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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 463: 132961, 2024 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37951171

RESUMO

Amine-based pharmaceuticals are a significant class of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) precursors. This study investigated the use of unactivated peroxymonosulfate (PMS) to control amine-based pharmaceuticals and their NDMA formation potential. Kinetic analysis and product identification revealed that sumatriptan and doxylamine primarily underwent reactions at their tertiary amine group, while ranitidine and nizatidine had both tertiary amine and thioether group as reaction sites. The NDMA formation from sumatriptan and doxylamine during post-chloramination was significantly reduced with the abatement of the parent contaminants, while the formation of NDMA remained high even if full abatement of ranitidine and nizatidine was achieved. Product formation kinetics and reference standard tests revealed the great contribution of transformation products to NDMA formation. Ranitidine could be oxidized to sulfoxide-type product ranitidine-SO and N-oxide type product ranitidine-NO. Ranitidine-SO exhibited a high NDMA yield comparable to that of ranitidine (>90%), while ranitidine-NO showed a low NDMA yield (2%). With further oxidation of ranitidine-SO at the tertiary amine group, NDMA formation was reduced by more than 90%. The underlying mechanism for the importance of the tertiary amine group in NDMA formation was demonstrated by quantum chemical calculation. These findings underscore the potential of PMS pre-oxidation on NDMA control.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Aminas , Ranitidina , Cloraminas , Dimetilnitrosamina/análise , Sumatriptana/análise , Cinética , Nizatidina/análise , Doxilamina/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(18): 53309-53322, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36854942

RESUMO

Pharmaceuticals have recently emerged as a significant environmental concern due to the growth of population, expansion of industry, and the shift in modern lifestyles. Herein, we present a Fe(II)/percarbonate (SPC) process with dramatically enhanced efficiency by the introduction of zerovalent iron (ZVI). After the addition of ZVI, the removal rate of nizatidine (NZTD) went up from 71.7 to 84.2%. The removal rate of NZTD decreases with rising pH and speeds up with increasing temperature. It was found that under the condition of pH = 7 and T = 25 °C, the molar ratio of the optimal concentration of NZTD degradation in the system was [NZTD]0:[SPC]0:[Fe(II)]0:[ZVI]0 = 1:8:24:16, with a degradation rate of 99.8%. At the same time, target pollutants can also be successfully eliminated from actual water bodies. Moreover, we test for toxicity using luminescent bacteria, and the results demonstrate that the system is capable of effectively decreasing the toxicity of NZTD. The research findings can contribute to the clarification of the migration and transformation law of NZTD in the oxidation process, thereby providing a scientific basis and technical support for the removal of NZTD in the tertiary water treatment for a water source.


Assuntos
Ferro , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Nizatidina , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Oxirredução , Compostos Ferrosos
3.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 41(2): 538-549, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34856883

