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1.
Avian Dis ; 68(1): 52-55, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38687108

RESUMO

In the current study, we investigated decreased hatchability and increased embryonic mortality in two farms of layer breeders (flocks A1 and B1) and a farm of broiler breeders (flocks C1 and C2) from Austria, which also presented discoloration of eggshells in 2% of the eggs. After conducting clinical evaluations and the approval that the feed operator was common for flocks A1 and B1, and C1 and C2, it was decided to investigate the feed. Our findings revealed that the feed contained levels of nicarbazin and narasin up to five and 14 times, respectively, above the maximum limits allowed by the European Union for nontarget species. On the other hand, there were no significant abnormalities in vitamin levels, which were also described as the etiology of the noticed abnormalities. Switching to a noncontaminated feed resulted in the clinical signs and production parameters returning to expected ranges. This report emphasizes the significance of considering feed contamination by nicarbazin and narasin as a potential cause of hatchery losses in nontarget species, even in the absence of other clinical signs.


Reporte de caso- Pérdidas en la eclosión de parvadas de reproductoras ponedoras y pollos de engorde debido a la contaminación del alimento con nicarbazina y narasina: Reporte de un caso. En el presente estudio, se investigó la disminución de la incubabilidad y el aumento de la mortalidad embrionaria en dos granjas de reproductoras ponedoras (parvadas A1 y B1) y una granja de reproductoras de pollos de engorde (parvadas C1 y C2) de Austria, que también presentaron decoloración del cascarón en el 2% de los huevos. Luego de realizar evaluaciones clínicas y la aprobación de que el operador de alimento era común para las parvadas A1 y B1, y C1 y C2, se decidió investigar el alimento. Nuestros hallazgos revelaron que el alimento contenía niveles de nicarbazina y narasina de hasta cinco y 14 veces, respectivamente, por encima de los límites máximos permitidos por la Unión Europea para especies no objetivo. Por otro lado, no se observaron anomalías significativas en los niveles de vitaminas, lo que también se describió como la etiología de las anomalías observadas. El cambio a un alimento no contaminado provocó que los signos clínicos y los parámetros de producción regresaran a los rangos esperados. Este informe enfatiza la importancia de considerar la contaminación del alimento por nicarbazina y narasina como una causa potencial de pérdidas en la eclosión de especies no objetivo, incluso en ausencia de otros signos clínicos.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Nicarbazina , Piranos , Animais , Feminino , Ração Animal/análise , Áustria/epidemiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Nicarbazina/análise , Nicarbazina/administração & dosagem , Doenças das Aves Domésticas
2.
Poult Sci ; 102(8): 102845, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37441842

