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Continuum (Minneap Minn) ; 30(2): 473-487, 2024 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568494


OBJECTIVE: The cranial neuralgias are relatively rare, but recognizing these syndromes and distinguishing among them is critical to reducing unnecessary pain and disability for affected patients. Despite their distinctive features, cranial neuralgias may go undiagnosed or misdiagnosed for several years. A notable proportion of cranial neuralgia presentations are due to secondary causes and require targeted treatment. The purpose of this article is to review the diagnosis and management of cranial neuralgias encountered in clinical practice. LATEST DEVELOPMENTS: In 2020, the International Classification of Orofacial Pain was released for the first time. Modeled after the International Classification of Headache Disorders, it includes updated terminology for cranial neuralgias. The underlying pathophysiology of the cranial neuralgias is currently believed to be rooted in both peripheral and central nociceptive systems. In addition, a growing number of familial cases are being identified. Recent therapeutic advancements include a better understanding of how to utilize older therapies and procedures more effectively as well as the development of newer approaches. ESSENTIAL POINTS: Cranial neuralgia syndromes are rare but important to recognize due to their debilitating nature and greater likelihood of having potentially treatable underlying causes. While management options have remained somewhat limited, scientific inquiry is continually advancing the understanding of these syndromes and how best to address them.

Doenças dos Nervos Cranianos , Transtornos da Cefaleia , Neuralgia , Humanos , Doenças dos Nervos Cranianos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Nervos Cranianos/terapia , Cefaleia/diagnóstico , Cefaleia/etiologia , Cefaleia/terapia , Neuralgia/diagnóstico , Neuralgia/terapia , Síndrome
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 49(1): 29-39, 2024 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615163


OBJECTIVES: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a common neuropathic pain. Voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv) has been confirmed to be involved in the occurrence and development of TN, but the specific mechanism is still unclear. MicroRNA may be involved in neuropathic pain by regulating the expression of Kv channels and neuronal excitability in trigeminal ganglion (TG). This study aims to explore the relationship between Kv1.1 and miR-21-5p in TG with a TN model, evaluate whether miR-21-5p has a regulatory effect on Kv1.1, and to provide a new target and experimental basis for the treatment of TN. METHODS: A total of 48 SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: 1) a sham group (n=12), the rats were only sutured at the surgical incision without nerve ligation; 2) a sham+agomir NC group (n=6), the sham rats were microinjected with agomir NC through stereotactic brain injection in the surgical side of TG; 3) a sham+miR-21-5p agomir group (n=6), the sham rats were microinjected with miR-21-5p agomir via stereotactic brain injection in the surgical side of TG; 4) a TN group (n=12), a TN rat model was constructed using the chronic constriction injury of the distal infraorbital nerve (dIoN-CCI) method with chromium intestinal thread; 5) a TN+antagonist NC group (n=6), TN rats were microinjected with antagonist NC through stereotactic brain injection method in the surgical side of TG; 6) a TN+miR-21-5p antagonist group (n=6), TN rats were microinjected with miR-21-5p antagonist through stereotactic brain injection in the surgical side of TG. The change of mechanical pain threshold in rats of each group after surgery was detected. The expressions of Kv1.1 and miR-21-5p in the operative TG of rats were detected by Western blotting and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Dual luciferase reporter genes were used to determine whether there was a target relationship between Kv1.1 and miR-21-5p and whether miR-21-5p directly affected the 3'-UTR terminal of KCNA1. The effect of brain stereotaxic injection was evaluated by immunofluorescence assay, and then the analogue of miR-21-5p (agomir) and agomir NC were injected into the TG of rats in the sham group by brain stereotaxic apparatus to overexpress miR-21-5p. The miR-21-5p inhibitor (antagomir) and antagomir NC were injected into TG of rats in the TN group to inhibit the expression of miR-21-5p. The behavioral changes of rats before and after administration were observed, and the expression changes of miR-21-5p and Kv1.1 in TG of rats after intervention were detected. RESULTS: Compared with the baseline pain threshold, the facial mechanical pain threshold of rats in the TN group was significantly decreased from the 5th to 15th day after the surgery (P<0.05), and the facial mechanical pain threshold of rats in the sham group was stable at the normal level, which proved that the dIoN-CCI model was successfully constructed. Compared with the sham group, the expression of Kv1.1 mRNA and protein in TG of the TN group was down-regulated (both P<0.05), and the expression of miR-21-5p was up-regulated (P<0.05). The results of dual luciferase report showed that the luciferase activity of rno-miR-21-5p mimics and KCNA1 WT transfected with 6 nmol/L or 20 nmol/L were significantly decreased compared with those transfected with mimic NC and wild-type KCNA1 WT, respectively (P<0.001). Compared with low dose rno-miR-21-5p mimics (6 nmol/L) co-transfection group, the relative activity of luciferase in the high dose rno-miR-21-5p mimics (20 nmol/L) cotransfection group was significantly decreased (P<0.001). The results of immunofluorescence showed that drugs were accurately injected into TG through stereotaxic brain. After the expression of miR-21-5p in the TN group, the mechanical pain threshold and the expression of Kv1.1 mRNA and protein in TG were increased. After overexpression of miR-21-5p in the sham group, the mechanical pain threshold and the expression of Kv1.1 mRNA and protein in TG were decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Both Kv1.1 and miR-21-5p are involved in TN and miR-21-5p can regulate Kv1.1 expression by binding to the 3'-UTR of KCNA1.

