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3.
Mo Med ; 121(1): 68-75, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38404431

RESUMO

A large constellation of experimental evidence suggests that neuroinflammation is involved in the onset of depression and neurodegenerative disorders. Many studies have shown impairments in tryptophan metabolism, the major pathway for the synthesis of serotonin, the mood regulating neurotransmitter. This article reviews the various metabolites generated in the competing pathways of tryptophan metabolism including the kynurenine pathway. Increased synthesis of the neurotoxic compound quinolinic acid occurs at the expense of the synthesis of the neuroprotective metabolite kynurenic acid. This shift in equilibrium plays a critical role in the induction of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and neurotoxicity. Sufficient protein intake with adequate amounts of tryptophan along with dietary antioxidants and flavonoids may offer protection against major depressive and neurodegenerative disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Neuroquímica , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Humanos , Triptofano/metabolismo , Depressão , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/metabolismo , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias
4.
Cerebellum ; 23(1): 92-100, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598718

RESUMO

Extensive evidence supports the claim that the serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) can be used as a biomarker to monitor disease severity in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3). However, little is known about the associations between sNfL levels and neurochemical alterations in SCA3 patients. In this study, we performed a cross-sectional study to analyze the association between sNfL and brain metabolic changes in SCA3 patients. The severity of ataxia was assessed by using the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) and the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS). The sNfL levels and brain metabolic changes, represented by N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) and choline complex (Cho)/Cr ratios, were measured by a single-molecule array and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. In this cohort, we observed consistently elevated sNfL levels and reduced brain metabolites in the cerebellar hemispheres, dentate nucleus, and cerebellar vermis. However, this correlation was further validated in the cerebellar cortex after analysis using pairwise comparisons and a Bonferroni correction. Taken together, our results further confirmed that sNfL levels were increased in SCA3 patients and were negatively correlated with metabolic changes in the cerebellar cortex. Our data also support the idea that sNfL levels are a promising potential complementary biomarker for patients with SCA3.


Assuntos
Ataxia Cerebelar , Doença de Machado-Joseph , Neuroquímica , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Filamentos Intermediários/metabolismo , Filamentos Intermediários/patologia , Proteínas de Neurofilamentos , Ataxia , Biomarcadores
5.
Brain Res ; 1824: 148692, 2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38036237

RESUMO

Inflammation during pregnancy can induce neurodevelopmental changes that affect the neurological health of offspring. Elevated levels of circulating inflammatory cytokines have been shown to decrease nocturnal melatonin synthesis by the pineal gland, potentially impacting fetal development. This study aimed to assess the effects of LPS-induced inflammation on melatonin concentrations in the plasma of pregnant female rats and explore resulting neurochemical and behavioral changes in their offspring. Our findings revealed that pregnant rats injected with LPS experienced decreased nocturnal melatonin levels in their plasma, with an increase in diurnal melatonin content. The offspring exhibited reduced performance in tests evaluating motor coordination and spatial memory compared to control subjects. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated a decline in calbindin immunoreactivity in Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. Additionally, the hippocampus displayed an increase in IBA-1 and calretinin expression, coupled with a reduction in parvalbumin expression in the offspring of the LPS group. Collectively, this study provides compelling evidence that an inflammatory state can lead to a reduction in melatonin synthesis in pregnant females, potentially impacting the neurodevelopment of offspring, including neuronal, glial, motor, and cognitive aspects. Subsequent studies will further elucidate the mechanisms underlying inflammation-induced maternal melatonin reduction and its impact on offspring neurodevelopment.


Assuntos
Melatonina , Neuroquímica , Glândula Pineal , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Humanos , Gravidez , Ratos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Melatonina/farmacologia , Melatonina/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo
6.
Nat Rev Neurol ; 20(1): 22-35, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38110704

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a leading cause of global disability. Current pharmacotherapy for the disease predominantly uses one mechanism - dopamine D2 receptor blockade - but often shows limited efficacy and poor tolerability. These limitations highlight the need to better understand the aetiology of the disease to aid the development of alternative therapeutic approaches. Here, we review the latest meta-analyses and other findings on the neurobiology of prodromal, first-episode and chronic schizophrenia, and the link to psychotic symptoms, focusing on imaging evidence from people with the disorder. This evidence demonstrates regionally specific neurotransmitter alterations, including higher glutamate and dopamine measures in the basal ganglia, and lower glutamate, dopamine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in cortical regions, particularly the frontal cortex, relative to healthy individuals. We consider how dysfunction in cortico-thalamo-striatal-midbrain circuits might alter brain information processing to underlie psychotic symptoms. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for developing new, mechanistically based treatments and precision medicine for psychotic symptoms, as well as negative and cognitive symptoms.