RESUMO

Chicken coccidiosis can cause severe enteritis with high mortality, which causes serious economic losses to the global breeding industry each year. The most virulent species is Eimeria tenella (E. tenella), but the infectivity of different E. tenella varies among geographic strains. At present, there are no reports related to the pathogenicity and drug resistance of E. tenella in Yiwu, Zhejiang province, China. A total of 600 fecal samples were collected from 10 farms in Zhejiang province, the overall oocyst prevalence was 54.2% (325/600). The prevalence was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in chickens under 40 d (97.5%) than that in chickens between 60 and 85-days-old (40.5%) and chickens over 90-days-old (24.5%). E. tenella stain was isolated from fecal samples of chickens in Yiwu and the pathogenicity of this isolate was determined, and then we recorded the survival rate, bloody stool score, lesion score, average weight gain. The results showed that all of the chickens infected with 5 × 105 sporulated oocysts of E. tenella died after the seventh day of infection, the bloody stool score and average lesion score of chickens from group 1 (5 × 105), group 2 (5 × 104), group 3 (5 × 103) and group 4 (5 × 102) decreased successively; the average weight gain (g) and relative weight gain (%) increased successively; the weight gain of the low-dose E. tenella infection groups (5 × 103 and 5 × 102) were higher than the other 2 groups (5 × 105 and 5 × 104) (P < 0.05). Finally, The E. tenella isolate was tested for sensitivity to 6 anticoccidial drugs (sulfachloropyrazine sodium, amproline, toltrazuril, clopidol, salinomycin, and nicarbazine) using 4 indexes including anticoccidial index(ACI), percent of optimum anticoccidial activity (POAA), reduction of lesion scores (RLS), and relative oocyst production (ROP). The results showed that this isolate has developed severe resistance to drugs of salinomycin and nicarbazine, moderate resistance to amproline and clopidol, slight resistance to toltrazuril, while the E. tenella isolate performed more sensitive to sulfachloropyrazine sodium.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria tenella , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Clopidol , Nicarbazina , Virulência , Galinhas , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Aumento de Peso , Resistência a Medicamentos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia
3.
J AOAC Int ; 105(4): 1008-1016, 2022 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35108390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: AOAC Method 2013.07 was adopted as First Action in 2013. Since then, the method has been used in numerous residue depletion studies with favorable comments from analysts. OBJECTIVE: To analyze data from residue depletion studies to support Final Action status. METHOD: Ten residue depletion studies were conducted during May 2014 through May 2019. For each study, harvested incurred tissues were analyzed for nicarbazin using AOAC Method 2013.07 in 1 of 4 laboratories. Each analytical run included one or more fortified quality control test portions. The data from these known fortified matrix test portions were analyzed for reproducibility and repeatability. RESULTS: For muscle tissues, relative recovery was 90.4% (95% CI 83.8 to 97.5); RSDr was 5.4% (95% CI 3.8 to 9.2); and RSDR was 7.9%. In the liver, values were 94.5% (95% CI 91.1 to 98.0), 5.8% (95% CI 4.1 to 9.9), and 6.8%, respectively. In the kidney, values were 91.5% (95% CI 85.3 to 98.1), 5.2% (95% CI 3.7 to 8.8), and 9.0%, respectively. In skin with adhering fat, values were 94.5% (95% CI 89.2 to 100.1), 8.9% (95% CI 6.3 to 15.1), and 8.9%, respectively. In all cases, repeatability and reproducibility were within acceptable limits. CONCLUSIONS: The data and positive feedback support the transition of AOAC Method 2013.07 from First Action to Final Action. HIGHLIGHTS: Final action status is supported by data collected during routine use of the method rather than a traditional multi-laboratory collaborative study. Data were subjected to statistical analysis using the pC-metamer, and then transformed back to the traditional C-metamer.


Assuntos
Nicarbazina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Animais , Carbanilidas , Galinhas , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Nicarbazina/análise , Nicarbazina/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
4.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588480

RESUMO

Following the accidental feeding of a compound feed containing the coccidiostat nicarbacin in layer breeder flocks (Lohmann Brown Classic), the birds displayed distinct clinical signs within a few hours. Mortality increased during the following 5 days, whereas laying performance and hatching rate of eggs during this period decreased markedly. Egg shell discoloration was observed as early as during the first day. As a consequence, an association between feeding of the coccidiostat nicarbacin and the observed symptoms was assumed. Recent studies indicate that Nicarbacin reduces the activity of aminolevulinic acid synthase type 1 (ALAS 1), which is responsible for the synthesis of protoporphyrin IX in the shell gland as main compound of brown egg shells. Reduced laying performance and increased mortality was likely due to nicarbacin-induced deregulated body temperature homeostasis and concomitant imbalances in acid-base status of the animals. The case reveals that the accidental feeding of nicarbacin to non-target animals such as laying hens and their parents may result in acute clinical symptoms. This highlights the necessity of appropriate care in handling feed additives and their premixes for specific non-target animals and should sensitize farmers and veterinarians.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Coccidiostáticos/administração & dosagem , Nicarbazina/administração & dosagem , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , 5-Aminolevulinato Sintetase/antagonistas & inibidores , Equilíbrio Ácido-Base/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal , Animais , Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Coccidiostáticos/efeitos adversos , Casca de Ovo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovos/normas , Feminino , Nicarbazina/efeitos adversos , Protoporfirinas/biossíntese
5.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(1): 131-137, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nicarbazin is an anti-coccidial product sometimes used as a contraceptive to reduce the size of feral pigeon populations. However, its effectiveness in reducing pigeon population size in cities has caused some controversy. Here, we evaluate its effectiveness in the city of Barcelona. RESULTS: In 2017, the Barcelona City Council set 23 feeding stations with nicarbazin and ten with placebo (untreated corn). Censuses were undertaken before and after one year of treatment, within a 200-m radius around each feeder. We also censused 28 circles of 200 m radius distributed randomly 200 m from the feeders and 28 circles > 500 m from the feeders, which acted as controls. Population size across the whole city was also evaluated pre- and post treatment. We found that feral pigeon density did not change after one year of treatment, either in the circles around feeding stations with nicarbazin or in the areas around control stations at 200 and > 500 m from the feeders. Population size in placebo circles rose after a year by 10%. A pigeon census for the whole of Barcelona showed a 10% increase. CONCLUSION: Overall, our results indicate that the nicarbazin treatment had no effect on feral pigeon population size, and we advise against its use as a pigeon control method, at least in large cities.


