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1.
Radiat Res ; 201(2): 93-103, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38171489

RESUMO

The pervasiveness of deep space radiation remains a confounding factor for the transit of humans through our solar system. Spacecraft shielding both protects astronauts but also contributes to absorbed dose through galactic cosmic ray interactions that produce secondary particles. The resultant biological effects drop to a minimum for aluminum shielding around 20 g/cm2 but increase with additional shielding. The present work evaluates for the first time, the impact of secondary pions on central nervous system functionality. The fractional pion dose emanating from thicker shielded spacecraft regions could contribute up to 10% of the total absorbed radiation dose. New results from the Paul Scherrer Institute have revealed that low dose exposures to 150 MeV positive and negative pions, akin to a Mars mission, result in significant, long-lasting cognitive impairments. These surprising findings emphasize the need to carefully evaluate shielding configurations to optimize safe exposure limits for astronauts during deep space travel.


Assuntos
Radiação Cósmica , Mésons , Proteção Radiológica , Voo Espacial , Humanos , Astronave , Radiação Cósmica/efeitos adversos , Proteção Radiológica/métodos , Astronautas , Cognição , Doses de Radiação
2.
Astrobiology ; 24(1): 100-113, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38227836

RESUMO

The health of astronauts during space travel to new celestial bodies in the Solar System is a critical factor in the planning of a mission. Despite cleaning and decontamination protocols, microorganisms from the Earth have been and will be identified on spacecraft. This raises concerns for human safety and planetary protection, especially if these microorganisms can evolve and adapt to the new environment. In this study, we examined the tolerance of clinically relevant nonfastidious bacterial species that originate from environmental sources (Burkholderia cepacia, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia marcescens) to simulated martian conditions. Our research showed changes in growth and survival of these species in the presence of perchlorates, under desiccating conditions, exposure to ultraviolet radiation, and exposure to martian atmospheric composition and pressure. In addition, our results demonstrate that growth was enhanced by the addition of a martian regolith simulant to the growth media. Additional future research is warranted to examine potential changes in the infectivity, pathogenicity, and virulence of these species with exposure to martian conditions.


Assuntos
Marte , Voo Espacial , Humanos , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Raios Ultravioleta , Astronave , Bactérias
3.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 40: 126-134, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38245337

RESUMO

The way that a given environment may influence human mental health is widely established, with decades of research linking anxiety, depression, stress, productivity, and general mood with all facets of a given environment, including noise levels, lighting, air quality, and other factors. The environmental conditions of a space habitat have far reaching consequences for human mental health and should be carefully managed. This manuscript serves to briefly review what is known about the main components of a space habitat (e.g., noise levels, lighting, air quality, privacy, plant life, etc.), and provide specific and clear recommendations for mission planners and space habitat designers. Where appropriate, opportunities for future research are highlighted.


Assuntos
Voo Espacial , Astronave , Humanos , Saúde Mental
4.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 40: 51-61, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38245348

RESUMO

Numerous technological challenges have been overcome to realize human space exploration. As mission durations gradually lengthen, the next obstacle is a set of physical limitations. Extended exposure to microgravity poses multiple threats to various bodily systems. Two of these systems are of particular concern for the success of future space missions. The vestibular system includes the otolith organs, which are stimulated in gravity but unloaded in microgravity. This impairs perception, posture, and coordination, all of which are relevant to mission success. Similarly, vision is impaired in many space travelers due to possible intracranial pressure changes or fluid shifts in the brain. As humankind prepares for extended missions to Mars and beyond, it is imperative to compensate for these perils in prolonged weightlessness. Possible countermeasures are considered such as exercise regimens, improved nutrition, and artificial gravity achieved with a centrifuge or spacecraft rotation.