Assuntos
Neuroquímica , Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Psicóticos/etiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Ácido Glutâmico
7.
J Neurochem ; 167(6): 719-732, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38037432

RESUMO

While visceral pain is commonly associated with disorders of the gut-brain axis, underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons innervate visceral structures and undergo hypersensitization in inflammatory models. The characterization of peripheral DRG neuron terminals is an active area of research, but recent work suggests that they communicate with enteroendocrine cells (EECs) in the gut. EECs sense stimuli in the intestinal lumen and communicate information to the brain through hormonal and electrical signaling. In that context, EECs are a target for developing therapeutics to treat visceral pain. Linaclotide is an FDA-approved treatment for chronic constipation that activates the intestinal membrane receptor guanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C). Clinical trials revealed that linaclotide relieves both constipation and visceral pain. We recently demonstrated that the analgesic effect of linaclotide reflects the overexpression of GUCY2C on neuropod cells, a specialized subtype of EECs. While this brings some clarity to the relationship between linaclotide and visceral analgesia, questions remain about the intracellular signaling mechanisms and neurotransmitters mediating this communication. In this Fundamental Neurochemistry Review, we discuss what is currently known about visceral nociceptors, enteroendocrine cells, and the gut-brain axis, and ongoing areas of research regarding that axis and visceral pain.


Assuntos
Neuroquímica , Dor Visceral , Humanos , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Transdução de Sinais , Células Enteroendócrinas , Receptores de Enterotoxina
8.
J Neurochem ; 167(3): 337-346, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37800457

RESUMO

Since the first description of Parkinson's disease (PD) over two centuries ago, the recognition of rare types of atypical parkinsonism has introduced a spectrum of related PD-like diseases. Among these is progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), a neurodegenerative condition that clinically differentiates through the presence of additional symptoms uncommon in PD. As with PD, the initial symptoms of PSP generally present in the sixth decade of life when the underpinning neurodegeneration is already significantly advanced. The causal trigger of neuronal cell loss in PSP is unknown and treatment options are consequently limited. However, converging lines of evidence from the distinct neurodegenerative conditions of PD and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are beginning to provide insights into potential commonalities in PSP pathology and opportunity for novel therapeutic intervention. These include accumulation of the high abundance cuproenzyme superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) in an aberrant copper-deficient state, associated evidence for altered availability of the essential micronutrient copper, and evidence for neuroprotection using compounds that can deliver available copper to the central nervous system. Herein, we discuss the existing evidence for SOD1 pathology and copper imbalance in PSP and speculate that treatments able to provide neuroprotection through manipulation of copper availability could be applicable to the treatment of PSP.


Assuntos
Neuroquímica , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Doença de Parkinson , Paralisia Supranuclear Progressiva , Humanos , Paralisia Supranuclear Progressiva/diagnóstico , Paralisia Supranuclear Progressiva/patologia , Cobre , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/terapia , Superóxido Dismutase-1 , Doença de Parkinson/patologia
9.
J Neurochem ; 167(5): 711-715, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37859335