Assuntos
Columbidae , Nicarbazina , Animais , Cidades , Densidade Demográfica
6.
Avian Pathol ; 49(4): 389-393, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310002

RESUMO

A clinical study was made into the abilities of nicarbazin and monensin and a nicarbazin + monensin combination to control Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella in chickens. When included in the feed, at concentrations of 40 ppm nicarbazin or 40 ppm monensin, these products showed partial efficacy evaluated by daily weight gain (DWG) but no activity judged by daily feed intake (DFI) or feed conversion ratio (FCR). By contrast, the combination of 40 ppm nicarbazin + 40 ppm monensin provided complete control of infection judged by greater DWG and DFI, and lower FCR. Monensin at a concentration of 40 ppm was ineffective in preventing lesions caused by all three species. Nicarbazin at a concentration of 40 ppm was unable to suppress lesions of E. acervulina and E. maxima but was able to suppress lesions caused by E. tenella. Nicarbazin 40 ppm + monensin 40 ppm suppressed lesions of all three species. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS Nicarbazin or monensin at 40 ppm gave only partial control of Eimeria spp. A combination of 40 ppm nicarbazin + 40 ppm monensin controlled DWG, DFI and FCR. Nicarbazin or monensin at 40 ppm did not suppress all Eimeria spp. lesions. Nicarbazin 40 ppm + monensin 40 ppm suppressed lesions of all three species.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiostáticos/administração & dosagem , Eimeria/efeitos dos fármacos , Monensin/administração & dosagem , Nicarbazina/administração & dosagem , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Eimeria/genética , Masculino , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia
7.
Food Chem ; 311: 126014, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864181

RESUMO

A method for the simultaneous determination of three commonly used coccidiostats in chicken liver was developed, comprising a multi-residue QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) extraction step, and a liquid chromatography-ultra violet-fluorescence (HPLC-UV/FL) analysis. The QuEChERS extraction was optimized using an experimental design approach that includes a screening step to obtain the critical variables, an optimization step using multiple response surface analysis and the calculation of a desirability parameter. The optimized method was validated with fortified samples, reaching an average recovery of 91% and an overall precision of 5.5% (mean of three analytes at three levels). Limits of detection calculated on fortified samples were 20 µg kg-1 for lasalocid, 15 µg kg-1 for nicarbazin and 120 µg kg-1 for diclazuril. These values resulted at least one order of magnitude lower than the maximum allowed residue limit (MRL) of the studied coccidiostats for chicken liver.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Coccidiostáticos/análise , Lasalocida/análise , Nicarbazina/análise , Nitrilas/análise , Triazinas/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Coccidiostáticos/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Viabilidade , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Lasalocida/isolamento & purificação , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Fígado/química , Nicarbazina/isolamento & purificação , Nitrilas/isolamento & purificação , Aves Domésticas , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Tempo , Triazinas/isolamento & purificação
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 9002-9008, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322885

