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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(15): e2314763121, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557194

RESUMO

Although sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is a serious condition, there are currently no approved drugs for its treatment. Nevertheless, there is a growing understanding that the cochlear pathologies that underlie SSNHL include apoptotic death of sensory outer hair cells (OHCs) as well as loss of ribbon synapses connecting sensory inner hair cells (IHCs) and neurites of the auditory nerve, designated synaptopathy. Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a common subtype of SSNHL and is widely used to model hearing loss preclinically. Here, we demonstrate that a single interventive application of a small pyridoindole molecule (AC102) into the middle ear restored auditory function almost to prenoise levels in a guinea pig model of NIHL. AC102 prevented noise-triggered loss of OHCs and reduced IHC synaptopathy suggesting a role of AC102 in reconnecting auditory neurons to their sensory target cells. Notably, AC102 exerted its therapeutic properties over a wide frequency range. Such strong improvements in hearing have not previously been demonstrated for other therapeutic agents. In vitro experiments of a neuronal damage model revealed that AC102 protected cells from apoptosis and promoted neurite growth. These effects may be explained by increased production of adenosine triphosphate, indicating improved mitochondrial function, and reduced levels of reactive-oxygen species which prevents the apoptotic processes responsible for OHC death. This action profile of AC102 might be causal for the observed hearing recovery in in vivo models.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial , Cobaias , Animais , Audição , Cóclea , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Células Ciliadas Auditivas Externas/fisiologia , Limiar Auditivo
2.
Trends Hear ; 28: 23312165241246597, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629486

RESUMO

Hearing aids and other hearing devices should provide the user with a benefit, for example, compensate for effects of a hearing loss or cancel undesired sounds. However, wearing hearing devices can also have negative effects on perception, previously demonstrated mostly for spatial hearing, sound quality and the perception of the own voice. When hearing devices are set to transparency, that is, provide no gain and resemble open-ear listening as well as possible, these side effects can be studied in isolation. In the present work, we conducted a series of experiments that are concerned with the effect of transparent hearing devices on speech perception in a collocated speech-in-noise task. In such a situation, listening through a hearing device is not expected to have any negative effect, since both speech and noise undergo identical processing, such that the signal-to-noise ratio at ear is not altered and spatial effects are irrelevant. However, we found a consistent hearing device disadvantage for speech intelligibility and similar trends for rated listening effort. Several hypotheses for the possible origin for this disadvantage were tested by including several different devices, gain settings and stimulus levels. While effects of self-noise and nonlinear distortions were ruled out, the exact reason for a hearing device disadvantage on speech perception is still unclear. However, a significant relation to auditory model predictions demonstrate that the speech intelligibility disadvantage is related to sound quality, and is most probably caused by insufficient equalization, artifacts of frequency-dependent signal processing and processing delays.


Assuntos
Auxiliares de Audição , Perda Auditiva , Percepção da Fala , Humanos , Audição , Ruído/efeitos adversos
3.
Codas ; 36(2): e20230093, 2024.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597550

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the reliability of the Word-with-Noise Test in a group of normal-hearing adults. METHODS: Forty-five normal-hearing adult subjects participated in the research. The interval between the first and second assessment was 14 to 28 days, performed during the same time of the day and by the same evaluator. The comparison analysis between the test and the retest was performed considering the general result of the ears, totaling 90 ears evaluated. The inferential analysis included the comparison of the situations in the first and second assessment using the Wilcoxon Test, calculation, and interpretation of the Intraclass Correlation Index. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference between the test and retest performances. The intraclass correlation coefficients obtained were indicative of good reliability (r=0.759; p<0.001) for the monosyllabic stimulus and moderate reliability (r=0.631; p<0.001) for the disyllabic stimulus. CONCLUSION: The Word-with-Noise Test demonstrated satisfactory reliability for both the monosyllabic and disyllabic stimuli.