RESUMO

Frode Fonnum died unexpectedly on 26th April 2023, at 86 years of age. He was a tower of strength-a primeval force-in neuroscience, neurochemistry and toxicology. His highly cited publications, comprised salient evidence for GABA and glutamate as brain neurotransmitters. He served as an expert, and as an organizer, including of European research cooperation and as President of the International Society for Neurochemistry (ISN). Photo credit: Per Kristian Opstad.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Neuroquímica , Neurotransmissores , Ácido Glutâmico
10.
Biol Sex Differ ; 14(1): 75, 2023 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37898775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite observed sex differences in the prevalence of stress-related psychiatric conditions, most preclinical and translational studies have only included male subjects. Therefore, it has not been possible to effectively assess how sex interacts with other psychosocial risk factors to impact the etiology and maintenance of stress-related psychopathology. One psychosocial factor that interacts with sex to impact risk for stress-related behavioral and physiological deficits is social dominance. The current study was designed to assess sex differences in the effects of social status on socioemotional behavior and serotonin neurochemistry in socially housed rhesus monkeys. We hypothesized that sex and social status interact to influence socioemotional behaviors as well as serotonin 1A receptor binding potential (5HT1AR-BP) in regions of interest (ROIs) implicated in socioemotional behavior. METHODS: Behavioral observations were conducted in gonadally intact adult female (n = 14) and male (n = 13) rhesus monkeys. 5HT1AR-BP was assessed via positron emission tomography using 4-(2'-Methoxyphenyl)-1-[2'-(N-2"-pyridinyl)-p[18F]fluorobenzamido]ethylpiperazine ([18F]MPPF). RESULTS: Aggression emitted was greater in dominant compared to subordinate animals, regardless of sex. Submission emitted was significantly greater in subordinate versus dominant animals and greater in females than males. Affiliative behaviors emitted were not impacted by sex, status, or their interaction. Anxiety-like behavior emitted was significantly greater in females than in males regardless of social status. Hypothalamic 5HT1AR-BP was significantly greater in females than in males, regardless of social status. 5HT1AR-BP in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus was significantly impacted by a sex by status interaction whereby 5HT1AR-BP in the dentate gyrus was greater in dominant compared to subordinate females but was not different between dominant and subordinate males. There were no effects of sex, status, or their interaction on 5HT1AR-BP in the DRN and in the regions of the PFC studied. CONCLUSIONS: These data have important implications for the treatment of stress-related behavioral health outcomes, as they suggest that sex and social status are important factors to consider in the context of serotonergic drug efficacy.


Females are more likely to suffer from stress-related conditions that impact socioemotional behavior compared to males. One thing that influences how sex impacts stress-related health problems is social dominance. We examined whether there are sex differences in the effects of social dominance on socioemotional behavior in socially housed rhesus monkeys. Because the neurotransmitter serotonin is important for socioemotional behavior, we also looked at the levels of the 5HT1AR receptor using neuroimaging. Aggression was greater in dominant compared to subordinate animals, and submission was significantly greater in subordinate versus dominant animals and greater in females than males. Anxiety and levels of 5HT1AR in the hypothalamus were significantly greater in females than in males. 5HT1AR in the hippocampus was greater in dominant compared to subordinate females but was not different between dominant and subordinate males. Overall, these data are important for the treatment of stress-related behavioral health outcomes because suggest that sex and social dominance are important factors to consider in the context of how effective drugs targeting the serotonin system are for treating stress-related behavioral health conditions.


Assuntos
Neuroquímica , Serotonina , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Serotonina/farmacologia , Serotonina/fisiologia , Macaca mulatta/fisiologia , Macaca mulatta/psicologia , Status Social , Agressão/fisiologia , Agressão/psicologia
11.
J Neurochem ; 167(2): 129-153, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37759406

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating neurological disorder caused by a physical impact to the brain that promotes diffuse damage and chronic neurodegeneration. Key mechanisms believed to support secondary brain injury include mitochondrial dysfunction and chronic neuroinflammation. Microglia and brain-infiltrating macrophages are responsible for neuroinflammatory cytokine and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production after TBI. Their production is associated with loss of homeostatic microglial functions such as immunosurveillance, phagocytosis, and immune resolution. Beyond providing energy support, mitochondrial metabolic pathways reprogram the pro- and anti-inflammatory machinery in immune cells, providing a critical immunometabolic axis capable of regulating immunologic response to noxious stimuli. In the brain, the capacity to adapt to different environmental stimuli derives, in part, from microglia's ability to recognize and respond to changes in extracellular and intracellular metabolite levels. This capacity is met by an equally plastic metabolism, capable of altering immune function. Microglial pro-inflammatory activation is associated with decreased mitochondrial respiration, whereas anti-inflammatory microglial polarization is supported by increased oxidative metabolism. These metabolic adaptations contribute to neuroimmune responses, placing mitochondria as a central regulator of post-traumatic neuroinflammation. Although it is established that profound neurometabolic changes occur following TBI, key questions related to metabolic shifts in microglia remain unresolved. These include (a) the nature of microglial mitochondrial dysfunction after TBI, (b) the hierarchical positions of different metabolic pathways such as glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, glutaminolysis, and lipid oxidation during secondary injury and recovery, and (c) how immunometabolism alters microglial phenotypes, culminating in chronic non-resolving neuroinflammation. In this basic neurochemistry review article, we describe the contributions of immunometabolism to TBI, detail primary evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic impairments in microglia and macrophages, discuss how major metabolic pathways contribute to post-traumatic neuroinflammation, and set out future directions toward advancing immunometabolic phenotyping in TBI.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Neuroquímica , Animais , Camundongos , Microglia/metabolismo , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
12.
Pain ; 164(12): 2737-2748, 2023 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37751539

