetary surfaces from endemic bioburdens on landed spacecraft requires precise data on the biocidal effects of space factors on microbial survival. Numerous studies have been published over the preceding 60 years on the survival of diverse microorganisms exposed to solar heating, solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, vacuum, ionizing radiation, desiccation, and many other planetary surface conditions. These data were generated with diverse protocols that can impair the interpretations of the results due to dynamic experimental errors inherent in all lab protocols. The current study (1) presents data on how metal surfaces can affect spore adhesion, (2) proposes doping and extraction protocols that can achieve very high recovery rates (close to 100%) from aluminum coupons with four Bacillus spp., (3) establishes a timeline in which dried spores on aluminum coupons should be used to minimize aging effects of spore monolayers, (4) confirms that vacuum alone does not dislodge spores dried on aluminum coupons, and (5) establishes that multiple UV irradiation sources yield similar results if properly cross-calibrated. The protocols are given to advance discussions in the planetary protection community on how to standardize lab protocols to align results from diverse labs into a coherent interpretation of how space conditions will degrade microbial survival over time.


Assuntos
Astronave , Esporos Bacterianos , Alumínio , Bacillus subtilis/efeitos da radiação , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Simulação de Ambiente Espacial , Esporos Bacterianos/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta
15.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 93(5): 467-469, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35551723

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The previous Spacecraft Maximal Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) for propylene glycol were established based on a study of rodents exposed to propylene glycol (PG) aerosol for 6 h/d, 5 d/wk for 90 d. This study has been used as the basis for the few existing limits, but all exposure concentrations were well above the saturated vapor concentration of ∼100 ppm for pure propylene glycol at room temperature. For this reason, the Environmental Protection Agency and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry noted that the method used to generate the aerosols for the two published studies of animal exposures are not relevant to exposure conditions for the general public, and most regulatory agencies have not established inhalation limits for propylene glycol, citing lack of data. Since publication of the PG SMACs in 2008, an acute inhalation study was conducted in healthy human subjects which allows us to revise our assessment. This manuscript provides the rationale for increasing the prior limits for PG in spacecraft air from 32 and 17 ppm to 64 and 32 ppm for off-nominal scenarios/releases (1-h and 24-h limits) and from 9, 3, and 1.5 ppm to 32 ppm for all nominal timeframes (7, 30, and 180 d). Due to a lack of longer-term exposure data, NASA has elected to eliminate the 1000-d SMAC limit at this time.Ryder VE, Williams ES. Revisions to limits for propylene glycol in spacecraft air. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2022; 93(5):467-469.


Assuntos
Propilenoglicol , Astronave , Animais , Humanos , Concentração Máxima Permitida , Propilenoglicol/toxicidade , Estados Unidos
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(9)2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35591235

RESUMO

The constant increase in the number of space objects and debris orbiting the Earth poses risks to satellites and other spacecraft, both in orbit and during the launching process. Therefore, the monitoring of space hazards to assess risk and prevent collisions has become part of the European Space Policy and requires the establishment of a dedicated Framework for Space Surveillance and Tracking (EU SST) Support. This article presents the CHEIA SST Radar, a new space tracking radar sensor developed and installed in Romania with the purpose of being included in the EU SST sensor network and of contributing to the joint database of space objects orbiting the Earth. The paper describes the processes of design, simulation, and implementation of the hardware and software building blocks that make up the radar system. It emphasizes the particular case of using an already existing system of two large parabolic antennas requiring an innovative retrofitting design to include them as the basis for a new quasi-monostatic radar using LFMCW probing signals. The preliminary design was validated by extensive simulations, and the initial operational testing carried out in December 2021 demonstrated the good performance of the radar in the measuring range and radial speed of LEO space objects.


Assuntos
Radar , Astronave , Simulação por Computador , Romênia , Software
17.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 185: 110222, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35397363

RESUMO

The production of Gd-148 had challenges for available methods in the literature, such as its high cost and low production amount. Therefore, we recommend a new production route of Gd-148 on natural Sm and Eu targets via particle accelerators. For this aim, we calculated and simulated cross-section, activity, the yield of product, and integral yield curves for 21 different nuclear reaction processes under certain conditions. Based on the obtained results, we proposed the radioisotope Gd-148 to use Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators for deep space and planetary explorations in spacecraft and space-probes as a suitable energy source, instead of Pu-238.


Assuntos
Plutônio , Gadolínio , Radioisótopos , Astronave
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(5)2022 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35270873

RESUMO

In this paper, a neural adaptive fault-tolerant control scheme is proposed for the integrated attitude and position control of spacecraft proximity operations in the presence of unknown parameters, disturbances, and actuator faults. The proposed controller is made up of a relative attitude control law and a relative position control law. Both the relative attitude control law and relative position control law are designed by adopting the neural networks (NNs) to approximate the upper bound of the lumped unknowns. Benefiting from the indirect neural approximation, the proposed controller does not need any model information for feedback. In addition, only two adaptive parameters are required for the indirect neural approximation, and the online calculation burden of the proposed controller is therefore significantly reduced. Lyapunov analysis shows that the overall closed-loop system is ultimately uniformly bounded. The proposed controller can ensure the relative attitude, angular velocity, position, and velocity stabilize into the small neighborhoods around the origin. Lastly, the effectiveness and superior performance of the proposed control scheme are confirmed by a simulated example.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Astronave , Simulação por Computador , Retroalimentação , Redes Neurais de Computação
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5022, 2022 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35322088

RESUMO

The perturbative integral method was applied to quantify the contribution of external forces during a specific interval of time in trajectories of spacecraft around asteroids and under the Luni-solar influence. However, this method has not been used to quantify the contributions of drag in aerocapture and aerobraking. For this reason, the planet Mars is selected to apply this method during an aerogravity-assisted maneuver. Several trajectories are analyzed, making use of a drag device with area to mass ratios varying from 0.0 to 20.0 m2/kg, simulating solar sails or de-orbit devices. The mathematical model is based in the restricted three-body problem. The use of this maneuver makes it possible to obtain the variations of energy in the trajectory, replacing expensive maneuvers based on fuel consumption. To observe the effects of the maneuvers, different values of pericenter velocity and altitude were selected for prograde and retrograde orbits. The innovation of this research is the application of an integral method to quantify the delta-V of the aero gravity maneuver, comparing the cost of the maneuver with the traditional methods of space propulsion. The results allow the identification of orbits with conditions to capture, and the perturbative maps show the velocity variations.


Assuntos
Marte , Voo Espacial , Gravitação , Modelos Teóricos , Astronave
20.
Microbiome ; 10(1): 26, 2022 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35125119

RESUMO

A human spaceflight to Mars is scheduled for the next decade. In preparation for this unmatched endeavor, a plethora of challenges must be faced prior to the actual journey to Mars. Mission success will depend on the health of its crew and its working capacity. Hence, the journey to Mars will also depend on the microbiome and its far-reaching effects on individual crew health, the spaceship's integrity, and food supply. As human beings rely on their microbiome, these microbes are essential and should be managed to ensure their beneficial effects outweigh potential risks. In this commentary, we focus on the current state of knowledge regarding a healthy (gut) microbiome of space travelers based on research from the International Space Station and simulation experiments on Earth. We further indicate essential knowledge gaps of microbial conditions during long-term space missions in isolated confined space habitats or outposts and give detailed recommendations for microbial monitoring during pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight. Finally, the conclusion outlines open questions and aspects of space traveler's health beyond the scope of this commentary. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Marte , Microbiota , Voo Espacial , Astronautas , Espaços Confinados , Humanos , Astronave
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