MicroRNAs , Neuralgia , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo , Animais , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo/genética , Regulação para Baixo , Antagomirs , Neuralgia/genética , Luciferases , RNA Mensageiro , MicroRNAs/genética
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 49(1): 47-53, 2024 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615165


Trigeminal neuralgia is a manifestation of orofacial neuropathic pain disorder, always deemed to be an insurmountable peak in the field of pain research and treatment. The pain is recurrent, abrupt in onset and termination similar to an electric shock or described as shooting. A poor quality of life has been attributed to trigeminal neuralgia, as the paroxysms of pain may be triggered by innocuous stimuli on the face or inside the oral cavity, such as talking, washing face, chewing and brushing teeth in daily life. The pathogenesis of trigeminal neuralgia has not been fully elucidated, although the microvascular compression in the trigeminal root entry zone is generally considered to be involved in the emergence and progression of the pain disorder. In addition, orofacial neuropathic pain restricted to one or more divisions of the trigeminal nerve might be secondary to peripheral nerve injury. Based on current hypotheses regarding the potential causes, a variety of animal models have been designed to simulate the pathogenesis of trigeminal neuralgia, including models of compression applied to the trigeminal nerve root or trigeminal ganglion, chronic peripheral nerve injury, peripheral inflammatory pain and center-induced pain. However, it has not yet been possible to determine which model can be perfectly employed to explain the mechanisms. The selection of appropriate animal models is of great significance for the study of trigeminal neuralgia. Therefore, it is necessary to discuss the characteristics of the animal models in terms of animal strains, materials, operation methods and behavior observation, in order to gain insight into the research progress in animal models of trigeminal neuralgia. In the future, animal models that closely resemble the features of human trigeminal neuralgia pathogenesis need to be developed, with the aim of making valuable contributions to the relevant basic and translational medical research.

Neuralgia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo , Animais , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Mastigação , Modelos Animais
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(6): 1570-1578, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621941


This study aims to clarify the effects of dihydroartemisinin(DHA) combined with pregabalin(PGB) on neuropathic pain(NP) in mice and explore the neuroinflammatory regulatory mechanism. NP mice model was established using spinal nerve ligation, whereas the sham group exposed the spinal nerve without ligation. The mice were randomly divided into sham group, model group, PGB groups of low, medium, and high doses(PGB-L, PGB-M, and PGB-H, with 22, 45, and 91 mg·kg~(-1)), DHA group(16 mg·kg~(-1)), and DHA combined with PGB groups of low, medium, and high doses(DHA + PGB-L, DHA + PGB-M, and DHA + PGB-H). Administration by gavage 18 days after modeling. Von Frey and cold plate were used to detect mechanical pain threshold and cold pain sensitivity in mice. The tail suspension test and forced swimming test were used to investigate depressive behavior, and the open field test was used to estimate anxiety behavior. The Morris water maze was used to evaluate cognitive function. Liquid suspension chip technology was used to quantitatively analyze immune inflammation-related factors. Immunofluorescence was used to detect the expression of CC chemokine ligand 3(CCL3) and transmembrane protein 119(TMEM119). The results showed that compared with the sham group, the mechanical pain and cold pain sensitivity thresholds of the model group were significantly reduced, and the struggle time was significantly increased in the tail suspension test and forced swimming test. The activity time in the central area was significantly reduced in the open field test. The residence time in the second/fourth quadrant was significantly longer than that in other quadrants, and the latency time of platform climbing significantly increased after platform withdrawal in the Morris water maze experiment. The expression of CCL3 was significantly increased; the number of TMEM119 positive cells and the cell body area were significantly increased. Compared with the model group, the DHA + PGB-M group showed a significant increase in mechanical pain and cold pain sensitivity thresholds, as well as a significant increase in struggle time in the tail suspension test and forced swimming test. The activity time in the central area of the open field test was significantly reduced. The residence time in the second/fourth quadrant was significantly shorter than that in other quadrants, and the latency time of platform climbing after platform withdrawal was significantly reduced. Compared with the PGB-M group, the mechanical pain threshold of D14-17 in the DHA + PGB-M group was significantly increased, and the struggle time during forced swimming was significantly increased. The residence time in the second/fourth quadrant of the Morris water maze was significantly shorter than that in other quadrants. Compared with the model group, the expression of CCL3, the number of TMEM119 positive cells, and the cell body area in the DHA + PGB-M group were significantly decreased. This study indicates that DHA + PGB can enhance the analgesic effect of PGB on NP mice, break through the limitations of PGB tolerance, and make up for the shortcomings of PGB in antidepressant and cognitive improvement. Its mechanism may be related to regulating neuroinflammation by inhibiting the activation of microglial cells and expression of CCL3.