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Fibromyalgia has been characterized by augmented cross-network functional communication between the brain's sensorimotor, default mode, and attentional (salience/ventral and dorsal) networks. However, the underlying mechanisms of these aberrant communication patterns are unknown. In this study, we sought to understand large-scale topographic patterns at instantaneous timepoints, known as co-activation patterns (CAPs). We found that a sustained pressure pain challenge temporally modulated the occurrence of CAPs. Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we found that greater basal excitatory over inhibitory neurotransmitter levels within the anterior insula orchestrated higher cross-network connectivity between the anterior insula and the default mode network through lower occurrence of a CAP encompassing the attentional networks during sustained pain. Moreover, we found that hyperalgesia in fibromyalgia was mediated through increased occurrence of a CAP encompassing the sensorimotor network during sustained pain. In conclusion, this study elucidates the role of momentary large-scale topographic brain patterns in shaping noxious information in patients with fibromyalgia, while laying the groundwork for using precise spatiotemporal dynamics of the brain for the potential development of therapeutics.


Assuntos
Fibromialgia , Neuroquímica , Humanos , Fibromialgia/diagnóstico por imagem , Hiperalgesia/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor , Mapeamento Encefálico , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem
13.
J Neurochem ; 166(6): 915-927, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37603368

RESUMO

The Flaviviridae family comprises positive-sense single-strand RNA viruses mainly transmitted by arthropods. Many of these pathogens are especially deleterious to the nervous system, and a myriad of neurological symptoms have been associated with infections by Zika virus (ZIKV), West Nile virus (WNV), and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in humans. Studies suggest that viral replication in neural cells and the massive release of pro-inflammatory mediators lead to morphological alterations of synaptic spine structure and changes in the balance of excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmitters and receptors. Glutamate is the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, and studies propose that either enhanced release or impaired uptake of this amino acid contributes to brain damage in several conditions. Here, we review existing evidence suggesting that glutamatergic dysfunction-induced by flaviviruses is a central mechanism for neurological damage and clinical outcomes of infection. We also discuss current data suggesting that pharmacological approaches that counteract glutamatergic dysfunction show benefits in animal models of such viral diseases.


Assuntos
Flavivirus , Neuroquímica , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Humanos , Ácido Glutâmico
14.
Brain Dev ; 45(10): 583-587, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37543484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the FBXO28 gene, which encodes FBXO28, one of the F-box protein family, may cause developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). FBXO28-related DEE is radiologically characterized by cerebral atrophy, delayed/abnormal myelination, and brain malformation; however, no neurochemical analyses have been reported. CASE REPORT: A female Japanese infant presented with severe psychomotor delay, epileptic spasms, and visual impairment. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a de novo variant of the FBXO28 gene, leading to the diagnosis of FBXO28-related DEE. Magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy at 6, 12, and 32 months revealed decreased N-acetylaspartate and choline-containing compounds and increased levels of myoinositol. CONCLUSION: MR spectroscopy revealed neurochemical derangement in FBXO28-related DEE, that is, disturbed myelination secondary to neuronal damage with astrogliosis.


