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1.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2837, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565566

RESUMO

The adult mammalian brain retains some capacity to replenish neurons and glia, holding promise for brain regeneration. Thus, understanding the mechanisms controlling adult neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation is crucial. Paradoxically, adult NSCs in the subependymal zone transcribe genes associated with both multipotency maintenance and neural differentiation, but the mechanism that prevents conflicts in fate decisions due to these opposing transcriptional programmes is unknown. Here we describe intron detention as such control mechanism. In NSCs, while multiple mRNAs from stemness genes are spliced and exported to the cytoplasm, transcripts from differentiation genes remain unspliced and detained in the nucleus, and the opposite is true under neural differentiation conditions. We also show that m6A methylation is the mechanism that releases intron detention and triggers nuclear export, enabling rapid and synchronized responses. m6A RNA methylation operates as an on/off switch for transcripts with antagonistic functions, tightly controlling the timing of NSCs commitment to differentiation.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Neurais , Animais , Íntrons/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Neurônios , Neurogênese/genética , Mamíferos
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7710, 2024 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565579

RESUMO

Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease and the leading cause of dementia. Early diagnosis is critical for patients to benefit from potential intervention and treatment. The retina has emerged as a plausible diagnostic site for AD detection owing to its anatomical connection with the brain. However, existing AI models for this purpose have yet to provide a rational explanation behind their decisions and have not been able to infer the stage of the disease's progression. Along this direction, we propose a novel model-agnostic explainable-AI framework, called Granu la ̲ r Neuron-le v ̲ el Expl a ̲ iner (LAVA), an interpretation prototype that probes into intermediate layers of the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) models to directly assess the continuum of AD from the retinal imaging without the need for longitudinal or clinical evaluations. This innovative approach aims to validate retinal vasculature as a biomarker and diagnostic modality for evaluating Alzheimer's Disease. Leveraged UK Biobank cognitive tests and vascular morphological features demonstrate significant promise and effectiveness of LAVA in identifying AD stages across the progression continuum.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Humanos , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Fundo de Olho , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurônios , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
3.
Mol Autism ; 15(1): 12, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glutamatergic synapse dysfunction is believed to underlie the development of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Intellectual Disability (ID) in many individuals. However, identification of genetic markers that contribute to synaptic dysfunction in these individuals is notoriously difficult. Based on genomic analysis, structural modeling, and functional data, we recently established the involvement of the TRIO-RAC1 pathway in ASD and ID. Furthermore, we identified a pathological de novo missense mutation hotspot in TRIO's GEF1 domain. ASD/ID-related missense mutations within this domain compromise glutamatergic synapse function and likely contribute to the development of ASD/ID. The number of ASD/ID cases with mutations identified within TRIO's GEF1 domain is increasing. However, tools for accurately predicting whether such mutations are detrimental to protein function are lacking. METHODS: Here we deployed advanced protein structural modeling techniques to predict potential de novo pathogenic and benign mutations within TRIO's GEF1 domain. Mutant TRIO-9 constructs were generated and expressed in CA1 pyramidal neurons of organotypic cultured hippocampal slices. AMPA receptor-mediated postsynaptic currents were examined in these neurons using dual whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology. We also validated these findings using orthogonal co-immunoprecipitation and fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM-FRET) experiments to assay TRIO mutant overexpression effects on TRIO-RAC1 binding and on RAC1 activity in HEK293/T cells. RESULTS: Missense mutations in TRIO's GEF1 domain that were