Assuntos
Gravidade Alterada , Voo Espacial , Ausência de Peso , Humanos , Astronave , Exercício Físico
5.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 39: 14-25, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37945085

RESUMO

Two DOSimetry TELescopes (DOSTELs) have been measuring the radiation environment in the Columbus module of the International Space Station (ISS) since 2009 in the frame of the DOSIS and DOSIS 3D projects. Both instruments have measured the charged particle flux rate and dose rates in a telescope geometry of two planar silicon detectors. The radiation environment in the ISS orbit is mostly composed by galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) and its secondary radiation and protons from the inner radiation belt in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) with sporadic contributions of solar energetic particles at high latitudes. The data presented in this work cover two solar activity minima and corresponding GCR intensity maxima in 2009 and 2020 and the solar activity maximum and corresponding GCR intensity minimum in 2014/2015. Average dose rates measured in the Columbus laboratory in the ISS orbit from GCR and SAA are presented separately. The data is analyzed with respect to the effective magnetic shielding and grouped into different cut-off rigidity intervals. Using only measurements in magnetically unshielded regions at low cut-off rigidity and applying a factor for the geometrical shielding of the Earth, absorbed dose rates and dose equivalent rates in near-Earth interplanetary space are estimated for the years 2009 to 2022.


Assuntos
Radiação Cósmica , Monitoramento de Radiação , Voo Espacial , Astronave , Doses de Radiação , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Radiometria , Atividade Solar
6.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 39: 26-42, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37945086

RESUMO

The Light Ion Detector for ALTEA (LIDAL) is a new instrument designed to measure flux, energy spectra and Time of Flight of ions in a space habitat. It was installed in the International Space Station (Columbus) on January 19, 2020 and it is still operating. This paper presents the results of LIDAL measurements in the first 17 months of operation (01/2020-05/2022). Particle flux, dose rate, Time of Flight and spectra are presented and studied in the three ISS orthogonal directions and in the different geomagnetic regions (high latitude, low latitude, and South Atlantic Anomaly, SAA). The results are consistent with previous measurements. Dose rates range between 1.8 nGy/s and 2.4 nGy/s, flux between 0.21 particles/(sr cm2 s) and 0.32 particles/(sr cm2 s) as measured across time and directions during the full orbit. These data offer insights concerning the radiation measurements in the ISS and demonstrate the capabilities of LIDAL as a unique tool for the measurement of space radiation in space habitats, also providing novel information relevant to assess radiation risks for astronauts.


Assuntos
Radiação Cósmica , Monitoramento de Radiação , Voo Espacial , Astronave , Atividade Solar , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Doses de Radiação , Íons
7.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 39: 3-13, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37945087

RESUMO

The Radiation monitoring system (RMS) continuously operated in various configurations since the launch of the Zvezda module of the International Space Station (ISS). The RMS consisted of 7 units, namely: the R-16 dosimeter, 4 DB-8 dosimeters, utility and data collection units. The obtained data covers a time of 22 years. This paper analyses the radiation environment variations on board the "Zvezda" module. Variations of the onboard daily dose rate associated with changes of ISS altitude and 11-year cycle galactic cosmic rays' variations are analyzed and discussed. It is shown that the observed increase in the daily dose from 0.20 - 0.25 to 0.35 - 0.50 mGy/day is mostly due to the increase of ISS orbit altitude, resulting in a substantial increase of the dose contribution from the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) Region. Dose rate variations in the SAA as well as latitude and longitude dose rate distributions are discussed in detail. Analysis confirms that the well-known westward drift effect of the SAA is clearly visible from radiation dose measurements on the ISS.