RESUMO

H2 receptor antagonists are the medication given for treating stomach ulcers, but lately, reports have shown their role in healing several malignant ulcers. The present work entails the interaction of H2 blocker nizatidine with calf thymus (ct)-DNA for determining the binding mode and energetics of the interaction. Multi-spectroscopic, calorimetric, viscometric and bioinformatic analysis revealed that nizatidine interacted with ct-DNA via groove-binding mode and is characterised by exothermic reaction. Moreover, assessment of genotoxic potential of nizatidine in vitro was carried out in peripheral human lymphocytes by alkaline comet assay. DNA damage occurred at high concentrations of nizatidine. Genotoxicity of nizatidine was also evaluated in vivo by assessing cytogenetic biomarkers viz. micronuclei formation and chromosomal aberration test. Nizatidine was able to induce micronuclei formation and chromosomal damage at high dose. Additionally, cytotoxic activity of nizatidine was determined in cancer cell lines, namely HeLa and HCT-116 and compared with the normal human cell line HEK-293 employing MTT assay. It was observed that nizatidine was more toxic towards HeLa and HCT-116 than HEK-293. Cell morphology analysis by compound inverted microscopy further strengthens the finding obtained through MTT assay.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Nizatidina , Humanos , Células HEK293 , Ensaio Cometa , DNA
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD013337, 2022 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36190739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic-induced weight gain is an extremely common problem in people with schizophrenia and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Adjunctive pharmacological interventions may be necessary to help manage antipsychotic-induced weight gain. This review splits and updates a previous Cochrane Review that focused on both pharmacological and behavioural approaches to this problem. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of pharmacological interventions for preventing antipsychotic-induced weight gain in people with schizophrenia. SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane Schizophrenia Information Specialist searched Cochrane Schizophrenia's Register of Trials on 10 February 2021. There are no language, date, document type, or publication status limitations for inclusion of records in the register. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that examined any adjunctive pharmacological intervention for preventing weight gain in people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses who use antipsychotic medications. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the quality of included studies. For continuous outcomes, we combined mean differences (MD) in endpoint and change data in the analysis. For dichotomous outcomes, we calculated risk ratios (RR). We assessed risk of bias for included studies and used GRADE to judge certainty of evidence and create summary of findings tables. The primary outcomes for this review were clinically important change in weight, clinically important change in body mass index (BMI), leaving the study early, compliance with treatment, and frequency of nausea. The included studies rarely reported these outcomes, so, post hoc, we added two new outcomes, average endpoint/change in weight and average endpoint/change in BMI. MAIN RESULTS: Seventeen RCTs, with a total of 1388 participants, met the inclusion criteria for the review. Five studies investigated metformin, three topiramate, three H2 antagonists, three monoamine modulators, and one each investigated monoamine modulators plus betahistine, melatonin and samidorphan. The comparator in all studies was placebo or no treatment (i.e. standard care alone). We synthesised all studies in a quantitative meta-analysis. Most studies inadequately reported their methods of allocation concealment and blinding of participants and personnel. The resulting risk of bias and often small sample sizes limited the overall certainty of the evidence. Only one reboxetine study reported the primary outcome, number of participants with clinically important change in weight. Fewer people in the treatment condition experienced weight gains of more than 5% and more than 7% of their bodyweight than those in the placebo group (> 5% weight gain RR 0.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11 to 0.65; 1 study, 43 participants; > 7% weight gain RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.83; 1 study, 43 participants; very low-certainty evidence). No studies reported the primary outcomes, 'clinically important change in BMI', or 'compliance with treatment'. However, several studies reported 'average endpoint/change in body weight' or 'average endpoint/change in BMI'. Metformin may be effective in preventing weight gain (MD -4.03 kg, 95% CI -5.78 to -2.28; 4 studies, 131 participants; low-certainty evidence); and BMI increase (MD -1.63 kg/m2, 95% CI -2.96 to -0.29; 5 studies, 227 participants; low-certainty evidence). Other agents that may be slightly effective in preventing weight gain include H2 antagonists such as nizatidine, famotidine and ranitidine (MD -1.32 kg, 95% CI -2.09 to -0.56; 3 studies, 248 participants; low-certainty evidence) and monoamine modulators such as reboxetine and fluoxetine (weight: MD -1.89 kg, 95% CI -3.31 to -0.47; 3 studies, 103 participants; low-certainty evidence; BMI: MD -0.66 kg/m2, 95% CI -1.05 to -0.26; 3 studies, 103 participants; low-certainty evidence). Topiramate did not appear effective in preventing weight gain (MD -4.82 kg, 95% CI -9.99 to 0.35; 3 studies, 168 participants; very low-certainty evidence). For all agents, there was no difference between groups in terms of individuals leaving the study or reports of nausea. However, the results of these outcomes are uncertain given the very low-certainty evidence. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is low-certainty evidence to suggest that metformin may be effective in preventing weight gain. Interpretation of this result and those for other agents, is limited by the small number of studies, small sample size, and short study duration. In future, we need studies that are adequately powered and with longer treatment durations to further evaluate the efficacy and safety of interventions for managing weight gain.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Melatonina , Metformina , Esquizofrenia , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , beta-Histina/uso terapêutico , Famotidina/uso terapêutico , Fluoxetina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Náusea/tratamento farmacológico , Nizatidina/uso terapêutico , Ranitidina/uso terapêutico , Reboxetina/uso terapêutico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/prevenção & controle , Topiramato/uso terapêutico , Aumento de Peso
5.
Crit Rev Anal Chem ; 52(1): 53-71, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32691615