predicted to disrupt TRIO-RAC1 binding or stability were tested experimentally and found to greatly impair TRIO-9's influence on glutamatergic synapse function. In contrast, missense mutations in TRIO's GEF1 domain that were predicted to have minimal effect on TRIO-RAC1 binding or stability did not impair TRIO-9's influence on glutamatergic synapse function in our experimental assays. In orthogonal assays, we find most of the mutations predicted to disrupt binding display loss of function but mutants predicted to disrupt stability do not reflect our results from neuronal electrophysiological data. LIMITATIONS: We present a method to predict missense mutations in TRIO's GEF1 domain that may compromise TRIO function and test for effects in a limited number of assays. Possible limitations arising from the model systems employed here can be addressed in future studies. Our method does not provide evidence for whether these mutations confer ASD/ID risk or the likelihood that such mutations will result in the development of ASD/ID. CONCLUSIONS: Here we show that a combination of structure-based computational predictions and experimental validation can be employed to reliably predict whether missense mutations in the human TRIO gene impede TRIO protein function and compromise TRIO's role in glutamatergic synapse regulation. With the growing accessibility of genome sequencing, the use of such tools in the accurate identification of pathological mutations will be instrumental in diagnostics of ASD/ID.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Deficiência Intelectual , Humanos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Mutação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Neurônios/metabolismo
4.
Biol Sex Differ ; 15(1): 30, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal hypoxia ischemia (HI) related brain injury is one of the major causes of learning disabilities and memory deficits in children. In both human and animal studies, female neonate brains are less susceptible to HI than male brains. Phosphorylation of the nerve growth factor receptor TrkB has been shown to provide sex-specific neuroprotection following in vivo HI in female mice in an estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-dependent manner. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms conferring sex-specific neonatal neuroprotection remain incompletely understood. Here, we test whether female neonatal hippocampal neurons express autonomous neuroprotective properties and assess the ability of testosterone (T) to alter this phenotype. METHODS: We cultured sexed hippocampal neurons from ERα+/+ and ERα-/- mice and subjected them to 4 h oxygen glucose deprivation and 24 h reoxygenation (4-OGD/24-REOX). Sexed hippocampal neurons were treated either with vehicle control (VC) or the TrkB agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) following in vitro ischemia. End points at 24 h REOX were TrkB phosphorylation (p-TrkB) and neuronal survival assessed by immunohistochemistry. In addition, in vitro ischemia-mediated ERα gene expression in hippocampal neurons were investigated following testosterone (T) pre-treatment and TrkB antagonist therapy via q-RTPCR. Multifactorial analysis of variance was conducted to test for significant differences between experimental conditions. RESULTS: Under normoxic conditions, administration of 3 µM 7,8-DHF resulted an ERα-dependent increase in p-TrkB immunoexpression that was higher in female, as compared to male neurons. Following 4-OGD/24-REOX, p-TrkB expression increased 20% in both male and female ERα+/+ neurons. However, with 3 µM 7,8-DHF treatment p-TrkB expression increased further in female neurons by 2.81 ± 0.79-fold and was ERα dependent. 4-OGD/24-REOX resulted in a 56% increase in cell death, but only female cells were rescued with 3 µM 7,8-DHF, again in an ERα dependent manner. Following 4-OGD/3-REOX, ERα mRNA increased ~ 3 fold in female neurons. This increase was blocked with either the TrkB antagonist ANA-12 or pre-treatment with T. Pre-treatment with T also blocked the 7,8-DHF- dependent sex-specific neuronal survival in female neurons following 4-OGD/24-REOX. CONCLUSIONS: OGD/REOX results in sex-dependent TrkB phosphorylation in female neurons that increases further with 7,8-DHF treatment. TrkB phosphorylation by 7,8-DHF increased ERα mRNA expression and promoted cell survival preferentially in female hippocampal neurons. The sex-dependent neuroprotective actions of 7,8-DHF were blocked by either ANA-12 or by T pre-treatment. These results are consistent with a model for a female-specific neuroprotective pathway in hippocampal neurons in response to hypoxia. The pathway is activated by 7,8-DHF, mediated by TrkB phosphorylation, dependent on ERα and blocked by pre-exposure to T.