Assuntos
Radiação Cósmica , Monitoramento de Radiação , Voo Espacial , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Astronave , Doses de Radiação , Federação Russa
8.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 39: 43-51, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37945088

RESUMO

The data from two Bulgarian-German instruments with the basic name "Radiation Risk Radiometer-Dosimeter" (R3D) are discussed. The R3DR instrument worked inside the ESA EXPOSE-R facility (2009-2010), while R3DR2 worked inside the ESA EXPOSE-R2 facility (2014-2016). Both were outside the Russian Zvezda module on the International Space Station (ISS). The data from both instruments were used for calculation of the neutron dose equivalent rate. Similar data, obtained by the Russian "BTNNEUTRON" instrument on the ISS are used to benchmark the R3DR/R2 neutron dose equivalent rate. The analisys reveals that the "BTNNEUTRON" and R3DR/R2 values are comparable both in the equatorial and in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) regions. The R3DR/R2 values are smaller than the "BTNNEUTRON" values in the high latitude regions. The comparison with the Monte Carlo simulations of the secondary galactic cosmic rays (GCR) neutron ambient dose equivalent rates (El-Jaby and Richardson, 2015, 2016) also shows a good coincidence with the R3DR/R2 spectrometer data obtained in the equatorial and high latitude regions.


Assuntos
Radiação Cósmica , Monitoramento de Radiação , Voo Espacial , Astronave , Doses de Radiação , Radiometria , Nêutrons
9.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 39: 52-58, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37945089

RESUMO

We detect regular particle showers in several compact pixel detectors, distributed over the International Space Station. These showers are caused by high energy galactic cosmic rays, with energies often in the 10 s of TeV or higher. We survey the frequency of these events, their dependence on location on ISS, and their independence of the location of ISS, on its orbit. The Timepix detectors used allow individual particle tracks to be resolved, providing a possibility to perform physical analysis of shower events, which we demonstrate. In terms of radiation dosimetry, these showers indicate certain possible limitations of traditional dosimetric measures, in that (a) the dose measured in small sensor may be less than that received in a larger distribution of matter, such as a human and (b) the spatial and temporal extent of these events represents a regime of poorly documented biological response.


Assuntos
Radiação Cósmica , Monitoramento de Radiação , Voo Espacial , Humanos , Doses de Radiação , Astronave , Radiometria
10.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 39: 59-66, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37945090

RESUMO

The Hybrid Electronic Radiation Assessor (HERA) system is a Timepix-based ionizing radiation detector built for NASA Exploration-class crewed missions. The HERA performs data analysis on-system and generates telemetry messages for ingestion, display, and relay by the spacecraft. Several iterations of the hardware have been flown aboard the International Space Station as payloads to test system operation and gain experience with the hardware in the space radiation environment. The HERA system and its payload operations are described, and data collected by the various HERA systems are presented.


Assuntos
Voo Espacial , Astronave , Radiação Ionizante
11.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 39: 76-85, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37945092

RESUMO

We report the results of the first six years of measurements of so-called fast neutrons on the International Space Station (ISS) with the Radiation Assessment Detector (ISS-RAD), spanning the period from February 2016 to February 2022. ISS-RAD combines two sensor heads, one nearly identical to the single sensor head in the Mars Science Laboratory RAD (MSL-RAD). The latter is described in a companion article to this one. The novel sensor is the FND, or fast neutron detector, designed to measure neutrons with energies in the range from 200 keV to about 8 MeV. ISS-RAD was deployed in February 2016 in the USLAB module, and then served as a survey instrument from March 2017 until May 2020. Data were acquired in Node3, the Japanese Pressurized Module, Columbus, and Node2. At the conclusion of the survey portion of RAD's planned 10-year campaign on ISS, the instrument was stationed in the USLAB; current plans call for it to remain there indefinitely. The radiation environment on the ISS consists of a complex mix of charged and neutral particles that varies on short time scales owing to the Station's orbit. Neutral particles, and neutrons in particular, are of concern from a radiation protection viewpoint, because they are both highly penetrating (since they do not lose energy via direct ionization) and, at some energies, have high biological effectiveness. Neutrons are copiously produced by GCRs and other incident energetic particles when they undergo nuclear interactions in shielding. As different ISS modules have varying amounts of shielding, they also have varying neutron environments. We report results for neutron fluences and dose equivalent rates in various positions in the ISS.