Artemisininas , Neuralgia , Camundongos , Animais , Pregabalina , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Neuralgia/genética , Neuralgia/metabolismo
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(6): 1632-1640, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621948


This study aims to explore the effects of tetramethylpyrazine(TMP) on pharmacokinetics in plasma and brain dialysate and neuropathic pain in the rat model of partial sciatic nerve injury(SNI), and to investigate the correlation between the analgesic effect of TMP and its concentrations in the plasma and brain dialysate. Male SD rats were randomized into Sham, SNI, and SNI+TMP groups. Mechanical stimulation with von frey filaments and cold spray method were employed to evaluate the mechanical sensitivity and cold sensitivity of rats. Another two groups, Sham+TMP and SNI+TMP, were used to intubate the common jugular vein and implant microdialysis probes into the anterior cingulate gyrus(ACC), respectively.After intraperitoneal injection of TMP at a dose of 80 mg·kg~(-1), automatic blood collection and intracerebral microdialysis(perfusion rate of 1 µL·min~(-1)) systems were used to collect the blood and brain dialysate for 24 h. HSS T3 C_(18) reversed-phase chromatographic column(2.1 mm×50 mm, 2.5 µm) was used for liquid chromatographic separation. Gradient elution was carried out with the mobile phase of methanol-water(containing 0.005% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.25 mL·min~(-1). Electrospray ion source was used for mass spectrometry, and the scanning mode was multi-reaction monitoring under the positive ion mode. The ion pairs for quantitative analysis were TMP m/z 137/122 and aspirin m/z 179/137, respectively. DAS 2.11 was used to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters. The optimal time of TMP to exert the analgesia effect and inhibit cold pain sensitivity was 60 min after treatment. The TMP in the plasma and brain dialysate of SNI rats showed the T_(max) of 15 min and 30 min, the C_(max) of(2 866.43±135.39) and(1 462.14±197.38) µg·L~(-1), the AUC_(0-t) of(241 463.30±28 070.31) and(213 115.62±32 570.07) µg·min·L~(-1), the MRT_(0-t) of(353.13±47.73) and(172.16±12.72) min, and the CL_Z of 0.73 and 0.36 L·min·kg~(-1), respectively. The analgesic effect of TMP had a significant correlation with the blood drug concentration in the ACC, which indicated that this method was suitable for the detection of TMP in rat plasma and brain dialysate. The method is accurate, reliable, and sensitive and can realize the important value of the application of correlation analysis theory of "automatic blood collection-microdialysis/PK-PD" in the research on neuropathic pain.

Encéfalo , Neuralgia , Pirazinas , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Nervo Isquiático , Analgésicos
Acta Cir Bras ; 39: e392324, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629654


PURPOSE: Patients have been severely suffered from cancer associated pain, and pancreatic cancer is the most severe form of cancer associated with pain. There are very few options available to manage it. The present report evaluated the effect of 5HT2A on pancreatic cancer associated pain. METHODS: Pancreatic cancer was induced by injecting SW 1,990 cells (~3×106 in a 20 µL suspension) into the pancreas and formed a 2-3-mm vesicle using an inoculator fitted with a 26-gauge needle in BALB/c-nu mice. Survival rate and body weight of the mice were observed. Pain behaviour testing was performed at the end of each week (third and fourth week) after surgery. Inflammatory mediators and HDAC 2 proteins were determined in the spinal tissue using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: There was improvement in the survival rate and body weight in 5HT2A antagonist treated group than pancreatic cancer group of mice. Moreover, 5HT2A antagonist ameliorated the alteration in pain behaviour of pancreatic cancer mice. mRNA expression of HDAC2 and level of inflammatory cytokines were reduced in the spinal tissue of 5HT 2A antagonist treated group than pancreatic cancer group of mice. CONCLUSIONS: Data revealed that 5HT2A antagonist ameliorates pain associated with pancreatic cancer mice by HDAC inhibition and inflammatory cytokines. The result of investigation supports that modulation of 5HT2A receptor could be used clinically to protects neuropathic pain in pancreatic cancer.