Assuntos
Receptor alfa de Estrogênio , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Criança , Feminino , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Humanos , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Neuroproteção , Caracteres Sexuais , Testosterona/farmacologia , Testosterona/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Isquemia , Hipóxia/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
5.
Elife ; 132024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568729

RESUMO

Primates rely on two eyes to perceive depth, while maintaining stable vision when either one eye or both eyes are open. Although psychophysical and modeling studies have investigated how monocular signals are combined to form binocular vision, the underlying neuronal mechanisms, particularly in V1 where most neurons exhibit binocularity with varying eye preferences, remain poorly understood. Here, we used two-photon calcium imaging to compare the monocular and binocular responses of thousands of simultaneously recorded V1 superficial-layer neurons in three awake macaques. During monocular stimulation, neurons preferring the stimulated eye exhibited significantly stronger responses compared to those preferring both eyes. However, during binocular stimulation, the responses of neurons preferring either eye were suppressed on the average, while those preferring both eyes were enhanced, resulting in similar neuronal responses irrespective of their eye preferences, and an overall response level similar to that with monocular viewing. A neuronally realistic model of binocular combination, which incorporates ocular dominance-dependent divisive interocular inhibition and binocular summation, is proposed to account for these findings.


Assuntos
Dominância Ocular , Olho , Animais , Visão Binocular , Macaca , Neurônios
6.
Biol Sex Differ ; 15(1): 29, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The insular cortex (IC) plays a pivotal role in processing interoceptive and emotional information, offering insights into sex differences in behavior and cognition. The IC comprises two distinct subregions: the anterior insular cortex (aIC), that processes emotional and social signals, and the posterior insular cortex (pIC), specialized in interoception and perception of pain. Pyramidal projection neurons within the IC integrate multimodal sensory inputs, influencing behavior and cognition. Despite previous research focusing on neuronal connectivity and transcriptomics, there has been a gap in understanding pyramidal neurons characteristics across subregions and between sexes. METHODS: Adult male and female C57Bl/6J mice were sacrificed and tissue containing the IC was collected for ex vivo slice electrophysiology recordings that examined baseline sex differences in synaptic plasticity and transmission within aIC and pIC subregions. RESULTS: Clear differences emerged between aIC and pIC neurons in both males and females: aIC neurons exhibited distinctive features such as larger size, increased hyperpolarization, and a higher rheobase compared to their pIC counterparts. Furthermore, we observed variations in neuronal excitability linked to sex, with male pIC neurons displaying a greater level of excitability than their female counterparts. We also identified region-specific differences in excitatory and inhibitory synaptic activity and the balance between excitation and inhibition in both male and female mice. Adult females demonstrated greater synaptic strength and maximum response in the aIC compared to the pIC. Lastly, synaptic long-term potentiation occurred in both subregions in males but was specific to the aIC in females. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that there are sex differences in synaptic plasticity and excitatory transmission in IC subregions, and that distinct properties of IC pyramidal neurons between sexes could contribute to differences in behavior and cognition between males and females.


This study investigates differences in the insular cortex (IC), a region of the brain responsible for emotions and sensory perceptions, between male and female mice. The IC has two parts: the front (aIC) deals with emotions and social cues, while the back (pIC) is focused on sensing pain and bodily sensations. We examined specific brain cells called pyramidal neurons in both aIC and pIC and discovered noteworthy distinctions between these neurons in adult male and female mice. Firstly, aIC neurons were larger and had unique electrical properties in both male and female mice. Males had more excitable pIC neurons compared to females, indicating that their neurons were more likely to transmit signals. We also explored how these neurons communicate with each other through connections known as synapses. In adult females, the aIC had stronger connections than the pIC. Finally, we observed that specific types of basic synaptic learning occurred exclusively in males in the aIC. These findings underscore significant disparities in the IC between males and females, offering valuable insights into the potential reasons behind variations in behaviors and emotions between sexes.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral , Córtex Insular , Camundongos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Neurônios
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8104, 2024 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582752

RESUMO

GCaMP is a genetically encoded calcium indicator (GECI) widely used in neuroscience research. It measures intracellular Ca2+ level by fluorescence changes as it directly binds to Ca2+. In this process, the effect of this calcium buffer on the intracellular calcium signaling and cell physiology is often not taken into consideration. However, growing evidence from calcium imaging studies shows GCaMP expression under certain conditions can generate aberrant activity, such as seizures. In this study, we examined the effect of GCaMP6 expression in the dentate gyrus (DG) on epileptogenesis. We found that viral expression of GCaMP6s but not GCaMP6f in the DG induces tonic-clonic seizures several weeks after viral injection. Cell-type specific expression of GCaMP6s revealed the granule cells (GCs) as the key player in GCaMP6s-induced epilepsy. Finally, by using slice electrophysiology, we demonstrated that GCaMP6s expression increases neuronal excitability in the GCs. Together, this study highlights the ability of GCaMP6s in DG-associated epileptogenesis.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Neurônios , Humanos , Cálcio/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Convulsões/genética , Convulsões/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Cálcio da Dieta/metabolismo , Giro Denteado/metabolismo
8.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 420, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582915