RESUMO

Nitrosamine impurities have been detected in various pharmaceutical products in recent days. Various sartans, ranitidine, nizatidine, and metformin have been recalled from the markets due to the high limit of nitrosamine impurities. This review aims to provide a brief overview of nitrosamine impurities, detection methods in detail, mechanism of action of nitrosamine impurities, sample preparation techniques, and regulatory limits. Numerous reported nitrosamine impurities also have been discussed with chemical structure. Various detection methods including LC-MS/MS, GC-MS-HS, and HPLC for nitrosamine impurities along with sartans, ranitidine, nizatidine, and metformin are being discussed in this review article. Various sample preparation techniques such as solid-phase extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, and rapid-fire techniques have also been discussed. This review will provide the detail information to the analytical manpower working in various quality control laboratories as well as in research organizations. HighlightsDetection of nitrosamine (NA) impurities in drug substances as well as finished products.HPLC, LC-MS/MS, and GC-MS/HS/AS discussed for the quantificationSolid-phase extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, and rapid-fire method for NA sample preparationMechanistic approach for nitrosamine formation and its removal strategiesRegulatory limits for NA impurities incorporated.


Assuntos
Metformina , Nitrosaminas , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II , Cromatografia Líquida , Nizatidina , Ranitidina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e191009, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394059

RESUMO

Nizatidine is an anti-secretogogue and a gastroprotective drug with a half-life of 1-2 h and is well absorbed in the stomach. This study aimed to optimize the process and develop floating microparticles of nizatidine that are based on low methoxyl pectin. Oil-in-oil dispersion method and Taguchi orthogonal array design were employed, and the prolonged residence time of the microparticles in the stomach was demonstrated. The constraints for independent variables, viz. A-polymer, B-internal solvent volume, C-surfactant, D-stirring rate and E-stirring time were set to generate the experimental runs. Particle size, percentage yield, micromeritic properties, entrapment efficiency, in vitro buoyancy and in vitro release were characterized. Surface morphology, zeta potential, in vitro release kinetics and in vivo floating performance of the optimized formulation was examined. The microparticles were free-flowing, irregular in shape and had a mean particle size distribution of 73-187 µ. Low methoxyl pectin played a predominant role in achieving buoyancy and optimum gastric retention for the modified release of the drug, suggesting Korsmeyer-Peppas model as the possible release mechanism. In vivo radiographic study in rabbits revealed that the drug was retained in the stomach for a period of 6 h. These results indicate that nizatidine floating microparticulate system provides modified drug release for the effective treatment of gastric ulcer


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Coelhos , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Nizatidina/antagonistas & inibidores , Eficiência/classificação , Solventes/efeitos adversos , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Técnicas In Vitro/instrumentação , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Cinética , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5525, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535664

RESUMO

Chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are life-threatening diseases with limited treatment options. The lack of clinically relevant/tractable experimental models hampers therapeutic discovery. Here, we develop a simple and robust human liver cell-based system modeling a clinical prognostic liver signature (PLS) predicting long-term liver disease progression toward HCC. Using the PLS as a readout, followed by validation in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis/fibrosis/HCC animal models and patient-derived liver spheroids, we identify nizatidine, a histamine receptor H2 (HRH2) blocker, for treatment of advanced liver disease and HCC chemoprevention. Moreover, perturbation studies combined with single cell RNA-Seq analyses of patient liver tissues uncover hepatocytes and HRH2+, CLEC5Ahigh, MARCOlow liver macrophages as potential nizatidine targets. The PLS model combined with single cell RNA-Seq of patient tissues enables discovery of urgently needed targets and therapeutics for treatment of advanced liver disease and cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas , Fígado/patologia , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Carcinogênese/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quimioprevenção , Estudos de Coortes , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HEK293 , Hepacivirus/fisiologia , Hepatite C/genética , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Humanos , Vigilância Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , Nizatidina/farmacologia , Prognóstico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/genética
8.
Drug Deliv ; 28(1): 1795-1809, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470551