Assuntos
Neuroquímica , Espasmos Infantis , Lactente , Humanos , Feminino , Mutação , Espasmos Infantis/diagnóstico por imagem , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Proteínas Ligases SKP Culina F-Box/genética
15.
J Neurochem ; 166(1): 7-9, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37414436

RESUMO

Mychael Lourenco is an Assistant Professor of Neuroscience at the Institute of Medical Biochemistry Leopoldo de Meis, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. Research in his lab focusses on understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment in neurodegeneration and his research on Alzheimer's disease has been recognized by many awards both in Brazil and internationally. He serves as a Reviews Editor for the Journal of Neurochemistry and led this special issue on Brain Proteostasis as a Guest Editor. Here we interviewed him to hear his thoughts on the future of neuroscience and on career development and training.


Assuntos
Neuroquímica , Proteostase , Encéfalo , Brasil
16.
Brain Struct Funct ; 228(6): 1379-1398, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37378855

RESUMO

The mammillary body (MB) is a component of the extended hippocampal system and many studies have shown that its functions are vital for mnemonic processes. Together with other subcortical structures, such as the anterior thalamic nuclei and tegmental nuclei of Gudden, the MB plays a crucial role in the processing of spatial and working memory, as well as navigation in rats. The aim of this paper is to review the distribution of various substances in the MB of the rat, with a description of their possible physiological roles. The following groups of substances are reviewed: (1) classical neurotransmitters (glutamate and other excitatory transmitters, gamma-aminobutyric acid, acetylcholine, serotonin, and dopamine), (2) neuropeptides (enkephalins, substance P, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, neurotensin, neuropeptide Y, somatostatin, orexins, and galanin), and (3) other substances (calcium-binding proteins and calcium sensor proteins). This detailed description of the chemical parcellation may facilitate a better understanding of the MB functions and its complex relations with other structures of the extended hippocampal system.


Assuntos
Núcleos Anteriores do Tálamo , Neuroquímica , Ratos , Animais , Corpos Mamilares , Aminoácidos , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(12)2023 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37373499

RESUMO

Anxiety and depressive disorders are closely associated; however, the pathophysiology of these disorders remains poorly understood. Further exploration of the mechanisms involved in anxiety and depression such as the stress response may provide new knowledge that will contribute to our understanding of these disorders. Fifty-eight 8-12-week-old C57BL6 mice were separated into experimental groups by sex as follows: male controls (n = 14), male restraint stress (n = 14), female controls (n = 15) and female restraint stress (n = 15). These mice were taken through a 4-week randomised chronic restraint stress protocol, and their behaviour, as well as tryptophan metabolism and synaptic proteins, were measured in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Adrenal catecholamine regulation was also measured. The female mice showed greater anxiety-like behaviour than their male counterparts. Tryptophan metabolism was unaffected by stress, but some basal sex characteristics were noted. Synaptic proteins were reduced in the hippocampus in stressed females but increased in the prefrontal cortex of all female mice. These changes were not found in any males. Finally, the stressed female mice showed increased catecholamine biosynthesis capability, but this effect was not found in males. Future studies in animal models should consider these sex differences when evaluating mechanisms related to chronic stress and depression.


Assuntos
Neuroquímica , Camundongos , Feminino , Animais , Masculino , Triptofano/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal , Catecolaminas/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Restrição Física
18.
J Neurochem ; 166(3): 427-452, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37161795

RESUMO

Brain aging is a naturally occurring process resulting in the decline of cognitive functions and increased vulnerability to develop age-associated disorders. Fluctuation in lipid species is crucial for normal brain development and function. However, impaired lipid metabolism and changes in lipid composition in the brain have been increasingly recognized to play a crucial role in physiological aging, as well as in several neurodegenerative diseases. In the last decades, the role of sexual dimorphism in the vulnerability to develop age-related neurodegeneration has increased. However, further studies are warranted for detailed assessment of how age, sex, and additional non-biological factors may influence the lipid changes in brains. The aim of this work is to address the presence of sex differences in the brain lipid changes that occur along aging, and in the two most common age-related neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases). We included the studies that assessed lipid-related alterations in the brain of both humans and experimental models. Additionally, we explored the influence of sex on lipid-lowering therapies. We conclude that sex exerts a notable effect on lipid modifications occurring with age and neurodegeneration, and in lipid-reducing interventions. Therefore, the application of sex as an experimental variable is strongly encouraged for future research in the field of precision medicine approach.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Neuroquímica , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos
19.
Ann Neurol ; 94(4): 658-671, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37243335