OBJETIVO: Investigar a confiabilidade do Teste de Palavras no Ruído em um grupo de adultos normo-ouvintes. MÉTODO: Participaram da pesquisa 45 sujeitos adultos normo-ouvintes. O intervalo entre a primeira e a segunda avaliação foi de 14 a 28 dias, realizadas no mesmo turno do dia e pelo mesmo avaliador. A análise de comparação entre teste e reteste foi realizada considerando o resultado geral das orelhas, totalizando 90 orelhas avaliadas. A análise inferencial incluiu a comparação das situações na primeira e segunda avaliação por meio do Teste de Wilcoxon, cálculo e interpretação do Índice de Correlação Intraclasse. RESULTADOS: Houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os desempenhos no teste e reteste. Os coeficientes de correlação intraclasse obtidos foram indicativos de boa confiabilidade (r=0,759; p<0,001) para o estímulo monossilábico e de moderada confiabilidade (r=0,631; p<0,001) para o dissilábico. CONCLUSÃO: O Teste de Palavras no Ruído demonstrou satisfatória confiabilidade tanto para o estímulo monossilábico, quanto para o dissilábico.


Assuntos
Testes Auditivos , Ruído , Adulto , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Audição
4.
Bioinspir Biomim ; 19(3)2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569525

RESUMO

The silent flight of barn owls is associated with wing and feather specialisations. Three special features are known: a serrated leading edge that is formed by free-standing barb tips which appears as a comb-like structure, a soft dorsal surface, and a fringed trailing edge. We used a model of the leading edge comb with 3D-curved serrations that was designed based on 3D micro-scans of rows of barbs from selected barn-owl feathers. The interaction of the flow with the serrations was measured with Particle-Image-Velocimetry in a flow channel at uniform steady inflow and was compared to the situation of inflow with freestream turbulence, generated from the turbulent wake of a cylinder placed upstream. In steady uniform flow, the serrations caused regular velocity streaks and a flow turning effect. When vortices of different size impacted the serrations, the serrations reduced the flow fluctuations downstream in each case, exemplified by a decreased root-mean-square value of the fluctuations in the wake of the serrations. This attenuation effect was stronger for the spanwise velocity component, leading to an overall flow homogenization. Our findings suggest that the serrations of the barn owl provide a passive flow control leading to reduced leading-edge noise when flying in turbulent environments.


Assuntos
Estrigiformes , Animais , Voo Animal , Plumas , Asas de Animais , Ruído
5.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 67(4): 1229-1242, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563688

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Almost 40 years after its development, in this article, we reexamine the relevance and validity of the ubiquitously used Revised Speech Perception in Noise (R-SPiN) sentence corpus. The R-SPiN corpus includes "high-context" and "low-context" sentences and has been widely used in the field of hearing research to examine the benefit derived from semantic context across English-speaking listeners, but research investigating age differences has yielded somewhat inconsistent findings. We assess the appropriateness of the corpus for use today in different English-language cultures (i.e., British and American) as well as for older and younger adults. METHOD: Two hundred forty participants, including older (60-80 years) and younger (19-31 years) adult groups in the the United Kingdom and United States, completed a cloze task consisting of R-SPiN sentences with the final word removed. Cloze, as a measure of predictability, and entropy, as a measure of response uncertainty, were compared between culture and age groups. RESULTS: Most critically, of the 200 "high-context" stimuli, only around half were assessed as highly predictable for older adults (United Kingdom: 109; United States: 107); and fewer still, for younger adults (United Kingdom: 75; United States: 81). We also found dominant responses to these "high-context" stimuli varied between cultures, with U.S. responses being more likely to match the original R-SPiN target. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the issue of incomplete transferability of corpus items across English-language cultures as well as diminished equivalency for older and younger adults. By identifying relevant items for each population, this work could facilitate the interpretation of inconsistent findings in the literature, particularly relating to age effects.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Humanos , Idoso , Ruído , Audição/fisiologia , Idioma , Semântica
6.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0290150, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558006