RESUMO

The diphenylurea 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) is the residue of concern left in edible tissues of broilers fed diets containing the anticoccidial nicarbazin. When chicken meat is submitted to thermal processing, p-nitroaniline (p-NA) is expected from DNC degradation. This work aimed at evaluating whether thermal processing of DNC-containing chicken meat induces p-NA appearance. First, a hydrolysis assay was performed in aqueous solutions at 100 °C in different pH, confirming that DNC cleavage yields p-NA. Then a novel LC-MS/MS method was used to detect traces of this aromatic amine in DNC-containing chicken breast fillets subjected to cooking methods. Our evidence showed p-NA occurrence in such chicken meat samples, which corroborated results from hydrolysis assay. The p-NA appearance in fillets was rather discrete during boiling treatment, but its concentration became pronounced over time for grilling, frying, and roasting, achieving respectively 326.3, 640.0, and 456.9 µg/kg. As far as we are concerned, no other research identified degradation products from DNC residue in heat-processed chicken fillets. Therefore, this study leads to additional approaches to assess impacts on food safety.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/química , Carbanilidas/química , Coccidiostáticos/química , Resíduos de Drogas/química , Carne/análise , Nicarbazina/química , Compostos de Anilina/metabolismo , Animais , Carbanilidas/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Coccidiostáticos/metabolismo , Culinária , Resíduos de Drogas/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Nicarbazina/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 37(12): 3145-3153, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30183095

RESUMO

Veterinary pharmaceuticals are widely used as food additives in the poultry industry, and the unknown consequences of releasing these compounds into the environment are of concern. The purpose of the present study was to determine the direct impact of 2 veterinary pharmaceuticals (nicarbazin and monensin), commonly used in the poultry industry, on nontarget invertebrates and plant species. Ecotoxicological tests were used to evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity in earthworms (Eisenia andrei), collembolans (Folsomia candida), and 2 plant species (Brassica rapa and Triticum aestivum). Chemical analytical measurements were in good agreement with the nominal concentrations used, although some variability was seen. The results obtained showed no effects of nicarbazin at the highest nominal tested concentration of 1000 mg a.i./kg soil dry weight on any of the organisms, whereas exposure to monensin caused a concentration-specific response pattern. Species sensitivity to monensin decreased in the following rank order: B. rapa > T. aestivum > E. andrei > F. candida, with measured median effect concentrations (based on soil exposure) ranging between approximately 10 and 120 mg/kg. Our results emphasize the importance of using a test battery when assessing ecotoxicological effects by using different ecophysiological endpoints and species from different trophic levels. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:3145-3153. © 2018 SETAC.


Assuntos
Monensin/toxicidade , Nicarbazina/toxicidade , Solo/química , Testes de Toxicidade , Drogas Veterinárias/toxicidade , Animais , Artrópodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomassa , Brassica rapa/anatomia & histologia , Brassica rapa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecotoxicologia , Oligoquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Triticum/anatomia & histologia , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(31): 8391-8397, 2018 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992813

RESUMO

Nicarbazin is one of the major anticoccidials used in broiler feeds. The compound 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) is the marker residue of concern left from nicarbazin in chicken meat. The effect of thermal processing on DNC content accumulated in chicken breast was assessed, and samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Five conventional cooking methods were evaluated: boiling, grilling, microwaving, frying, and roasting. To ensure DNC in meat, broilers were fed nicarbazin without withdrawal period. All heating methods surpassed the 70 °C end point core temperature in chicken breast. Maximum DNC degradation was reached at 10 min for boiling, at 30 min for grilling, and at 2 min for microwaving, and no further reduction was observed for longer thermal processing time. Boiling was more efficient in reducing DNC (69%). Grilling, microwaving, and frying achieved on average 55% of degradation. The outcomes reported herein may be considered in decision-making regarding further review of maximum residue limits.