RESUMO

Nizatidine (NIZ), a histamine H2-receptor antagonist, is soluble and stable in the stomach, however, it exhibits a short half-life and a rapid clearance. Therefore, chitosan (CS) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) nanofibers (NFs) at different weight ratios were prepared by electrospinning and characterized. The selected uncrosslinked and glutaraldehyde-crosslinked NFs were investigated regarding floating, solid-state characteristics, in vitro release, and in vitro cytotoxicity. The cytoprotective activity against ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats was evaluated through macroscopical, histopathological, immunohistochemical, and oxidative stress examinations. NFs based on 8:2 CS:PEO exhibited the smallest diameter (119.17 ± 22.05 nm) and the greatest mucoadhesion (22.82 ± 3.21 g/cm2), so they were crosslinked with glutaraldehyde. Solid-state characterization indicated polymers interaction, a successful crosslinking, and NIZ dispersion in NFs. Crosslinking maintained swollen mats at pH 1.2 (swelling% = 29.47 ± 3.50% at 24 h), retarded their erosion at pH 6.8 (swelling%= 84.64 ± 4.91% vs. 25.40 ± 0.79% for the uncrosslinked NFs at 24 h), augmented the floating up to 24 h vs. 10 min for the uncrosslinked NFs at pH 1.2 and prolonged the drug release (%drug released ≥ 93% at 24 h vs. 4 and 5 h for the uncrosslinked NFs at pHs 1.2 and 6.8, respectively). The viability of Caco-2 cells ≥ 86.87 ± 6.86% revealed NFs biocompatibility and unreacted glutaraldehyde removal. Crosslinking of 8:2 CS:PEO NFs potentiated the antiulcer activity (38.98 vs. 8.67 for the uncrosslinked NFs) as well as it preserved the gastric wall architecture, COX-2 expression, and oxidative stress markers levels of the normal rats.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Quitosana/química , Glutaral/química , Nanofibras/química , Nizatidina/farmacologia , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Animais , Antiulcerosos/administração & dosagem , Antiulcerosos/farmacocinética , Células CACO-2 , Sobrevivência Celular , Química Farmacêutica , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nizatidina/administração & dosagem , Nizatidina/farmacocinética , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos
10.
Drug Saf ; 44(3): 361-371, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247391

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In September 2019, ranitidine and nizatidine were suggested to contain N-nitrosodimethylamine, a carcinogenic substance. People have since been concerned about the potential impact of ranitidine/nizatidine use on the risk of cancer. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of cancer among people receiving ranitidine or nizatidine compared with other histamine 2 receptor antagonists (H2 blockers) [cimetidine, famotidine, roxatidine, and lafutidine]. METHODS: In the Japan Medical Data Center claims database (comprising people aged < 75 years) from 2005 to 2018, we identified new adult users of H2 blockers and classified them into ranitidine/nizatidine users and other H2 blocker users. We estimated the incidence of cancer diagnosis in each group and conducted a multivariable Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: We identified 113,745 new users of ranitidine/nizatidine (median age 41.2 years [interquartile range 31.7-51.1]; 49.1% men; median follow-up 2.4 years [1.1-4.5]) and 503,982 new users of other H2 blockers (median age 40.9 years [31.1-51.2]; 51.0% men; median follow-up 2.3 years [0.9-4.2]). The incidence rate of cancer diagnosis was 6.39 (95% confidence interval 6.13-6.66) cases per 1000 person-years (top three sites: breast 14.8%; colorectal 14.6%; and stomach 11.5%) in the ranitidine/nizatidine group and 6.17 (6.05-6.30) cases per 1000 person-years (colorectal 14.7%; breast 13.5%; and stomach 11.2%) in the other H2 blockers group. The adjusted hazard ratio (ranitidine/nizatidine users vs other H2 blocker users) was 1.02 (0.98-1.07). The results were similar by follow-up length, by cancer site, and when ranitidine and nizatidine users were separately compared with the other H2 blockers group. By cumulative dose, the adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) was 1.03 (0.98-1.08) from 1 to 180 defined daily doses (DDDs), 1.00 (0.73-1.39) from 181 to 365 DDDs, 0.95 (0.61-1.48) from 366 to 730 DDDs, and 0.83 (0.45-1.55) at > 730 DDDs. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that ranitidine/nizatidine is associated with an increased risk of cancer, although further studies with more accurate measurement of exposure, inclusion of older people, and longer follow-up may be needed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Nizatidina , Ranitidina , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Antagonistas dos Receptores H2 da Histamina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nizatidina/efeitos adversos , Ranitidina/efeitos adversos
11.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 38(5): 1375-1387, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955446