RESUMO

In order to improve the interior sound quality of Electric Vehicles (EV), solve the problem of low sense of power and comfort of the interior sound as well as the large electromagnetic excitation order noise of motor and the sharp interior sound, this article designs a dynamic active sound control system for EV under accelerated driving conditions. Firstly, by comparing and analyzing the sound spectrum characteristics of fuel vehicle (FV) and EV during acceleration, a short-time Fourier transform (STFT) is adopted to extract and synthesize the engine sound. Secondly, the influence of the engine order composition and the energy distribution in the frequency domain on the sound quality of the vehicle is analyzed, and an active control system for sound quality is proposed. And the software and hardware development of the active control sound system is completed. Finally, through real-vehicle testing and verification, the sense of comfort and power of the EV interior sound has been greatly improved during acceleration, and the total value of interior sound can meet the requirement. The sound pressure level and loudness of interior sound have been increased, and the sharpness of the sound inside the vehicle has been improved, with a maximum reduction of 1.0acum.


Assuntos
Automóveis , Som , Ruído , Eletricidade , Aceleração
7.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561257

RESUMO

Objective: This study investigates the effect of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), frequency, and bandwidth on horizontal sound localization accuracy in normal-hearing young adults. Methods: From August 2022 to December 2022, a total of 20 normal-hearing young adults, including 7 males and 13 females, with an age range of 20 to 35 years and a mean age of 25.4 years, were selected to participate in horizontal azimuth recognition tests under both quiet and noisy conditions. Six narrowband filtered noise stimuli were used with central frequencies (CF) of 250, 2 000, and 4 000 Hz and bandwidths of 1/6 and 1 octave. Continuous broadband white noise was used as the background masker, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was 0, -3, and -12 dB. The root-mean-square error (RMS error) was used to measure sound localization accuracy, with smaller values indicating higher accuracy. Friedman test was used to compare the effects of SNR and CF on sound localization accuracy, and Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the impact of the two bandwidths on sound localization accuracy in noise. Results: In a quiet environment, the RMS error in horizontal azimuth in normal-hearing young adults ranged from 4.3 to 8.1 degrees. Sound localization accuracy decreased with decreasing SNR: at 0 dB SNR (range: 5.3-12.9 degrees), the difference from the quiet condition was not significant (P>0.05); however, at -3 dB (range: 7.3-16.8 degrees) and -12 dB SNR (range: 9.4-41.2 degrees), sound localization accuracy significantly decreased compared to the quiet condition (all P<0.01). Under noisy conditions, there were differences in sound localization accuracy among stimuli with different frequencies and bandwidths, with higher frequencies performing the worst, followed by middle frequencies, and lower frequencies performing the best, with significant differences (all P<0.01). Sound localization accuracy for 1/6 octave stimuli was more susceptible to noise interference than 1 octave stimuli (all P<0.01). Conclusions: The ability of normal-hearing young adults to localize sound in the horizontal plane in the presence of noise is influenced by SNR, CF, and bandwidth. Noise with SNRs of ≥-3 dB can lead to decreased accuracy in narrowband sound localization. Higher CF signals and narrower bandwidths are more susceptible to noise interference.


Assuntos
Localização de Som , Percepção da Fala , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Ruído , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Audição
8.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 249: 10057, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38562529

RESUMO

Tinnitus is a disturbing condition defined as the occurrence of acoustic hallucinations with no actual sound. Although the mechanisms underlying tinnitus have been explored extensively, the pathophysiology of the disease is not completely understood. Moreover, genes and potential treatment targets related to auditory hallucinations remain unknown. In this study, we examined transcriptional-profile changes in the medial geniculate body after noise-induced tinnitus in rats by performing RNA sequencing and validated differentially expressed genes via quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. The rat model of tinnitus was established by analyzing startle behavior based on gap-pre-pulse inhibition of acoustic startles. We identified 87 differently expressed genes, of which 40 were upregulated and 47 were downregulated. Pathway-enrichment analysis revealed that the differentially enriched genes in the tinnitus group were associated with pathway terms, such as coronavirus disease COVID-19, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction. Protein-protein-interaction networks were established, and two hub genes (Rpl7a and AC136661.1) were identified among the selected genes. Further studies focusing on targeting and modulating these genes are required for developing potential treatments for noise-induced tinnitus in patients.