Assuntos
Carbanilidas/análise , Carbanilidas/química , Galinhas , Culinária/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne/análise , Animais , Coccidiostáticos/administração & dosagem , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Temperatura Alta , Nicarbazina/administração & dosagem
11.
Avian Dis ; 62(1): 114-116, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29620456

RESUMO

Four floor pen studies were carried out to evaluate the effects of nicarbazin (NIC) administration on blood glucose concentrations and the onset of hypoglycemia in broiler chickens. All tests involved continuous NIC feeding at 0, 100, or 125 ppm to 28 days of age. In each study, birds were reared at both standard environmental temperatures and at 3 C below this level. In addition, two studies were conducted in the presence of coccidial infection and two were carried out in noninfected broilers. At 26 days of age in each test, two birds per pen were bled by puncture of the brachial vein, and whole blood glucose concentrations were determined. Results indicated that the administration of NIC to broilers for 26 days had no effect on blood glucose concentrations, although graded levels of NIC tended to increase these values. In addition, no evidence of hypoglycemia was recorded in any of the trials. In a similar fashion, blood glucose was unaffected by environmental temperature and coccidial challenge. These findings support previous work showing that NIC administration does not influence blood glucose levels and indicate that the product is not involved when field diagnoses use reduced blood glucose and hypoglycemia as indicators of production anomalies.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Galinhas , Coccidiostáticos/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemia/veterinária , Nicarbazina/administração & dosagem , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/fisiopatologia , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/induzido quimicamente , Temperatura
12.
Food Res Int ; 99(Pt 1): 31-40, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28784488

RESUMO

This review presents up-to-date information about current research on nicarbazin, one of the most used anticoccidials in poultry production. The focus is to elucidate regulation concerning nicarbazin, limits for its residues in food, how maximum residue limits in different countries are calculated regarding edible chicken tissues and the possible implications in human health. Analytical methods to extract and quantify this residue, expressed as dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) are presented and discussed, including qualitative screening and quantitative/confirmatory analytical methods. Monitoring results and occurrence of DNC residues in chicken meat are discussed. Additionally, the causes of eventual chicken meat contamination and possible solutions to reduce or eliminate DNC residue in tissues are also presented. The paper concludes with perspectives, the current state of DNC residue analysis and suggestions for future research, especially considering the gap in the study of residue recycling effect due to continuous chicken litter use.


Assuntos
Coccidiostáticos/análise , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle/métodos , Nicarbazina/análise , Produtos Avícolas/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Coccidiostáticos/efeitos adversos , Coccidiostáticos/normas , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Resíduos de Drogas/efeitos adversos , Resíduos de Drogas/normas , Humanos , Nicarbazina/efeitos adversos , Nicarbazina/normas , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Produtos Avícolas/efeitos adversos , Produtos Avícolas/normas , Controle de Qualidade , Medição de Risco , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
13.
PLoS One ; 12(7): e0181755, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28750013

RESUMO

The depletion times of the anticoccidial nicarbazin administered individually and of nicarbazin and narasin administered in combination were evaluated by determining the presence and levels of 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC), the marker residue for nicarbazin, and narasin residues in the muscle tissues of broiler chickens subjected to a pharmacological treatment. A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was used. The results showed the presence of all anticoccidial residues; however, the DNC levels were higher when the nicarbazin was administered individually than when it was used in association with narasin throughout the experimental period. After six days of withdrawal, the DNC level following nicarbazin administration alone was lower than the maximum residue level (MRL) of 200 µg kg-1. However, when the nicarbazin was co-administered with narasin, the concentrations of DNC were lower than the MRL after four days of withdrawal. These results may be justified because the dosage of nicarbazin, when administrated individually, is greater than when it is used in combination with narasin. The levels of narasin were lower than the MRL of 15 µg kg-1 throughout the evaluation period. It was concluded that nicarbazin is rapidly metabolized from the broiler muscles up to six days of withdrawal since the DNC levels were lower than the maximum residue level (MRL) and the concentrations of narasin were lower than the MRL throughout the evaluation period.