RESUMO

The morpho-functional properties of neural networks constantly adapt in response to environmental stimuli. The olfactory bulb is particularly prone to constant reshaping of neural networks because of ongoing neurogenesis. It remains unclear whether the complexity of distinct odor-induced learning paradigms and sensory stimulation induces different forms of structural plasticity. In the present study, we automatically reconstructed spines in 3D from confocal images and performed unsupervised clustering based on morphometric features. We show that while sensory deprivation decreased the spine density of adult-born neurons without affecting the morphometric properties of these spines, simple and complex odor learning paradigms triggered distinct forms of structural plasticity. A simple odor learning task affected the morphometric properties of the spines, whereas a complex odor learning task induced changes in spine density. Our work reveals distinct forms of structural plasticity in the olfactory bulb tailored to the complexity of odor-learning paradigms and sensory inputs.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Bulbo Olfatório , Camundongos , Animais , Bulbo Olfatório/fisiologia , Interneurônios/fisiologia , Aprendizagem , Neurônios/fisiologia
9.
BMC Biol ; 22(1): 75, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trans-differentiation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells into neurons via Ngn2-induction (hiPSC-N) has become an efficient system to quickly generate neurons a likely significant advance for disease modeling and in vitro assay development. Recent single-cell interrogation of Ngn2-induced neurons, however, has revealed some similarities to unexpected neuronal lineages. Similarly, a straightforward method to generate hiPSC-derived astrocytes (hiPSC-A) for the study of neuropsychiatric disorders has also been described. RESULTS: Here, we examine the homogeneity and similarity of hiPSC-N and hiPSC-A to their in vivo counterparts, the impact of different lengths of time post Ngn2 induction on hiPSC-N (15 or 21 days), and the impact of hiPSC-N/hiPSC-A co-culture. Leveraging the wealth of existing public single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) data in Ngn2-induced neurons and in vivo data from the developing brain, we provide perspectives on the lineage origins and maturation of hiPSC-N and hiPSC-A. While induction protocols in different labs produce consistent cell type profiles, both hiPSC-N and hiPSC-A show significant heterogeneity and similarity to multiple in vivo cell fates, and both more precisely approximate their in vivo counterparts when co-cultured. Gene expression data from the hiPSC-N show enrichment of genes linked to schizophrenia (SZ) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) as has been previously shown for neural stem cells and neurons. These overrepresentations of disease genes are strongest in our system at early times (day 15) in Ngn2-induction/maturation of neurons, when we also observe the greatest similarity to early in vivo excitatory neurons. We have assembled this new scRNA-seq data along with the public data explored here as an integrated biologist-friendly web-resource for researchers seeking to understand this system more deeply: https://nemoanalytics.org/p?l=DasEtAlNGN2&g=NES . CONCLUSIONS: While overall we support the use of the investigated cellular models for the study of neuropsychiatric disease, we also identify important limitations. We hope that this work will contribute to understanding and optimizing cellular modeling for complex brain disorders.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cocultura , Astrócitos/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
10.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2868, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570478

RESUMO

Signal communication mechanisms within the human body rely on the transmission and modulation of action potentials. Replicating the interdependent functions of receptors, neurons and synapses with organic artificial neurons and biohybrid synapses is an essential first step towards merging neuromorphic circuits and biological systems, crucial for computing at the biological interface. However, most organic neuromorphic systems are based on simple circuits which exhibit limited adaptability to both external and internal biological cues, and are restricted to emulate only specific the functions of an individual neuron/synapse. Here, we present a modular neuromorphic system which combines organic spiking neurons and biohybrid synapses to replicate a neural pathway. The spiking neuron mimics the sensory coding function of afferent neurons from light stimuli, while the neuromodulatory activity of interneurons is emulated by neurotransmitters-mediated biohybrid synapses. Combining these functions, we create a modular connection between multiple neurons to establish a pre-processing retinal pathway primitive.


Assuntos
Interneurônios , Neurônios , Humanos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Neurônios Aferentes , Sinapses/fisiologia , Neurotransmissores
11.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 405, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570628

RESUMO

Neuronal oscillations are commonly analyzed with power spectral methods that quantify signal amplitude, but not rhythmicity or 'oscillatoriness' per se. Here we introduce a new approach, the phase-autocorrelation function (pACF), for the direct quantification of rhythmicity. We applied pACF to human intracerebral stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) data and uncovered a spectrally and anatomically fine-grained cortical architecture in the rhythmicity of single- and multi-frequency neuronal oscillations. Evidencing the functional significance of rhythmicity, we found it to be a prerequisite for long-range synchronization in resting-state networks and to be dynamically modulated during event-related processing. We also extended the pACF approach to measure 'burstiness' of oscillatory processes and characterized regions with stable and bursty oscillations. These findings show that rhythmicity is double-dissociable from amplitude and constitutes a functionally relevant and dynamic characteristic of neuronal oscillations.