RESUMO

Nizatidine is a histamine H2 receptor antagonist which act by inhibiting the production of stomach acid, thereby, finds its application in treating various diseases related to the gastrointestinal tract. Studying albumin-drug interaction is important for understanding the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of therapeutic candidates. In the present work, the interaction of nizatidine with BSA was investigated by employing multi-spectroscopic and computational studies. The formation of BSA-nizatidine complex was characterised by UV-visible and fluorescence based-spectroscopic studies. Steady-state fluorescence demonstrated the static mode of quenching of BSA by nizatidine. The interaction was spontaneous and nizatidine binds to BSA with a stoichiometry of 1:1. Forster resonance energy transfer calculations revealed that there was a high possibility of energy transfer between nizatidine and BSA. The resultant secondary structural change in BSA on the addition of nizatidine was studied by circular dichroism spectroscopy. Moreover, synchronous and three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the conformational changes occurred in the structure of albumin on the binding of nizatidine. Competitive-site marker experiments suggested that nizatidine binds in the Sudlow site II of BSA. Additionally, the effect of ß-cyclodextrin as an inclusion compound on the interaction was studied. Furthermore, molecular modelling and simulation studies were performed to corroborate the results obtained above.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Assuntos
Nizatidina , beta-Ciclodextrinas , Sítios de Ligação , Dicroísmo Circular , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Albumina Sérica , Soroalbumina Bovina/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Termodinâmica
12.
J Food Drug Anal ; 27(4): 915-925, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590763

RESUMO

The liability of the H2-receptor antagonist nizatidine (NZ) to nitrosation in simulated gastric juice (SGJ) and under WHO-suggested conditions was investigated for the first time. For monitoring the nitrosatability of NZ, a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) method was optimized and validated according to FDA guidance. A Cosmosil HILIC® column and a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile: 0.04 M acetate buffer pH 6.0 (92:8, v/v) were used for the separation of NZ and its N-nitroso derivative (NZ-NO) within 6 min with LODs of 0.02 and 0.1 µg/mL, respectively. NZ was found highly susceptible to nitrosation in SGJ reaching 100% nitrosation in 10 min, while only 18% nitrosation was observed after 160 min under the WHO-suggested conditions. The chemical structure of NZ-NO was clarified by ESI+/MS. In silico toxicology study confirmed the mutagenicity and toxicity of NZ-NO. Experiments evidenced that ascorbic acid strongly suppresses the nitrosation of NZ suggesting their co-administration for protection from potential risks. In addition, the impacts of the HILIC method on safety, health, and environment were favorably evaluated by three green analytical chemistry metrics and it was proved that, unlike the popular impression, HILIC methods could be green to the environment.


Assuntos
Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Compostos Nitrosos/efeitos adversos , Nizatidina/efeitos adversos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Conformação Molecular , Compostos Nitrosos/síntese química , Compostos Nitrosos/química , Nizatidina/síntese química , Nizatidina/química , Software , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
13.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm ; 45(4): 651-663, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638411

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this research is to formulate, optimize, and evaluate raft-forming chewable tablets of Nizatidine. Various raft-forming agents were used in preliminary screening. Sodium alginate showed maximum raft strength, so tablets were prepared using sodium alginate as the raft forming agent, along with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as antacid and raft strengthening agent, and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) as a gas generating agent. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Raft forming chewable tablets containing Nizatidine were prepared by direct compression and wet granulation methods, and evaluated for drug content, acid neutralization capacity, raft strength, and in-vitro drug release in 0.1 N HCl. Box-Behnken design was used for optimization. RESULTS: Two optimized formulations were predicted from the design space. The first optimized recommended concentrations of the independent variables were predicted to be X1 = 275.92 mg, X2 = 28.60 mg, and X3 = 202.14 mg for direct compression technique and the second optimized recommended concentrations were predicted to be X1 = 253.62 mg, X2 = 24.60 mg, and X3 = 201.77 mg for wet granulation technique. Optimized formulations were stable at accelerated environmental testing for six months at 35 °C and 45 °C with 75% relative humidity. X-Ray showed that the raft floated immediately after ingestion and remained intact for ∼3 h. CONCLUSION: Raft was successfully formed and optimized. Upon chewing tablets, a raft is formed on stomach content. That results in rapid relief of acid burning symptoms and delivering the drug into systemic circulation with enhanced bioavailability.