Assuntos
Zumbido , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Zumbido/genética , Zumbido/metabolismo , Corpos Geniculados/metabolismo , Ruído/efeitos adversos
9.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 421, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582813

RESUMO

Moderate noise exposure induces cochlear synaptopathy, the loss of afferent ribbon synapses between cochlear hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons, which is associated with functional hearing decline. Prior studies have demonstrated noise-induced changes in the distribution and number of synaptic components, but the dynamic changes that occur after noise exposure have not been directly visualized. Here, we describe a live imaging model using RIBEYE-tagRFP to enable direct observation of pre-synaptic ribbons in mature hearing mouse cochleae after synaptopathic noise exposure. Ribbon number does not change, but noise induces an increase in ribbon volume as well as movement suggesting unanchoring from synaptic tethers. A subgroup of basal ribbons displays concerted motion towards the cochlear nucleus with subsequent migration back to the cell membrane after noise cessation. Understanding the immediate dynamics of synaptic damage after noise exposure may facilitate identification of specific target pathways to treat cochlear synaptopathy.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído , Animais , Camundongos , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/etiologia , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/metabolismo , Cóclea , Audição , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Sinapses/fisiologia
10.
Noise Health ; 26(120): 19-24, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) need to tolerate the effects of noise. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 167 TKA patients at The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University from April 2019 to April 2021. A total of 154 patients who met inclusion criteria were divided into the conventional noise reduction management group (CMG) and the noise reduction earplug group (EPG), following different management schemes. The CMG received routine noise reduction management after surgery, while the EPG used noise reduction earplugs based on the CMG. The clinical indexes of the two groups were compared. RESULTS: In this study, 79 patients were included in the CMG, and 75 patients were included in the EPG. The results showed that the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scores of both groups 2 weeks after surgery were significantly lower than those before management (ZEPG = 5.995, ZCMG = 4.109, all P < 0.001), and the EPG exhibited a significantly lower PSQI score than the CMG (Z = -2.442, P < 0.05). Two weeks after surgery, the EPG had significantly lower levels of systolic blood pressure (ZSBP = -4.303) and diastolic blood pressure (ZDBP = -3.115), as well as lower scores on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety (HADS-A; ZHADS-A = -7.140) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression (HADS-D; ZHADS-D = -4.545) compared to the CMG (all P < 0.05). In addition, no significant correlation existed between the duration of wearing earplugs and the HADS-A and HADS-D scores (r = -0.201, r = -0.002, P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Noise reduction earplugs can improve sleep quality and regulate negative emotions of patients undergoing TKA treatment through a complex mechanism involving noise, which is beneficial to the prognosis of the disease.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Dispositivos de Proteção das Orelhas , Ruído/efeitos adversos
11.
Eur J Neurosci ; 59(8): 1961-1976, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38440952