Assuntos
Radiação Cósmica , Monitoramento de Radiação , Voo Espacial , Astronave , Nêutrons Rápidos , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Nêutrons , Doses de Radiação
12.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 39: 86-94, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37945093

RESUMO

The energetic particle radiation environment on the International Space Station (ISS) includes both charged and neutral particles. Here, we make use of the unique capabilities of the Radiation Assessment Detector (ISS-RAD) to measure both of these components simultaneously. The Charged Particle Detector (CPD) is, despite its name, capable of measuring neutrons in the energy range from about 4 MeV to a few hundred MeV. Combined with data from the Fast Neutron Detector (FND) in the 0.2 to 8 MeV range, we present the first broad-spectrum measurements of the neutron environments in various locations within the ISS since an early Bonner-Ball experiment that was conducted before the Station was fully constructed. The data presented here span the time period from February 2016 to February 2022. In addition to presenting broad-spectrum neutron fluence measurements, we show correlations of the measured neutron dose equivalent with charged-particle dose rates. The ratio of charged-particle dose to neutron dose equivalent is found to be relatively stable within the ISS.


Assuntos
Radiação Cósmica , Monitoramento de Radiação , Nêutrons Rápidos , Astronave , Doses de Radiação , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Nêutrons
13.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 39: 95-105, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37945094

RESUMO

Monitoring space radiation is of vital importance for risk reduction strategies in human space exploration. Radiation protection programs on Earth and in space rely on personal and area radiation monitoring instruments. Crew worn radiation detectors are crucial for successful crew radiation protection programs since they measure what each crewmember experiences in different shielding configurations within the space habitable volume. The Space Radiation Analysis Group at NASA Johnson Space Center investigated several compact, low power, real-time instruments for personal dosimetry. Following these feasibility studies, the Crew Active Dosimeter (CAD) has been chosen as a replacement for the legacy crew passive radiation detectors. The CAD device, based on direct ion storage technology, was developed by Mirion Dosimetry Services to meet the specified NASA design requirements for the International Space Station (ISS) and Artemis programs. After a successful Technology demonstration on ISS, the CAD has been implemented for ISS Crew operations since 2020. The current paper provides an overview of the CAD development, ISS results and comparison with the ISS Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) and the Radiation Environment Monitor 2 (REM2) instruments.


Assuntos
Radiação Cósmica , Monitoramento de Radiação , Voo Espacial , Humanos , Astronave , Dosímetros de Radiação , Radiometria , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Doses de Radiação
14.
Radiat Res ; 200(5): 421-430, 2023 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37758050

RESUMO

The ionizing radiation exposure to crew on current and future space missions can significantly increase their health risks for cancers, degenerative diseases, and other acute and late effects. A common approach for estimating risk to crew is by completing stochastic (e.g., Monte Carlo) or deterministic particle transport simulations. Within the simulated environment, a small fraction of the particle histories tracked will interact with the astronaut or detector, particularly for larger spacecraft such as the International Space Station, Tiangong Space Station or Lunar Gateway. These simulations can be computationally intensive as they require a very large number of particle histories to achieve a low statistical uncertainty. Variance reduction techniques are applied to simulations to reduce the computational time of the simulation while maintaining the same (or less) statistical uncertainty. The variance reduction technique developed herein involves applying a directional source bias to an isotropic radiation field, such as galactic cosmic rays, to reduce the quantity of particles that have a low probability of interacting with the astronaut or detector. A custom application has been developed utilizing the Geant4 Toolkit that computes the trajectories and energies of particles in three dimensions in the International Space Station using the Monte Carlo method. The results demonstrate the impact of our variance reduction technique on effective dose equivalence depending on: primary and secondary particle type (proton, neutron, photon, heavy ion, etc.), geometric volumes and spacecraft materials. Our variance reduction technique can be tuned by the user to optimize the simulation time depending on their objectives and enables rapid testing of different shield configurations and materials. This variance reduction technique is implemented easily using several input parameters for boundary conditions. Recommended values are presented for rapid implementation in simulations.