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is the most common dominantly inherited ataxia, and biomarkers are needed to noninvasively monitor disease progression and treatment response. Anti-ATXN3 antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) treatment has been shown to mitigate neuropathology and rescue motor phenotypes in SCA3 mice. Here, we investigated whether repeated ASO administration reverses brainstem and cerebellar neurochemical abnormalities by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). METHODS: Symptomatic SCA3 mice received intracerebroventricular treatment of ASO or vehicle and were compared to wild-type vehicle-treated littermates. To quantify neurochemical changes in treated mice, longitudinal 9.4T MRS of cerebellum and brainstem was performed. Acquired magnetic resonance (MR) group means were analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance mixed-effects sex-adjusted analysis with post hoc Sidak correlation for multiple comparisons. Pearson correlations were used to relate SCA3 pathology and behavior. RESULTS: MR spectra yielded 15 to 16 neurochemical concentrations in the cerebellum and brainstem. ASO treatment in SCA3 mice resulted in significant total choline rescue and partial reversals of taurine, glutamine, and total N-acetylaspartate across both regions. Some ASO-rescued neurochemicals correlated with reduction in diseased protein and nuclear ATXN3 accumulation. ASO-corrected motor activity correlated with total choline and total N-acetylaspartate levels early in disease. INTERPRETATION: SCA3 mouse cerebellar and brainstem neurochemical trends parallel those in patients with SCA3. Decreased total choline may reflect oligodendrocyte abnormalities, decreased total N-acetylaspartate highlights neuronal health disturbances, and high glutamine may indicate gliosis. ASO treatment fully or partially reversed select neurochemical abnormalities in SCA3 mice, indicating the potential for these measures to serve as noninvasive treatment biomarkers in future SCA3 gene silencing trials. ANN NEUROL 2023;94:658-671.


Assuntos
Doença de Machado-Joseph , Neuroquímica , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Doença de Machado-Joseph/genética , Doença de Machado-Joseph/patologia , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/uso terapêutico , Glutamina , Biomarcadores , Colina/metabolismo
20.
Neuroimage ; 276: 120193, 2023 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37244323

RESUMO

We present a hierarchical empirical Bayesian framework for testing hypotheses about neurotransmitters' concertation as empirical prior for synaptic physiology using ultra-high field magnetic resonance spectroscopy (7T-MRS) and magnetoencephalography data (MEG). A first level dynamic causal modelling of cortical microcircuits is used to infer the connectivity parameters of a generative model of individuals' neurophysiological observations. At the second level, individuals' 7T-MRS estimates of regional neurotransmitter concentration supply empirical priors on synaptic connectivity. We compare the group-wise evidence for alternative empirical priors, defined by monotonic functions of spectroscopic estimates, on subsets of synaptic connections. For efficiency and reproducibility, we used Bayesian model reduction (BMR), parametric empirical Bayes and variational Bayesian inversion. In particular, we used Bayesian model reduction to compare alternative model evidence of how spectroscopic neurotransmitter measures inform estimates of synaptic connectivity. This identifies the subset of synaptic connections that are influenced by individual differences in neurotransmitter levels, as measured by 7T-MRS. We demonstrate the method using resting-state MEG (i.e., task-free recording) and 7T-MRS data from healthy adults. Our results confirm the hypotheses that GABA concentration influences local recurrent inhibitory intrinsic connectivity in deep and superficial cortical layers, while glutamate influences the excitatory connections between superficial and deep layers and connections from superficial to inhibitory interneurons. Using within-subject split-sampling of the MEG dataset (i.e., validation by means of a held-out dataset), we show that model comparison for hypothesis testing can be highly reliable. The method is suitable for applications with magnetoencephalography or electroencephalography, and is well-suited to reveal the mechanisms of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including responses to psychopharmacological interventions.


Assuntos
Magnetoencefalografia , Neuroquímica , Adulto , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografia/métodos , Teorema de Bayes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Neurológicos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
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