RESUMO

Prominent pathological hypotheses for schizophrenia include auditory processing deficits and dysconnectivity within cerebral networks. However, most neuroimaging studies have focused on impairments in either resting-state or task-related functional connectivity in patients with schizophrenia. The aims of our study were to examine (1) blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals during auditory steady-state response (ASSR) tasks, (2) functional connectivity during the resting-state and ASSR tasks and (3) state shifts between the resting-state and ASSR tasks in patients with schizophrenia. To reduce the functional consequences of scanner noise, we employed resting-state and sparse sampling auditory fMRI paradigms in 25 schizophrenia patients and 25 healthy controls. Auditory stimuli were binaural click trains at frequencies of 20, 30, 40 and 80 Hz. Based on the detected ASSR-evoked BOLD signals, we examined the functional connectivity between the thalamus and bilateral auditory cortex during both the resting state and ASSR task state, as well as their alterations. The schizophrenia group exhibited significantly diminished BOLD signals in the bilateral auditory cortex and thalamus during the 80 Hz ASSR task (corrected p < 0.05). We observed a significant inverse relationship between the resting state and ASSR task state in altered functional connectivity within the thalamo-auditory network in schizophrenia patients. Specifically, our findings demonstrated stronger functional connectivity in the resting state (p < 0.004) and reduced functional connectivity during the ASSR task (p = 0.048), which was mediated by abnormal state shifts, within the schizophrenia group. These results highlight the presence of abnormal thalamocortical connectivity associated with deficits in the shift between resting and task states in patients with schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Córtex Auditivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroimagem , Ruído , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Estimulação Acústica
12.
Trends Hear ; 28: 23312165241229057, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483979

RESUMO

A practical speech audiometry tool is the digits-in-noise (DIN) test for hearing screening of populations of varying ages and hearing status. The test is usually conducted by a human supervisor (e.g., clinician), who scores the responses spoken by the listener, or online, where software scores the responses entered by the listener. The test has 24-digit triplets presented in an adaptive staircase procedure, resulting in a speech reception threshold (SRT). We propose an alternative automated DIN test setup that can evaluate spoken responses whilst conducted without a human supervisor, using the open-source automatic speech recognition toolkit, Kaldi-NL. Thirty self-reported normal-hearing Dutch adults (19-64 years) completed one DIN + Kaldi-NL test. Their spoken responses were recorded and used for evaluating the transcript of decoded responses by Kaldi-NL. Study 1 evaluated the Kaldi-NL performance through its word error rate (WER), percentage of summed decoding errors regarding only digits found in the transcript compared to the total number of digits present in the spoken responses. Average WER across participants was 5.0% (range 0-48%, SD = 8.8%), with average decoding errors in three triplets per participant. Study 2 analyzed the effect that triplets with decoding errors from Kaldi-NL had on the DIN test output (SRT), using bootstrapping simulations. Previous research indicated 0.70 dB as the typical within-subject SRT variability for normal-hearing adults. Study 2 showed that up to four triplets with decoding errors produce SRT variations within this range, suggesting that our proposed setup could be feasible for clinical applications.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Adulto , Humanos , Teste do Limiar de Recepção da Fala , Audiometria da Fala , Ruído , Testes Auditivos
13.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 155(3): 2114-2127, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38488452

RESUMO

Listeners show rapid perceptual learning of acoustically degraded speech, though the amount of exposure required to maximize speech adaptation is unspecified. The current work used a single-session design to examine the length of auditory training on perceptual learning for normal hearing listeners exposed to eight-channel noise-vocoded speech. Participants completed short, medium, or long training using a two-alternative forced choice sentence identification task with feedback. To assess learning and generalization, a 40-trial pre-test and post-test transcription task was administered using trained and novel sentences. Training results showed all groups performed near ceiling with no reliable differences. For test data, we evaluated changes in transcription accuracy using separate linear mixed models for trained or novel sentences. In both models, we observed a significant improvement in transcription at post-test relative to pre-test. Critically, the three training groups did not differ in the magnitude of improvement following training. Subsequent Bayes factors analysis evaluating the test by group interaction provided strong evidence in support of the null hypothesis. For these stimuli and procedure, results suggest increased training does not necessarily maximize learning outcomes; both passive and trained experience likely supported adaptation. Findings may contribute to rehabilitation recommendations for listeners adapting to degraded speech signals.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Humanos , Fala , Teorema de Bayes , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Aprendizagem
14.
Phys Rev E ; 109(2-1): 024407, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491664