Dor do Câncer , Neuralgia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Dor do Câncer/tratamento farmacológico , Dor do Câncer/prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Citocinas , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/complicações , Peso Corporal
Ideggyogy Sz ; 77(3-4): 97-102, 2024 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591928


Background and purpose:

        Natural disasters, such as earthquakes, frequently result in mood disorders among affected individuals. It is established that neuropathic pain arising from traumatic neuropathies is also linked to mood disorders. This study investigates the influence of neuropathic pain on the development of mood disorders in earthquake survivors with peripheral nerve injuries, following the earthquake centered in Kahramanmaras on February 6, 2023. Additionally, we aim to assess the electro­physiological aspects of neuropathic injuries in these survivors.

. Methods:

The study comprised 46 earth-quake survivors with electrophysiologically confirmed peripheral nerve injuries, with 39 trauma-free survivors serving as the control group. Neuropathic pain, anxiety and depression were assessed using the Douleur Neuropathique 4 (DN4) questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).

. Results:

Our findings revealed that the ulnar and peroneal nerves were the most commonly injured structures. Among the survivors with peripheral nerve injury, 31 out of 46 (67%) were found to experience neuropathic pain. Furthermore, plexopathy and multiple extremity injuries were associated with more severe neuropathic pain. However, there was no significant difference in anxiety and depression scores between the two groups and neuropathic pain was found to have no independent effect.

. Conclusion:

The study indicates that the intensity of neuropathic pain varies based on the localization and distribution of peripheral nerve injuries. However, the presence of peripheral nerve damage or neuropathic pain was not directly associated with HADS scores, suggesting that mood disorders following disasters may have multifactorial causes beyond physical trauma.


Terremotos , Neuralgia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos , Humanos , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/complicações , Transtornos do Humor/etiologia , Transtornos do Humor/complicações , Neuralgia/epidemiologia , Neuralgia/etiologia , Sobreviventes
Continuum (Minneap Minn) ; 30(2): 391-410, 2024 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568490


OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the epidemiology, clinical features, differential diagnosis, pathophysiology, and management of three types of trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias: cluster headache (the most common), short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT), and short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with cranial autonomic symptoms (SUNA). LATEST DEVELOPMENTS: The first-line treatments for trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias have not changed in recent years: cluster headache is managed with oxygen, triptans, and verapamil, and SUNCT and SUNA are managed with lamotrigine. However, new successful clinical trials of high-dose prednisone, high-dose galcanezumab, and occipital nerve stimulation provide additional options for patients with cluster headache. Furthermore, new genetic and imaging tests in patients with cluster headache hold promise for a better understanding of its pathophysiology. ESSENTIAL POINTS: The trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias are a group of diseases that appear similar to each other and other headache disorders but have important differences. Proper diagnosis is crucial for proper treatment.

Cefaleia Histamínica , Neuralgia , Cefalalgias Autonômicas do Trigêmeo , Humanos , Cefaleia Histamínica/diagnóstico , Cefaleia Histamínica/epidemiologia , Cefaleia Histamínica/terapia , Cefaleia , Cefalalgias Autonômicas do Trigêmeo/diagnóstico , Cefalalgias Autonômicas do Trigêmeo/epidemiologia , Cefalalgias Autonômicas do Trigêmeo/terapia , Diagnóstico Diferencial
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 38(4): e23638, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613466


The pancreas is a heterocrine gland that has both exocrine and endocrine parts. Most pancreatic cancer begins in the cells that line the ducts of the pancreas and is called pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). PDAC is the most encountered pancreatic cancer type. One of the most important characteristic features of PDAC is neuropathy which is primarily due to perineural invasion (PNI). PNI develops tumor microenvironment which includes overexpression of fibroblasts cells, macrophages, as well as angiogenesis which can be responsible for neuropathy pain. In tumor microenvironment inactive fibroblasts are converted into an active form that is cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). Neurotrophins they also increase the level of Substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide which is also involved in pain. Matrix metalloproteases are the zinc-associated proteases enzymes which activates proinflammatory interleukin-1ß into its activated form and are responsible for release and activation of Substance P which is responsible for neuropathic pain by transmitting pain signal via dorsal root ganglion. All the molecules and their role in being responsible for neuropathic pain are described below.