Assuntos
Coccidiostáticos/farmacocinética , Nicarbazina/farmacocinética , Piranos/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Animais , Galinhas , Coccidiostáticos/administração & dosagem , Combinação de Medicamentos , Resíduos de Drogas , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Nicarbazina/administração & dosagem , Piranos/administração & dosagem
14.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 6253, 2017 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28740143

RESUMO

Shell colour is an important trait for eggs and an understanding of pigment deposition will assist potential management of egg shell colour loss. We demonstrated that nicarbazin feeding down-regulated ALAS1 and reduced protoporphyrin IX (PP IX) in both shell gland and eggshell, indicating the role of nicarbazin in inhibiting the synthesis of PP IX. Additionally, the expression levels of the genes did not show sequential upregulation in the same order of diurnal time-points (TP) during egg formation. The gene SLC25A38, responsible for transporting glycine from cytoplasm to mitochondria, and the gene ALAS1, encoding rate-limiting enzyme (delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase 1), had higher expression at 15 hr, as compared with 2, 5 and 23.5 hrs postoviposition. Interestingly, ABCB6, a gene encoding an enzyme responsible for transporting coproporphyrinogen III, showed higher expression level at 2 and 5 hrs. However, the expression of CPOX that converts coproporphyrinogen III to protoporphyrinogen III, and ABCG2 that transports PP IX out from mitochondria did not alter. Nevertheless, mitochondrial count per cell did not show consistent change in response to time-points postoviposition and nicarbazin feeding. The information obtained in the study sheds light on how nicarbazin disrupts the synthesis of PP IX.


Assuntos
5-Aminolevulinato Sintetase/metabolismo , Coccidiostáticos/farmacologia , Casca de Ovo/metabolismo , Nicarbazina/farmacologia , Protoporfirinas/metabolismo , Animais , Galinhas , Regulação para Baixo , Casca de Ovo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo
15.
PLoS One ; 12(7): e0180432, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28671969

RESUMO

Ten reference genes were investigated for normalization of gene expression data in the shell gland of laying hens. Analyses performed with geNorm revealed that hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1) and hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS) were the two most stable reference genes in response to post-oviposition time alone (POT) or with nicarbazin treatment (POT+N) of laying hens. NormFinder analyses showed that the two most stable reference genes in response to POT and POT+N were 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4) and HMBS, RPL4, respectively. BestKeeper analyses showed that 18S rRNA, RPL4 and HPRT1, HMBS were the two most stable reference genes for POT, and POT+N, respectively. Of the ten reference genes, all except B2M showed geNorm M <0.5, suggesting that they were stably expressed in the shell gland tissue. Consensus from these three programs suggested HPRT1 and HMBS could be used as the two most stable reference genes in the present study. Expression analyses of four candidate target genes with the two most and the two least stable genes showed that a combination of stable reference genes leads to more discriminable quantification of expression levels of target genes, while the least stable genes failed to do so. Therefore, HMBS and HPRT1 are recommended as the two most stable reference genes for the normalization of gene expression data at different stages of eggshell formation in brown-egg laying hens. Available statistical programs for reference gene ranking should include more robust analysis capability to analyse the gene expression data generated from factorial design experiments.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Casca de Ovo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidroximetilbilano Sintase/genética , Hipoxantina Fosforribosiltransferase/genética , Nicarbazina/farmacologia , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Feminino
16.
Poult Sci ; 96(6): 1615-1622, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28339759

RESUMO

A series of 4 floor pen studies was conducted to evaluate the effects of environmental temperature modification on nicarbazin (NIC) responses in broiler chickens raised to 28 d of age. Birds were reared at either standard temperatures (recommended by the primary breeder for ages zero to 28 d) or at 3°C below this level. From placement to 28 d, birds were provided feeds containing zero, 100, or 125 ppm NIC, comprising a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement in each test. Two of the trials were conducted in the presence of an imposed coccidial challenge and 2 were conducted in healthy animals. At 18 and 28 d of age, performance was recorded; cloacal temperatures were measured at 7, 14, 21, and 26 days. Mortality data were collected daily and coccidial lesions were scored at 6 d post challenge. Results of these studies revealed that NIC improved coccidial lesion scores regardless of environmental temperature. In the absence of coccidial challenge, NIC depressed performance, but reductions in environmental temperature diminished the magnitude of these responses. Under conditions of coccidial challenge, NIC significantly improved body weight gains in both temperature environments. Compared to standard temperature conditions, lower environmental temperatures exerted a positive effect on feed conversion rates of NIC-fed broilers. Birds reared in the low temperature environment exhibited lower cloacal temperatures than standard environment groups throughout the test period. Irrespective of coccidial challenge, lower environmental temperatures significantly reduced nicarbazin mortality compared to standard temperature groups, resulting in a significant nicarbazin x temperature interaction. This finding indicates that temperature modification is a practical method for minimizing mortality over the course of 28-day nicarbazin usage.