RESUMO

The steady-state firing rate and firing-rate response of the leaky and exponential integrate-and-fire models receiving synaptic shot noise with excitatory and inhibitory reversal potentials is examined. For the particular case where the underlying synaptic conductances are exponentially distributed, it is shown that the master equation for a population of such model neurons can be reduced from an integrodifferential form to a more tractable set of three differential equations. The system is nevertheless more challenging analytically than for current-based synapses: where possible, analytical results are provided with an efficient numerical scheme and code provided for other quantities. The increased tractability of the framework developed supports an ongoing critical comparison between models in which synapses are treated with and without reversal potentials, such as recently in the context of networks with balanced excitatory and inhibitory conductances.


Assuntos
Modelos Neurológicos , Neurônios , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Sinapses/fisiologia , Ruído , Simulação por Computador
15.
Int Tinnitus J ; 27(2): 97-103, 2024 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507621

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe an application's development and validation process that aims to track hearing difficulties in adverse environments (a listening effort application). DESIGN: 71 subjects were evaluated, divided into two groups: 30 subjects aged between 18 and 30, and 41 subjects aged between 40 and 65. All subjects had European Portuguese as their native language; the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) scored above 24, and all could read and write. All subjects performed the intelligibility test in noise and the test of listening effort. The two tests were randomly applied in the free field in the audiometric cabin and the application. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the results of the two methods (p>0.05). For the group aged between 40 and 65 years old, the ROC curve showed that intelligibility inferior to 68.5% and the number of correct answers lower than 1,5 in the listening effort test are the optimal cut-off for referral to further management. Both tests showed low sensitivity and specificity regarding individuals between 18 and 30 years old, indicating that the application is inappropriate for this age group. CONCLUSIONS: The application is valid and can contribute to the screening and self-awareness of listening difficulties in middle age, with a reduction in the prevalence of dementia soon.


Assuntos
Audiologia , Aplicativos Móveis , Percepção da Fala , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Esforço de Escuta , Ruído/prevenção & controle
16.
Environ Int ; 185: 108526, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Traffic-related exposures, such as air pollution and noise, have a detrimental impact on human health, especially in urban areas. However, there remains a critical research and knowledge gap in understanding the impact of community severance, a measure of the physical separation imposed by road infrastructure and motorized road traffic, limiting access to goods, services, or social connections, breaking down the social fabric and potentially also adversely impacting health. We aimed to robustly quantify a community severance metric in urban settings exemplified by its characterization in New York City (NYC). METHODS: We used geospatial location data and dimensionality reduction techniques to capture NYC community severance variation. We employed principal component pursuit, a pattern recognition algorithm, combined with factor analysis as a novel method to estimate the Community Severance Index. We used public data for the year 2019 at census block group (CBG) level on road infrastructure, road traffic activity, and pedestrian infrastructure. As a demonstrative application of the Community Severance Index, we investigated the association between community severance and traffic collisions, as a proxy for road safety, in 2019 in NYC at CBG level. RESULTS: Our data revealed one multidimensional factor related to community severance explaining 74% of the data variation. In adjusted analyses, traffic collisions in general, and specifically those involving pedestrians or cyclists, were nonlinearly associated with an increasing level of Community Severance Index in NYC. CONCLUSION: We developed a high spatial-resolution Community Severance Index for NYC using data available nationwide, making it feasible for replication in other cities across the United States. Our findings suggest that increases in the Community Severance Index across CBG may be linked to increases in traffic collisions in NYC. The Community Severance Index, which provides a novel traffic-related exposure, may be used to inform equitable urban policies that mitigate health risks and enhance well-being.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cidades , Acidentes de Trânsito , Ruído , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise
17.
Cereb Cortex ; 34(3)2024 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38494418