Neuralgia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Substância P , Neuralgia/etiologia , Pâncreas , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/complicações , Fibroblastos , Microambiente Tumoral
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 166(1): 175, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602610


BACKGROUND: De-novo chronic neuropathic pain following COVID-19 is widely recognised. However, there are currently no published studies investigating the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on patients with pre-existing neuropathic pain who have required spinal cord stimulator (SCS) implantation. Here, the authors aimed to analyse outcomes in their institution's patients who had spinal cord stimulator (SCS) implantation or revision procedures to the system over a 5-year period. Specifically, the short-term and long-term outcomes of patients who contracted COVID-19 during the follow-up period were compared to the control group of patients who did not. METHOD: Patients included in this study had spinal cord stimulator implantation (de-novo and revision procedures) between 1 January 2017 and 31 January 2022, for neuropathic pain of any aetiology. Patients deemed eligible for the study were invited to participate in a telephone survey through which clinical outcome data were collected. Pain scores were assessed with a modified form of the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI). RESULTS: Of 91 patients, 48 (52.7%) had contracted COVID-19 by the time of the survey. Patients who contracted COVID-19 had significantly worse BPI scores in the 'Least pain' domain following their infection and at time of the survey, when compared to their score 6 months after the operation. 22.9% (n = 11) of the patients who contracted COVID-19 experienced a change in their symptoms following their infection. Within this sub-group, there was a statistically significant deterioration in BPI scores in 10/11 domains following their infection and in 2/11 domains at time of the survey. Worsening severity of COVID-19 symptoms was not associated with worse BPI scores. CONCLUSIONS: Infection with SARS-CoV-2, in a significant proportion of patients with an SCS in situ, causes at least a transient deterioration in pain control. Further prospective multicentre studies are indicated to establish the prevalence of this phenomenon.

COVID-19 , Neuralgia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Manejo da Dor , Neuralgia/terapia
Int J Pharm Compd ; 28(2): 100-109, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604146


Pain syndromes are among the most widespread, costly, and debilitating of all neurological disorders. The number of patients living with chronic pain is expected to increase with the aging population and with the rise in obesity and diabetes across the nation. This type of pain is often insensitive to the traditional pain pharmacopeia or surgical intervention. Over the last 10 years the number of prescriptions that have been compounded by pharmacists has increased dramatically. There are a number of drugs in the area of pain management that have been formulated and compounded by pharmacists to treat conditions such as diabetic neuropathy, fibromyalgia, postherpetic neuralgia, joint pain, arthritis, and a variety of other conditions. A significant portion of these compounded analgesic preparations is made up of topical/transdermal dosage forms such as gels and creams. While the efficacy and doses of these drugs in systemic dosage forms have been widely established, little is known about the permeation and efficacy of these compounds from topical/transdermal gels. This review will provide an overview of chronic pain as a disease, the mechanisms of chronic pain, current treatment approaches to chronic pain, and a discussion of the drugs that are typically compounded into these topical formulations and studied in clinical trials.

Dor Crônica , Neuralgia Pós-Herpética , Neuralgia , Humanos , Idoso , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos , Neuralgia Pós-Herpética/tratamento farmacológico , Géis/uso terapêutico
Neuromolecular Med ; 26(1): 12, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600344


The role of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in neuropathic pain is linked to the fundamental physiological mechanisms involved. However, the exact function of circRNAs in the context of neuropathic pain is still not fully understood. The functional impact of circGRIN2B on the excitability of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons was investigated using siRNA or overexpression technology in conjunction with fluorescence in situ hybridization and whole-cell patch-clamp technology. The therapeutic efficacy of circGRIN2B in treating neuropathic pain was confirmed by assessing the pain threshold in a chronic constrictive injury (CCI) model. The interaction between circGRIN2B and NF-κB was examined through RNA pulldown, RIP, and mass spectrometry assays. CircGRIN2B knockdown significantly affected the action potential discharge frequency and the sodium-dependent potassium current flux (SLICK) in DRG neurons. Furthermore, knockdown of circGRIN2B dramatically reduced the SLICK channel protein and mRNA expression in vivo and in vitro. Our research confirmed the interaction between circGRIN2B and NF-κB. These findings demonstrated that circGRIN2B promotes the transcription of the SLICK gene by binding to NF-κB. In CCI rat models, the overexpression of circGRIN2B has been shown to hinder the progression of neuropathic pain, particularly by reducing mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. Additionally, this upregulation significantly diminished the levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α in the DRG. Upon reviewing these findings, it was determined that circGRIN2B may mitigate the onset of neuropathic pain by modulating the NF-κB/SLICK pathway.