Assuntos
Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiostáticos/uso terapêutico , Eimeria/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicarbazina/uso terapêutico , Ração Animal , Animais , Temperatura Corporal , Coccidiose/mortalidade , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Coccidiostáticos/administração & dosagem , Coccidiostáticos/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Nicarbazina/administração & dosagem , Nicarbazina/efeitos adversos , Nicarbazina/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/mortalidade , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Temperatura
17.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 51(6): 374-82, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26950416

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was an experimental investigation and a statistical evaluation of the influence of various additives in feed mixtures of broiler chickens on fatty acids content and their ratio in breast and thigh muscles. First feed additive consisted of narasin, nicarbasin and salinomycin sodium, and other five additives were of phytogenic origin. In vivo experiment was realized on the poultry experimental station with deep litter breeding system. A total of 300 one-day-old hybrid chickens Cobb 500 divided into six groups were used for the experiment. The experimental period was divided into four phases, i.e. Starter, Grower 1, Grower 2 and Final, according to the application of commercial feed mixture of soy cereal type. Additive substances used in feed mixtures were different for each group. Basic feed mixtures were equal for all groups. Fatty acid profile of breast and thigh muscles was measured by the method of FT IR Nicolet 6700. Investigated additive substances in the feed mixtures did not have statistically significant effect on fatty acid content and omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio in breast and thigh muscles. Strong statistically significant relation between omega-6 PUFAs and total PUFAs were proved by experiment. A relation between omega-3 PUFAs and total PUFAs was found only in the group with Biocitro additive.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Carne/análise , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Músculo Esquelético/química , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Nicarbazina/farmacologia , Piranos/farmacologia
18.
Poult Sci ; 95(6): 1332-40, 2016 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26944975

RESUMO

Effects of commercial antimicrobials and the individual and combinational use of commercial prebiotics and probiotics in feed from d zero to 41 on the growth performance, small intestine size, jejunal morphology, and ileal resident bacteria population of broiler chickens were determined. A total of 1,040 one-day-old male Ross × Ross 708 broilers were randomly distributed to 80 floor pens (5 treatments, 16 replications per treatment, 13 chicks per pen). Five dietary treatments were employed: 1) a corn soybean-meal basal diet (served as a negative control diet, NC); 2) a basal diet supplemented with a commercial prebiotic product (Pre); 3) a basal diet supplemented with a probiotic product containing Bacillus subtilis spores (Pro); 4) a basal diet supplemented with both prebiotic and probiotic products (Pre + Pro); and 5) a basal diet supplemented with commercial antimicrobials (served as a positive control diet, PC). At d 14, Pre diets improved the relative level of Lactobacillus in ileal mucosa as compared to NC, Pro, or PC diets (P = 0.045) without improving broiler BW. Broilers fed PC diets exhibited the highest BW gain from d 15 to 27, the lowest duodenum, jejunum, and ileum relative weights as percentage of BW at d 27, and the highest breast weight at d 42 (P = 0.026, 0.035, 0.002, 0.025, and 0.035, respectively). Broilers fed Pro or Pre + Pro diets exhibited higher BW gain from d 28 to 41 (P = 0.005) and higher overall BW gain from d zero to 41 (P = 0.039) than those fed other diets. Dietary treatments did not affect jejunal morphology or ileal resident Escherichia coli level at any age. From our results, including spores of Bacillus subtilis in feed may stimulate growth at a later age and may facilitate broilers in reaching their target weight sooner. Therefore, probiotics are recommended as potential alternatives to antimicrobials in chicken diets, especially in grower and finisher feed.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestino Delgado , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Prebióticos , Probióticos , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Bacitracina/farmacologia , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Íleo/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Intestino Delgado/anatomia & histologia , Intestino Delgado/microbiologia , Masculino , Nicarbazina/farmacologia , Piranos/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória
19.
Vet Ital ; 51(1): 63-72, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25842215