Assuntos
Magnetoencefalografia , Periodicidade , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografia/métodos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Técnicas Estereotáxicas , Atenção/fisiologia
12.
Mol Autism ; 15(1): 14, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains protein 3 (SHANK3) monogenic mutations or deficiency leads to excessive stereotypic behavior and impaired sociability, which frequently occur in autism cases. To date, the underlying mechanisms by which Shank3 mutation or deletion causes autism and the part of the brain in which Shank3 mutation leads to the autistic phenotypes are understudied. The hypothalamus is associated with stereotypic behavior and sociability. p38α, a mediator of inflammatory responses in the brain, has been postulated as a potential gene for certain cases of autism occurrence. However, it is unclear whether hypothalamus and p38α are involved in the development of autism caused by Shank3 mutations or deficiency. METHODS: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis and immunoblotting were used to assess alternated signaling pathways in the hypothalamus of Shank3 knockout (Shank3-/-) mice. Home-Cage real-time monitoring test was performed to record stereotypic behavior and three-chamber test was used to monitor the sociability of mice. Adeno-associated viruses 9 (AAV9) were used to express p38α in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) or agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons. D176A and F327S mutations expressed constitutively active p38α. T180A and Y182F mutations expressed inactive p38α. RESULTS: We found that Shank3 controls stereotypic behavior and sociability by regulating p38α activity in AgRP neurons. Phosphorylated p38 level in hypothalamus is significantly enhanced in Shank3-/- mice. Consistently, overexpression of p38α in ARC or AgRP neurons elicits excessive stereotypic behavior and impairs sociability in wild-type (WT) mice. Notably, activated p38α in AgRP neurons increases stereotypic behavior and impairs sociability. Conversely, inactivated p38α in AgRP neurons significantly ameliorates autistic behaviors of Shank3-/- mice. In contrast, activated p38α in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons does not affect stereotypic behavior and sociability in mice. LIMITATIONS: We demonstrated that SHANK3 regulates the phosphorylated p38 level in the hypothalamus and inactivated p38α in AgRP neurons significantly ameliorates autistic behaviors of Shank3-/- mice. However, we did not clarify the biochemical mechanism of SHANK3 inhibiting p38α in AgRP neurons. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that the Shank3 deficiency caused autistic-like behaviors by activating p38α signaling in AgRP neurons, suggesting that p38α signaling in AgRP neurons is a potential therapeutic target for Shank3 mutant-related autism.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Animais , Camundongos , Proteína Relacionada com Agouti/genética , Proteína Relacionada com Agouti/metabolismo , Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Transtorno Autístico/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 14 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo
13.
Neuron ; 112(7): 1035-1037, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574725

RESUMO

Direct conversion of non-neuronal cells to neurons offers opportunities for disease modeling and therapy. In this issue of Neuron, Sonsalla et al.1 reveal the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway as a "proteomic roadblock" to direct neuronal conversion; overcoming this roadblock enhances reprogramming.


Assuntos
Neurônios , Proteômica , Neurônios/metabolismo , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas
14.
Transl Psychiatry ; 14(1): 176, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575599

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption may impact and shape brain development through perturbed biological pathways and impaired molecular functions. We investigated the relationship between alcohol consumption rates and neuron-enriched extracellular vesicles' (EVs') microRNA (miRNA) expression to better understand the impact of alcohol use on early life brain biology. Neuron-enriched EVs' miRNA expression was measured from plasma samples collected from young people using a commercially available microarray platform while alcohol consumption was measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Linear regression and network analyses were used to identify significantly differentially expressed miRNAs and to characterize the implicated biological pathways, respectively. Compared to alcohol naïve controls, young people reporting high alcohol consumption exhibited significantly higher expression of three neuron-enriched EVs' miRNAs including miR-30a-5p, miR-194-5p, and miR-339-3p, although only miR-30a-5p and miR-194-5p survived multiple test correction. The miRNA-miRNA interaction network inferred by a network inference algorithm did not detect any differentially expressed miRNAs with a high cutoff on edge scores. However, when the cutoff of the algorithm was reduced, five miRNAs were identified as interacting with miR-194-5p and miR-30a-5p. These seven miRNAs were associated with 25 biological functions; miR-194-5p was the most highly connected node and was highly correlated with the other miRNAs in this cluster. Our observed association between neuron-enriched EVs' miRNAs and alcohol consumption concurs with results from experimental animal models of alcohol use and suggests that high rates of alcohol consumption during the adolescent/young adult years may impact brain functioning and development by modulating miRNA expression.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares , MicroRNAs , Animais , Humanos , Adolescente , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo
15.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 26(3): 282-288, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557381