NF-kappa B , Neuralgia , Ratos , Animais , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , RNA Circular/genética , RNA Circular/metabolismo , RNA Circular/uso terapêutico , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Neuralgia/terapia , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Gânglios Espinais/metabolismo
J Vis Exp ; (205)2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557950


Surgical procedures, including nerve reconstruction and end-organ muscle reinnervation, have become more prominent in the prosthetic field over the past decade. Primarily developed to increase the functionality of prosthetic limbs, these surgical procedures have also been found to reduce postamputation neuropathic pain. Today, some of these procedures are performed more frequently for the management and prevention of postamputation pain than for prosthetic fitting, indicating a significant need for effective solutions to postamputation pain. One notable emerging procedure in this context is the Regenerative Peripheral Nerve Interface (RPNI). RPNI surgery involves an operative approach that entails splitting the nerve end longitudinally into its main fascicles and implanting these fascicles within free denervated and devascularized muscle grafts. The RPNI procedure takes a proactive stance in addressing freshly cut nerve endings, facilitating painful neuroma prevention and treatment by enabling the nerve to regenerate and innervate an end organ, i.e., the free muscle graft. Retrospective studies have shown RPNI's effectiveness in alleviating postamputation pain and preventing the formation of painful neuromas. The increasing frequency of utilization of this approach has also given rise to variations in the technique. This article aims to provide a step-by-step description of the RPNI procedure, which will serve as the standardized procedure employed in an international, randomized controlled trial (, NCT05009394). In this trial, RPNI is compared to two other surgical procedures for postamputation pain management, specifically, Targeted Muscle Reinnervation (TMR) and neuroma excision coupled with intra-muscular transposition and burying.

Neuralgia , Neuroma , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Amputação Cirúrgica , Neuroma/cirurgia , Nervos Periféricos/cirurgia , Nervos Periféricos/fisiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
Agri ; 36(2): 126-128, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558393


Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES) is a cause of moderate to severe chronic pain, hyperesthesia/hypoesthesia, and altered perception of heat/cold in a specific region of the anterior abdominal wall, referable to the territory of innervation of one or more anterior branches of the intercostal nerves. None of the therapeutic options currently available has proved to be effective in the long term or decisive. In recent years, we have begun to treat purely sensory neuropathies, such as this, with the implantation of wireless peripheral nerve stimulators (PNS), achieving the safety of modular and personalized analgesia. We report the case of a 41-year-old man suffering from ACNES of the 8th intercostal nerve for two years. We first performed two consecutive ultrasound-guided diagnostic blocks of the anterior cutaneous branch of the 8th intercostal right nerve and then elected the patient for ultrasound-guided nerve decompression followed by neuromodulation and pulsed-radiofrequency (PRF). Taking into account full employment, young age, and the likelihood of having to repeat the treatment several times, we considered him for Peripheral Nerve Stimulation (PNS) implantation under ultrasound guidance, and we implanted the wireless lead at the anterior branch of the right 8th intercostal nerve, and programmed tonic stimulation 100 Hz PW 200 ms. The patient reported immediate pain relief and never took medication for this problem again, at two years follow-up. PNS has had an increasing role in the management of chronic neuropathic pain, especially in merely sensitive neuropathies like ACNES. We support future research on this theme.

Dor Crônica , Síndromes de Compressão Nervosa , Neuralgia , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Dor Abdominal/diagnóstico , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Dor Abdominal/terapia , Síndromes de Compressão Nervosa/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Compressão Nervosa/cirurgia , Neuralgia/terapia , Neuralgia/complicações , Dor Crônica/terapia , Nervos Intercostais/cirurgia
Agri ; 36(2): 100-105, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558392


OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the pain type (nociceptive or neuropathic) and neuropathic pain components in patients with acute herpes zoster (HZ). METHODS: Patients with acute HZ referred to the outpatient Dermatology and Venereology clinic between January 2021 and January 2022 were retrospectively detected. The demographic data including gender and age, rash localization, pain severity, and neuropathic pain components were recorded. Pain severity and neuropathic pain components were evaluated using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Douleur Neuropathique 4 (DN4), respectively. RESULTS: The study included a total of 58 patients, comprising 33 females and 25 males. Of these patients, 35 (60.3%) were found to have neuropathic pain. Itching, burning, pins and needles, and tingling were the most frequently reported neuropathic pain signs and symptoms. The proportion of female patients with neuropathic pain was found to be significantly higher than that of male patients (p=0.021). No significant differences were observed in the distribution of pain across different body sites or in the age of patients with neuropathic pain (p>0.05). Itching was significantly more common in younger patients (p=0.02). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the study found that over half of the patients with acute HZ experienced neuropathic pain, and this was more frequently observed in female patients. Analysis of different components of neuropathic pain showed significant differences in age, gender, and site distribution. The findings of this study may have important implications for the manage-ment and treatment of acute HZ.