Assuntos
Radiação Cósmica , Astronave , Humanos , Astronautas , Radiação Cósmica/efeitos adversos , Nêutrons , Doses de Radiação
15.
Astrobiology ; 23(8): 835-845, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37584746

RESUMO

To support NASA's Mars 2020 mission, bioassays were performed to ensure the biological cleanliness of the spacecraft, instruments, and hardware assembly areas. Bioassays began in May 2014, as the first components were assembled, and continued until their launch in July 2020. Over this 6-year period, 1811 bioassay sampling sessions were conducted. To understand the nature of microbiological presence on and around the spacecraft, an archive of organisms resulting from the bioassays was assembled. This archive included 4232 microbial specimens preserved as frozen stocks. To date, more than 3489 microbial isolates have been tested by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis. Identifications were based on high confidence level matches to known microorganisms in the reference spectra database where 39 distinct genera were identified. Gram-positive bacteria were isolated almost exclusively. Most, but not all, were spore-forming genera. The most prevalent genera isolated in order of frequency were Bacillus, Priestia, Paenibacillus, Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, and Streptomyces. Within the largely represented Bacillus-like genera, the five most prevalent species were cereus, licheniformis, horneckiae, subtilis, and safensis.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Marte , Astronave
16.
Astrobiology ; 23(8): 862-879, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37584747

RESUMO

The Mars 2020 Perseverance rover is equipped with a Sample Caching System (SCS) designed to collect and cache martian core and regolith samples for potential return to Earth. To ensure the integrity of these samples, the mission requirements for each encapsulated sample for return is less than one Earth-sourced viable organism (VO) and more than a 99.9% probability of being free of any Earth-sourced VO. To satisfy the stringent biological contamination requirements in support of return sample science investigations, special bioburden mitigation and reduction approaches were developed and implemented for SCS hardware that would directly contact or be in close proximity to the martian samples. In this study, we describe the implemented approaches for microbiological contamination reduction and mitigation, detail the processes of the SCS aseptic assembly, and report the estimated VO for each returned sample. We found that our conservative estimate of the computed probability of a single VO in the returned sample is more than one order of magnitude lower than the biological contamination requirement while the best estimate exceeds two orders of magnitude.


Assuntos
Marte , Voo Espacial , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Astronave , Exobiologia , Planeta Terra
17.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 12479, 2023 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37528144

RESUMO

The impact of deep space cosmic rays on food resources is as important as the risks of cosmic rays to the human body. This study demonstrates the potential for neutrons as secondary radiation in deep space spacecraft to cause meat activation and oxidative modification of proteins and lipids. We conducted a series of experiments such as the neutron irradiation experiment, the radioactivation analysis and the biochemical analysis. Neutrons with energies from 1 to 5 MeV with doses from 0.01 Gy to 4 Gy were irradiated by the RIKEN accelerated-driven neutron source (RANS). Radioactive nuclei, 24Na, 42K, and 38Cl, were detected in the neutron-irradiated meat. The modification products of the proteins by oxidative nitration, 6-nitrotryptophan (6NO2Trp), and by a lipid peroxidation, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), were detected in several proteins with neutron dose dependent. The proteome analysis showed that many oxidative modifications were detected in actin and myosin which are major proteins of myofibrils. This study is of crucial importance not only as risk factors for human space exploration, but also as fundamental effects of radiation on the components of the human body.