Assuntos
Carbonato de Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Antagonistas dos Receptores H2 da Histamina/administração & dosagem , Nizatidina/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Alginatos/química , Antiácidos/administração & dosagem , Antiácidos/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Carbonato de Cálcio/farmacocinética , Estudos Cross-Over , Combinação de Medicamentos , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Voluntários Saudáveis , Antagonistas dos Receptores H2 da Histamina/farmacocinética , Humanos , Nizatidina/farmacocinética , Bicarbonato de Sódio/química , Comprimidos
14.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-739511

RESUMO

Nizatidine is a histamine H₂ receptor antagonist that inhibits stomach acid production and is commonly used in the treatment of peptic ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux. H₂ receptor antagonists are typically well tolerated, and hypersensitivity reactions are rare. A 19-year-old woman developed urticaria 30 minutes after taking a drug containing nizatidine. Allergic reactions to nizatidine were confirmed via skin prick test, which also revealed cross-reactions to ranitidine. We believe that this is the first case report on immediate hypersensitivity to nizatidine in Korea.


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Histamina , Hipersensibilidade , Hipersensibilidade Imediata , Coreia (Geográfico) , Nizatidina , Úlcera Péptica , Ranitidina , Pele , Estômago , Urticária
15.
J Labelled Comp Radiopharm ; 60(13): 600-607, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28833386

RESUMO

Nizatidine has been labeled using [125 I] with chloramine-T as oxidizing agent. Factors such as the amount of oxidizing agent, amount of substrate, pH, reaction temperature, and reaction time have been systematically studied to optimize the iodination. Biodistribution studies indicate the suitability of radioiodinated nizatidine as a novel tracer to image stomach ulcer. Radioiodinated nizatidine may be considered a highly selective radiotracer for peptic ulcer imaging.


Assuntos
Halogenação , Radioisótopos do Iodo/química , Nizatidina/química , Nizatidina/farmacocinética , Úlcera Péptica/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Marcação por Isótopo , Camundongos , Traçadores Radioativos , Radioquímica , Estômago/diagnóstico por imagem , Distribuição Tecidual
16.
J Chromatogr Sci ; 55(8): 818-831, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28486578

RESUMO

A comparative force degradation high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was developed and validated for some H2-receptor antagonists. The studied H2-receptor antagonists were ranitidine (RAN), nizatidine (NIZ) and famotidine (FAM). The degradation behaviors of the studied H2-receptor antagonists were studied under different stress conditions (hydrolytic, thermal and oxidative) conditions as well as storage conditions according to International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) recommendations. A stability-indicating HPTLC method was optimized in order to separate the analyte from the degradation products formed under various stress conditions. Full separation of the drugs from their degradation products was successfully achieved on an HPTLC precoated silica gel plates. Densitometric measurements were carried out using a Camag TLC Scanner III in the absorbance mode at 320 nm for RAN and NIZ, and 280 nm for FAM. The limits of detection and limits of quantitation range were 5.47-9.37 and 16.30-31.26 ng/band, respectively, for all investigated drugs. The validation studies were performed according to ICH requirements. The developed method was simple, rapid and reliable hence it could be applied for routine quality control analysis of the investigated H2-receptor antagonists in dosage forms. The kinetic behavior, degradation rate constants and half-lives of the degradation of the investigated drugs were studied and compared at different stress conditions. The present study provides, for the first time, a new vision to compare the degradation kinetics of H2-receptor antagonists at the same degradation procedures.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia em Camada Fina/métodos , Antagonistas dos Receptores H2 da Histamina/análise , Antagonistas dos Receptores H2 da Histamina/química , Densitometria , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Famotidina/análise , Famotidina/química , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Nizatidina/análise , Nizatidina/química , Ranitidina/análise , Ranitidina/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 99: 147-151, 2017 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27916696