Herpes Zoster , Neuralgia , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neuralgia/diagnóstico , Herpes Zoster/complicações , Medição da Dor , Prurido
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0298881, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626240


INTRODUCTION: Small fiber neuropathy (SFN) is a common cause of neuropathic pain in peripheral neuropathies. Good accessibility of diagnostics and treatment is necessary for an accurate diagnosis and treatment of SFN. Evidence is lacking on the quality performance of the diagnostic SFN service in the Netherlands. Our aim was to determine the patient satisfaction and -accessibility of the diagnostic SFN service, and to identify areas for improvement. METHODS: In a single-center, prospective, survey-based cohort study, 100 visiting patients were asked to fill in the SFN patient satisfaction questionnaire (SFN-PSQ), with 10 domains and 51 items. Cut-off point for improvement was defined as ≥ 25% dissatisfaction on an item. A chi-square test and linear regression analyses was used for significant differences and associations of patient satisfaction. RESULTS: From November 2020 to May 2021, 98 patients with SFN-related complaints filled in the online SFN-PSQ within 20 minutes. In 84% of the patients SFN was confirmed, average age was 55.1 (52.5-57.8) years and 67% was female. High satisfaction was seen in the domains 'Waiting List Period', Chest X-ray', 'Consultation with the Doctor or Nurse Practitioner (NP)', 'Separate Consultation with the Doctor or NP about Psychological Symptoms', and 'General' of the SFN service. Overall average patient satisfaction score was 8.7 (IQR 8-10) on a 1-to-10 rating scale. Main area for improvement was shortening the 8-week period for receiving the results of the diagnostic testing (p < 0.05). General health status was statistically significant associated with patient satisfaction (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: A good reflection of the high patient satisfaction and -accessibility of the SFN-service is shown, with important points for improvement. These results could help hospitals widely to optimize the logistic and diagnostic pathway of SFN analysis, benchmarking patient satisfaction results among the hospitals, and to improve the quality of care of comparable SFN services.

Neuralgia , Neuropatia de Pequenas Fibras , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos de Coortes , Satisfação do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Países Baixos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neuralgia/etiologia
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 30(4): e14657, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572785


AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the potential therapeutic applications of stigmasterol for treating neuropathic pain. METHODS: Related mechanisms were investigated by DRG single-cell sequencing analysis and the use of specific inhibitors in cellular experiments. In animal experiments, 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the sham operation group, CCI group, ibuprofen group, and stigmasterol group. We performed behavioral tests, ELISA, H&E staining and immunohistochemistry, and western blotting. RESULTS: Cell communication analysis by single-cell sequencing reveals that after peripheral nerve injury, Schwann cells secrete IL-34 to act on CSF1R in macrophages. After peripheral nerve injury, the mRNA expression levels of CSF1R pathway and NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages were increased in DRG. In vitro studies demonstrated that stigmasterol can reduce the secretion of IL-34 in LPS-induced RSC96 Schwann cells; stigmasterol treatment of LPS-induced Schwann cell-conditioned medium (L-S-CM) does not induce the proliferation and migration of RAW264.7 macrophages; L-S-CM reduces CSF1R signaling pathway (CSF1R, P38MAPK, and NFκB) activation, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and ROS production. In vivo experiments have verified that stigmasterol can reduce thermal and cold hyperalgesia in rat chronic compressive nerve injury (CCI) model; stigmasterol can reduce IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, CCL2, SP, and PGE2 in serum of CCI rats; immunohistochemistry and western blot confirmed that stigmasterol can reduce the levels of IL-34/CSF1R signaling pathway and NLRP3 inflammasome in DRG of CCI rats. CONCLUSION: Stigmasterol alleviates neuropathic pain by reducing Schwann cell-macrophage cascade in DRG by modulating IL-34/CSF1R axis.

Neuralgia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Estigmasterol/farmacologia , Estigmasterol/uso terapêutico , Inflamassomos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Interleucinas , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Células de Schwann/metabolismo
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508408


Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is an intense and debilitating orofacial pain. The gold standard treatment for TN is carbamazepine. This antiepileptic drug provides pain relief with limited efficacy and side effects. To study the antinociceptive potential of cannabidiol (CBD) and its fluorinated analog PECS-101 (former HUF-101), we induced unilateral chronic constriction injury of the infraorbital nerve (IoN-CCI) in male Wistar rats. Seven days of treatment with CBD (30 mg/kg), PECS-101 (3, 10, and 30 mg/kg), or carbamazepine (10 and 30 mg/kg) reduced allodynia and hyperalgesia responses. Unlike carbamazepine, CBD and PECS-101 did not impair motor activity. The relief of the hypersensitive reactions has been associated with transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) modulation in the trigeminal spinal nucleus. CBD (30 mg/kg) and PECS-101 (10 and 30 mg/kg) reversed the increased expression of TRPV1 induced by IoN-CCI in this nucleus. Using a pharmacological strategy, the combination of the selective TRPV1 antagonist (capsazepine-CPZ - 5 mg/kg) with sub-effective doses of CBD (3 and 10 mg/kg) is also able to reverse the IoN-CCI-induced allodynia and hyperalgesia responses. This effect was accompanied by reduced TRPV1 protein expression in the trigeminal spinal nucleus. Our results suggest that CBD and PECS-101 may benefit trigeminal neuralgia without motor coordination impairments. PECS-101 is more potent against the hypernociceptive and motor impairment induced by TN compared to CBD and carbamazepine. The antinociceptive effect of these cannabinoids is partially mediated by TRPV1 receptors in the caudal part of the trigeminal spinal nucleus, the first central station of orofacial pain processing.