Assuntos
Radiação Cósmica , Radioatividade , Voo Espacial , Humanos , Astronave , Nêutrons , Radiação Cósmica/efeitos adversos , Doses de Radiação
18.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 38: 29-38, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37481305

RESUMO

Understanding the structural and antibiotic resistance changes of microbial communities in space environments is critical for identifying potential pathogens that may pose health risks to astronauts and for preventing and controlling microbial contamination. The research to date on microbes under simulated space factors has primarily been carried out on single bacterial species under the individual effects of microgravity or low-dose radiation. However, microgravity (MG) and low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) coexist in the actual spacecraft environment, and microorganisms coexist as communities in the spacecraft environment. Thus, the microbial response to the real changes present during space habitation has not been adequately explored. To address this knowledge gap, we compared the dynamics of community composition and antibiotic resistance of synthetic bacterial communities under simulated microgravit, low-dose ionizing radiation, and the conditions combined, as it occurs in spacecraft. To ensure representative bacteria were selected, we co-cultured of 12 bacterial strains isolated from spacecraft cleanrooms. We found that the weakened competition between communities increased the possibility of species coexistence, community diversity, and homogeneity. The number of Bacilli increased significantly, while different species under the combined conditions showed various changes in abundance compared to those under the individual conditions. The resistance of the synthetic community to penicillins increased significantly under low doses of ionizing radiation but did not change significantly under simulated microgravity or the combined conditions. The results of functional predictions revealed that antibiotic biosynthesis and resistance increased dramatically in the community under space environmental stress, which confirmed the results of the drug sensitivity assays. Our results show that combined space environmental factors exert different effects on the microbial community structure and antibiotic resistance, which provides new insights into our understanding of the mechanisms of evolution of microorganisms in spacecraft, and is relevant to effective microbial pollution prevention and control strategies.


Assuntos
Astronave , Ausência de Peso , Bactérias , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Radiação Ionizante
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(13)2023 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37447847

RESUMO

Atomic clocks are highly precise timing devices used in numerous Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) applications on the ground and in outer space. In recent years, however, more precise timing solutions based on optical technology have been introduced as current technology capabilities advance. State-of-the-art optical clocks-predicted to be the next level of their predecessor atomic clocks-have achieved ultimate uncertainty of 1 × 10-18 and beyond, which exceeds the best atomic clock's performance by two orders of magnitude. Hence, the successful development of optical clocks has drawn significant attention in academia and industry to exploit many more opportunities. This paper first provides an overview of the emerging optical clock technology, its current development, and characteristics, followed by a clock stability analysis of some of the successfully developed optical clocks against current Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) satellite clocks to discuss the optical clock potentiality in GNSS positioning. The overlapping Allan Deviation (ADEV) method is applied to estimate the satellite clock stability from International GNSS Service (IGS) clock products, whereas the optical clock details are sourced from the existing literature. The findings are (a) the optical clocks are more stable than that of atomic clocks onboard GNSS satellites, though they may require further technological maturity to meet spacecraft payload requirements, and (b) in GNSS positioning, optical clocks could potentially offer less than a 1 mm range error (clock-related) in 30 s and at least 10 times better timing performance after 900 s in contrast to the Galileo satellite atomic clocks-which is determined in this study as the most stable GNSS atomic clock type used in satellite positioning.


Assuntos
Indústrias , Astronave , Tecnologia , Incerteza
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(13)2023 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37447875

RESUMO

The European Shock Tube for High-Enthalpy Research is a new state-of-the-art facility, tailored for the reproduction of spacecraft planetary entries in support of future European exploration missions, developed by an international consortium led by Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear and funded by the European Space Agency. Deployed state-of-the-art diagnostics include vacuum-ultraviolet to ultraviolet, visible, and mid-infrared optical spectroscopy setups, and a microwave interferometry setup. This work examines the specifications and requirements for high-speed flow measurements, and discusses the design choices for the main diagnostics. The spectroscopy setup covers a spectral window between 120 and 5000 nm, and the microwave interferometer can measure electron densities up to 1.5 × 1020 electrons/m3. The main design drivers and technological choices derived from the requirements are discussed in detail herein.


Assuntos
Interferometria , Astronave , Análise Espectral , Planetas
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