RESUMO

The dielectric properties of two pharmaceuticals nizatidine and perphenazine were investigated in the supercooled liquid and glassy states by broadband dielectric spectroscopy. Two relaxation processes were observed in both the pharmaceuticals. The relaxation process observed above the glass transition temperature is the structural alpha relaxation and below the glass transition temperature is the gamma relaxation of intramolecular origin. The Johari-Goldstein beta relaxation coming from the motion of the entire molecule is found to be hidden under the structural relaxation peak in both the pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Nizatidina/química , Perfenazina/química , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Espectroscopia Dielétrica/métodos , Vidro/química , Movimento (Física) , Temperatura , Temperatura de Transição
18.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2016: 9862496, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27872516

RESUMO

Purpose. It has been confirmed that inflammatory cytokines are involved in the progression of pterygium. Histamine can enhance proliferation and migration of many cells. Therefore, we intend to investigate the proliferative and migratory effects of histamine on primary culture of human pterygium fibroblasts (HPFs). Methods. Pterygium and conjunctiva samples were obtained from surgery, and toluidine blue staining was used to identify mast cells. 3-[4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) was performed to evaluate the proliferative rate of HPFs and human conjunctival fibroblasts (HCFs); ki67 expression was also measured by immunofluorescence analysis. Histamine receptor-1 (H1R) antagonist (Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride) and histamine receptor-2 (H2R) antagonist (Nizatidine) were added to figure out which receptor was involved. Wound healing model was used to evaluate the migratory ability of HPFs. Results. The numbers of total mast cells and degranulated mast cells were both higher in pterygium than in conjunctiva. Histamine had a proliferative effect on both HPFs and HCFs, the effective concentration (10 µmol/L) on HPFs was lower than on HCFs (100 µmol/L), and the effect could be blocked by H1R antagonist. Histamine showed no migratory effect on HPFs. Conclusion. Histamine may play an important role in the proliferation of HPFs and act through H1R.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Histamina/farmacologia , Pterígio/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Túnica Conjuntiva/citologia , Difenidramina/farmacologia , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H1/farmacologia , Humanos , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mastócitos/metabolismo , Nizatidina/farmacologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Soro/fisiologia
19.
J Pharm Sci ; 105(12): 3573-3584, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27773524

RESUMO

The slow molecular mobility in the amorphous solid state of 3 active pharmaceutical drugs (cimetidine, nizatidine, and famotidine) has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry and the 2 dielectric-related techniques of dielectric relaxation spectroscopy and thermally stimulated depolarization currents. The glass-forming ability, the glass stability, and the tendency for crystallization from the equilibrium melt were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, which also provided the characterization of the main relaxation of the 3 glass formers. The chemical instability of famotidine at the melting temperature and above it prevented the preparation of the amorphous for dielectric studies. In contrast, for cimetidine and nizatidine, the dielectric study yielded the main kinetic features of the α relaxation and of the secondary relaxations. According to the obtained results, nizatidine displays the higher fragility index of the 3 studied glass-forming drugs. The thermally stimulated depolarization current technique has proved useful to identify the Johari-Goldstein relaxation and to measure τßJG in the amorphous solid state, that is, in a frequency range which is not easily accessible by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy.


Assuntos
Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Cimetidina/química , Famotidina/química , Nizatidina/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria/métodos , Cimetidina/metabolismo , Famotidina/metabolismo , Nizatidina/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Molecules ; 21(9)2016 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27608003

RESUMO

The histamine H2-receptor antagonists cimetidine, famotidine and nizatidine are individually encapsulated by macrocyclic cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]), with binding affinities of 6.57 (±0.19) × 10³ M(-1), 1.30 (±0.27) × 104 M(-1) and 1.05 (±0.33) × 105 M(-1), respectively. These 1:1 host-guest inclusion complexes have been experimentally examined by ¹H-NMR, UV-visible spectroscopic titrations (including Job plots), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), as well as theoretically by molecular dynamics (MD) computation. This study may provide important insights on the supramolecular formulation of H2-receptor antagonist drugs for potentially enhanced stability and controlled release based on different binding strengths of these host-guest complexes.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/química , Cimetidina/química , Famotidina/química , Antagonistas dos Receptores H2 da Histamina/química , Imidazóis/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Nizatidina/química
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