Canabidiol , Neuralgia , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Canabidiol/farmacologia , Canabidiol/uso terapêutico , Carbamazepina/farmacologia , Carbamazepina/uso terapêutico , Dor Facial/metabolismo , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos Wistar , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo/complicações , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo/tratamento farmacológico
Biol Pharm Bull ; 47(3): 629-634, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38494735


Inflammation is involved in the induction of chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Moreover, the ketogenic diet, a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and adequate protein diet, has an anti-inflammatory effect. Thus, we hypothesized that a ketogenic diet has a therapeutic effect on both types of chronic pain. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a ketogenic diet on mechanical allodynia, a chronic pain symptom, in formalin-induced chronic inflammatory pain and nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain models using adult male mice. Formalin injection into the hind paw induced mechanical allodynia in both the injected and intact hind paws, and the ketogenic diet alleviated mechanical allodynia in both hind paws. In addition, the ketogenic diet prevented formalin-induced edema. Furthermore, the diet alleviated mechanical allodynia induced by peripheral nerve injury. Thus, these findings indicate that a ketogenic diet has a therapeutic effect on chronic pain induced by inflammation and nerve injury.

Dor Crônica , Dieta Cetogênica , Neuralgia , Camundongos , Masculino , Animais , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 49(3): 289-295, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38500326


OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of the elongated needling at the points of hand and foot yang meridians and the Governor Vessel combined with the routine acupuncture therapy on pain, balance function and muscle strength of the patients with post-stroke hemiplegia and central post-stroke pain (CPSP), and to investigate whether its therapeutic mechanism is related to antioxidant damage. METHODS: Ninety-four patients with post-stroke hemiplegia and CPSP admitted from March 2020 to September 2021 were divided into a trial group (47 cases, 1 cases dropped out) and a control group (47 cases 3 cases dropped out). In the control group, the rehabilitation exercise combined with routine acupuncture therapy was used, and in the trial group, on the base of the treatment as the control group, the elongated needling at the points of hand and foot yang meridians and the Governor Vessel was supplemented. In the two groups, the treatment was given once daily, and 1 course of treatment was composed of 14 days, a total of 6 courses were required in the trial. Separately, before treatment, and 1, 2 and 3 months after treatment, between two groups, the score of visual analogue scale (VAS) and that of Berg balance scale (BBS), as well as muscle strength were compared;the neural function was evaluated using the national institutes of health stroke scale (NIHSS) and the serum contents of nitricoxide synthase (NOS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected by ELISA in the patients. RESULTS: Compared with those before treatment, VAS score and NIHSS score were all decreased (P<0.05) in the trial and the control group after 1 month, 2 months and 3 months of treatment, and BBS score was increased (P<0.05);and the case proportion of muscle strength grade 4 and 5 was higher (P<0.05) in the trial group. In the control group, the proportion of grade 4 increased after treatment for 2 months (P<0.05), and that of grade 4 and 5 increased after treatment for 3 months (P<0.05). The serum contents of NOS and SOD were increased (P<0.05), and MDA was decreased (P<0.05) after 3 months of treatment in the two groups. In comparison with the control group at the same time point, VAS score and NIHSS score were lower (P<0.05), BBS score higher (P<0.05) and the muscle strength grade was improved (P<0.05, P<0.01) after 1, 2 and 3 months of treatment, respectively;and the serum contents of NOS and SOD increased (P<0.05), and MDA decreased (P<0.05) after 3 months of treatment in the trial group. CONCLUSIONS: The elongated needling at the points of hand and foot yang meridians and the Governor Vessel, combined with the routine acupuncture therapy alleviates CPSP, improves balance and muscle strength and promotes the recovery of neural function in the patients with post-stroke hemiplegia, the mechanism may be related to antioxidant damage.

Terapia por Acupuntura , Neuralgia , Humanos , Hemiplegia/etiologia , Hemiplegia/terapia , Antioxidantes , 60575 , Resultado do Tratamento , Superóxido Dismutase , Pontos de Acupuntura