RESUMO

Listeners can use prior knowledge to predict the content of noisy speech signals, enhancing perception. However, this process can also elicit misperceptions. For the first time, we employed a prime-probe paradigm and transcranial magnetic stimulation to investigate causal roles for the left and right posterior superior temporal gyri (pSTG) in the perception and misperception of degraded speech. Listeners were presented with spectrotemporally degraded probe sentences preceded by a clear prime. To produce misperceptions, we created partially mismatched pseudo-sentence probes via homophonic nonword transformations (e.g. The little girl was excited to lose her first tooth-Tha fittle girmn wam expited du roos har derst cooth). Compared to a control site (vertex), inhibitory stimulation of the left pSTG selectively disrupted priming of real but not pseudo-sentences. Conversely, inhibitory stimulation of the right pSTG enhanced priming of misperceptions with pseudo-sentences, but did not influence perception of real sentences. These results indicate qualitatively different causal roles for the left and right pSTG in perceiving degraded speech, supporting bilateral models that propose engagement of the right pSTG in sublexical processing.


Assuntos
Idioma , Fala , Humanos , Feminino , Fala/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Ruído
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6863, 2024 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38514715

RESUMO

The precision of stereopsis and vergence are ultimately limited by internal binocular disparity noise. Here we propose an equivalent noise model with both global and local internal disparity noises to provide a unified explanation of both absolute and relative disparity thresholds. To test this model, we developed a psychophysical procedure to measure the equivalent internal disparity noise by adding external disparity noise to random-Gabor-patch stereograms. We used the method of constant stimuli to measure the minimum and maximum disparity thresholds (Dmin and Dmax) for both absolute and relative disparity. Consistent with previous studies, we found that Dmin thresholds are substantially worse for absolute disparity than for relative disparity. We tested three relative disparity mechanisms: (1) the difference between the monocular separations of targets projecting to the two eyes; (2) the direct measurement of relative disparity; and (3) the difference of absolute disparities of targets. Computing the difference of absolute disparities when detecting relative disparity, Mechanism 3 cancels global noise, resulting in a much lower relative Dmin threshold, and provides a reasonable fit to the experimental data. We also found that the presence of as much as 2400 arcsec of external disparity noise does not appear to affect the Dmax threshold. This observation suggests that Dmax is implicated in a mechanism that disregards the disparity variance of individual items, relying instead on the average disparity across all items, supporting the depth model proposed in our previous study (Ding & Levi, 2021), which posits distinct mechanisms governing Dmin and Dmax thresholds.


Assuntos
Percepção de Profundidade , Disparidade Visual , Ruído , Inventário de Personalidade , Visão Binocular
19.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 482(4): 598-601, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427804

Assuntos
Ruído , Médicos , Humanos , Pacientes
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(4): 369, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489113

RESUMO

Protected areas are typically managed as a network of sites exposed to varying anthropogenic conditions. Managing these networks benefits from monitoring of conditions across sites to help prioritize coordinated efforts. Monitoring marine vessel activity and related underwater radiated noise impacts across a network of protected areas, like the U.S. National Marine Sanctuary system, helps managers ensure the quality of habitats used by a wide range of marine species. Here, we use underwater acoustic detections of vessels to quantify different characteristics of vessel noise at 25 locations within eight marine sanctuaries including the Hawaiian Archipelago and the U.S. east and west coasts. Vessel noise metrics, including temporal presence and sound levels, were paired with Automatic Identification System (AIS) vessel tracking data to derive a suite of robust vessel noise indicators for use across the network of marine protected areas. Network-wide comparisons revealed a spectrum of vessel noise conditions that closely matched AIS vessel traffic composition. Shifts in vessel noise were correlated with the decrease in vessel activity early in the COVID-19 pandemic, and vessel speed reduction management initiatives. Improving our understanding of vessel noise conditions in these protected areas can help direct opportunities for reducing vessel noise, such as establishing and maintaining noise-free periods, enhancing port efficiency, engaging with regional and international vessel quieting initiatives, and leveraging co-benefits of management actions for reducing ocean noise.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Navios , Humanos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ruído , Acústica , Ecossistema
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