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of different concentrations of adapalene on the morphology and functions of neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, as well as its role in inducing cell differentiation and apoptosis. METHODS: SH-SY5Y cells were divided into control group, low concentration (0.1 µM and 1 µM) adapalene groups, and high concentration (10 µM) adapalene group. Time-lapse microscopy was used to observe the morphological changes of SH-SY5Y cells. Immunofluorescence staining was performed to detect the expression of neuronal specific marker ßIII-tubulin and mature neuronal marker neurofilament heavy polypeptide (NFH). Multi-electrode array was used to record the electrophysiological features of SH-SY5Y cells. Cell apoptosis was evaluated using a cell apoptosis detection kit. RESULTS: Low concentrations of adapalene promoted the formation of neurite outgrowth in SH-SY5Y cells, with the neurites interconnected to form a network. Spontaneous discharge activity was observed in SH-SY5Y cells treated with low concentrations of adapalene. Compared to the control group, the expression of ßIII-tubulin and NFH increased in the 1 µM adapalene group, while the level of cell apoptosis increased in the high concentration adapalene group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Low concentrations of adapalene can induce differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells into mature functional neurons, while high concentrations of adapalene can induce apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells.


Assuntos
Neuroblastoma , Tubulina (Proteína) , Humanos , Neurônios , Diferenciação Celular , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
16.
J Med Virol ; 96(4): e29570, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558098

RESUMO

Previous research results of our group showed that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nucleolin synergistically mediate respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in human central neuron cells, but the specific mechanism remains unclear. Here we designed and synthesized lentiviruses with TIR (674-815 aa), TLR4 (del 674-815 aa), GAR (645-707 aa), and NCL (del 645-707 aa) domains, and obtained stable overexpression cell lines by drug screening, and subsequently infected RSV at different time points. Laser confocal microscopy and coimmunoprecipitation were used for the observation of co-localization and interaction of TIR/GAR domains. Western blot analysis was used for the detection of p-NF-κB and LC3 protein expression. Real-time PCR was used for the detection of TLR4/NCL mRNA expression. ELISA assay was used to measure IL-6, IL-1ß, and TNF-α concentrations and flow cytometric analysis was used for the study of apoptosis. Our results suggest that overexpression of TIR and GAR domains can exacerbate apoptosis and autophagy, and that TIR and GAR domains can synergistically mediate RSV infection and activate the NF-κB signaling pathway, which regulates the secretion of downstream inflammatory factors, such as IL-6, IL-1ß, and TNF-α, and ultimately leads to neuronal inflammatory injury.


Assuntos
Neuroblastoma , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
17.
J Comp Neurol ; 532(4): e25612, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591638

RESUMO

Cellular-level anatomical data from early fetal brain are sparse yet critical to the understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders. We characterize the organization of the human cerebral cortex between 13 and 15 gestational weeks using high-resolution whole-brain histological data sets complimented with multimodal imaging. We observed the heretofore underrecognized, reproducible presence of infolds on the mesial surface of the cerebral hemispheres. Of note at this stage, when most of the cerebrum is occupied by lateral ventricles and the corpus callosum is incompletely developed, we postulate that these mesial infolds represent the primordial stage of cingulate, callosal, and calcarine sulci, features of mesial cortical development. Our observations are based on the multimodal approach and further include histological three-dimensional reconstruction that highlights the importance of the plane of sectioning. We describe the laminar organization of the developing cortical mantle, including these infolds from the marginal to ventricular zone, with Nissl, hematoxylin and eosin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemistry. Despite the absence of major sulci on the dorsal surface, the boundaries among the orbital, frontal, parietal, and occipital cortex were very well demarcated, primarily by the cytoarchitecture differences in the organization of the subplate (SP) and intermediate zone (IZ) in these locations. The parietal region has the thickest cortical plate (CP), SP, and IZ, whereas the orbital region shows the thinnest CP and reveals an extra cell-sparse layer above the bilaminar SP. The subcortical structures show intensely GFAP-immunolabeled soma, absent in the cerebral mantle. Our findings establish a normative neurodevelopment baseline at the early stage.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Córtex Cerebral , Humanos , Corpo Caloso , Neurônios , Cabeça
18.
J Comp Neurol ; 532(4): e25615, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587214