RESUMO

This study describes the results of a retrospective evaluation (8 years: 2005-2012) of the efficacy of the anti-fertility drug, Ovistop® nicarbazin (800 ppm) added to corn kernels used to feed non-migratory feral pigeon colonies, Columba livia var. domestica, in the city of Genoa, Italy. The observation interested 4 non-migratory feral pigeon colonies located into well­defined areas of the city of Genoa, Italy. Three of these colonies were treated for 12 months, with 10 g of drug (Ovistop®) provided per bird per day for 5 days each week; the other colony was treated in the same way but with a placebo (control station). Each colony and the relative area where the colony was located were both monitored with the same daily examination. Statistical analysis techniques were applied to the findings recorded - both descriptive (indices of central and dispersion trends) and comparative (one-way variance analysis). In the colonies treated with the drug, following an initial increase in the population ('magnet effect'), a reduction was observed over the following 4 years (-35% >x> -45%) and a further decrease (-65% >x> -70%) was observed over the subsequent 4 years (statistically significant one-way ANOVA p<0.01). This phenomenon was recorded across the board in the 3 treated stations, compared to the overall unstable trend observed for the control station. As no external or exceptional anthropic or natural factors were observed, it can be stated that, given the results observed, the drug seemed effective in reducing the treated bird populations.


Assuntos
Columbidae , Nicarbazina , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Animais , Cidades , Itália , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
J AOAC Int ; 97(2): 630-40, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24830177

RESUMO

A single-laboratory validation (SLV) study was conducted on an LC/MS/MS method for the determination and confirmation of nicarbazin, expressed as 4,4-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC), in chicken tissues, including liver, kidney, muscle, skin with adhering fat, and eggs. Linearity was demonstrated with DNC standard curve solutions using a weighted (1/x) regression and confirmed with matrix-matched standards. Intertrial repeatability precision (relative standard deviation of repeatability; RSD(r) was from 2.5 to 11.3%, as determined in fortified tissues. The precision was verified with incurred tissue, and varied from 0.53 to 2.5%. Average recoveries ranged from 82% in egg to 98% in kidney. Although the average recoveries across all concentrations were within the acceptable range, the method was improved with the inclusion of an internal standard and the use of matrix-matched standards. Accuracy for the improved method in chicken liver varied from 93 to 99% across all concentrations (100-8000 ng/g) compared to recoveries below 80% at concentrations, between 100-400 ng/g in chicken liver for the original method. The limit of detection was estimated to be less than 3.0 ng/g in all tissue types, and the limit of quantitation was validated at 20 ng/g. Based on confirmatory ion ratios and peak retention times, the false-negative rate was estimated as 0.00% (95% confidence limits 0.00, 0.74%) from 484 fortified samples and 12 incurred residue samples analyzed using the U.S. and EU confirmation criteria. Small variations to the method parameters, with the exception of injection volume, did not have a significant effect on recoveries. Stability was determined for fortified tissues, extracts, and standard curve solutions. The data collected in this study satisfy the requirements of SLV studies established by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel for Veterinary Drug Residue and the method was awarded First Action Official Method status by the Expert Review Panel for Veterinary Drug Residues on May 7, 2013.


Assuntos
Carbanilidas/química , Galinhas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Rim/química , Fígado/química , Nicarbazina/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Tecido Adiposo/química , Animais , Carbanilidas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida/normas , Coccidiostáticos/química , Coccidiostáticos/metabolismo , Ovos/análise , Músculo Esquelético/química , Nicarbazina/metabolismo , Pele/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/normas
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