RESUMO

The mammalian cerebrum has changed substantially during evolution, characterized by increases in neurons and glial cells and by the expansion and folding of the cerebrum. While these evolutionary alterations are thought to be crucial for acquiring higher cognitive functions, the molecular mechanisms underlying the development and evolution of the mammalian cerebrum remain only partially understood. This is, in part, because of the difficulty in analyzing these mechanisms using mice only. To overcome this limitation, genetic manipulation techniques for the cerebrum of gyrencephalic carnivore ferrets have been developed. Furthermore, successful gene knockout in the ferret cerebrum has been accomplished through the application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system. This review mainly highlights recent research conducted using gyrencephalic carnivore ferrets to investigate the mechanisms underlying the development and evolution of cortical folds.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral , Furões , Animais , Camundongos , Telencéfalo , Neurônios , Mamíferos
19.
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) ; 84(1): 80-88, 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587321

RESUMO

Diffuse axonal injury (DAI), one of the most common and devastating type of traumatic brain injury, is the result of the shear force on axons due to severe rotational acceleration and deceleration. Neurogranin (NRGN) is a postsynaptic protein secreted by excitatory neurons, and synaptic dysfunction can alter extracellular NRGN levels. In this study, we examined NRGN levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after experimental DAI in terms of their diagnostic value. Experimental DAI was induced using the Marmarou technique in male Wistar albino rats. Serum and CSF NRGN levels of the sham group, one­hour, six­hour, 24­hour, and 72­hour post­DAI groups were measured by ELISA method. DAI was verified by staining with hematoxylin­eosin and ß­amyloid precursor protein in the rat brain samples. While no histopathological and immunohistochemical changes were observed in the early hours of the post­DAI groups, the staining of the ß­APP visibly increased over time, with positivity being most frequent and intense in the 72­hour group. It was found that serum NRGN levels were significantly lower in the 6­hour group than in the sham group. The serum NRGN levels in the 24­hour group were significantly higher than those in the sham group. This study showed a dichotomy of post­DAI serum NRGN levels in consecutive time periods. NRGN levels in CSF were higher in the one­hour group than in the sham group and returned to baseline by 72 hours, although not significantly. Our study provides an impression of serum and CSF NRGN levels in a rat DAI model in consecutive time periods. Further studies are needed to understand the diagnostic value of NRGN.


Assuntos
Lesão Axonal Difusa , Neurogranina , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Neurogranina/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Lesão Axonal Difusa/metabolismo , Lesão Axonal Difusa/patologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Axônios/metabolismo
20.
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) ; 84(1): 1-25, 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587328

RESUMO

We employed intrinsic signal optical imaging (ISOI) to investigate orientation sensitivity bias in the visual cortex of young mice. Optical signals were recorded in response to the moving light gratings stimulating ipsi­, contra­ and binocular eye inputs. ISOI allowed visualization of cortical areas activated by gratings of specific orientation and temporal changes of light scatter during visual stimulation. These results confirmed ISOI as a reliable technique for imaging the activity of large populations of neurons in the mouse visual cortex. Our results revealed that the contralateral ocular input activated a larger area of the primary visual cortex than the ipsilateral input, and caused the highest response amplitudes of light scatter signals to all ocular inputs. Horizontal gratings moved in vertical orientation induced the most significant changes in light scatter when presented contralaterally and binocularly, surpassing stimulations by vertical or oblique gratings. These observations suggest dedicated integration mechanisms for the combined inputs from both eyes. We also explored the relationship between point luminance change (PLC) of grating stimuli and ISOI time courses under various orientations of movements of the gratings and ocular inputs, finding higher cross-correlation values for cardinal orientations and ipsilateral inputs. These findings suggested specific activation of different neuronal assemblies within the mouse's primary visual cortex by grating stimuli of the corresponding orientation. However, further investigations are needed to examine this summation hypothesis. Our study highlights the potential of optical imaging as a valuable tool for exploring functional­anatomical relationships in the mouse visual system.


Assuntos
Córtex Visual Primário , Córtex Visual , Animais , Camundongos , Neurônios , Imagem Óptica , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos
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