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1.
Soc Sci Med ; 351 Suppl 1: 116879, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38825382

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Women's empowerment is a UN Sustainable Development Goal and a focus of global health and development but survey measures and data on gender empowerment remain weak. Existing indicators are often disconnected from theory; stronger operationalization is needed. OBJECTIVE: We present the EMERGE Framework to Measure Empowerment, a framework to strengthen empowerment measures for global health and development. METHOD: We initiated development of this framework in 2016 as part of EMERGE - an initiative designed to build the science of survey research and availability of high-quality survey measures and data on gender empowerment. The framework is guided by existing theories of empowerment, evidence, and expert input. We apply this framework to understand women's empowerment in family planning (FP) via review of state of the field measures. RESULTS: Our framework offers concrete measurable constructs to assess critical consciousness and choice, agency and backlash, and goal achievement as the empowerment process, recognizing its operation at multiple levels-from the individual to the collective. Internal attributes, social norms, and external contexts and resources create facilitators or barriers to the empowerment process. Review of best evidence FP measures assessing empowerment constructs, social norms, and key influencers (e.g., partners and providers) show a strong landscape of measures, including those with women, partners, and providers, but they are limited in assessing translation of choice to agency to achievement of women's self-determined fertility or contraceptive goals, instead relying on assumption of contraceptive use as the goal. We see no measures on collective empowerment toward women's reproductive choice and rights. CONCLUSION: The EMERGE Framework can guide development and analysis of survey measures on empowerment and is needed as the current state of the field shows limited coverage of empowerment constructs even in areas which have received more study, such as family planning.


Assuntos
Empoderamento , Humanos , Feminino , Saúde Global , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poder Psicológico , Normas Sociais
2.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 260: 111337, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effects of booster and no booster versions of web-based alcohol Personalised Normative Feedback (PNF) and whether descriptive norms mediated and/or participant motivation moderated the effectiveness of the intervention in real world conditions (i.e. no financial incentives). METHODS: Pragmatic randomised controlled trial with 1-, 3-, and 6-month assessments. Brazilian college students reporting alcohol use in the last 12 months (N=931) were recruited from May/2020 to December/2022 and allocated to 1) No booster/single PNF(S-PNF); 2) Booster/multiple PNF(M-PNF); or 3) Assessment-only control. We applied Helmert coding [1: Any intervention (S-PNF or M-PNF) vs. Control; and 2: S-PNF vs. M-PNF]. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: typical number of drinks/week and maximum number of drinks/week; secondary outcomes: drinking frequency and number of consequences. Three-months assessment was the primary interval. Descriptive norms were tested as mediator. Interest, importance, and readiness to change were examined as moderators. RESULTS: Compared to control, any intervention did not influence primary outcomes at 3-months or 6-months, but did at 1-month, when reduced typical drinking (IRR:0.77, 95%CI:0.66;0.90) and maximum number of drinks (IRR:0.69, 95%CI:0.58;0.82). There was an intervention effect on the consequences at 3-months. No differences were observed between S-PNF and M-PNF. No mediation effects were found at 3-months. At 6-months, there was an indirect effect on typical drinking through norms at 3-months (b=-0.82, 95%CI:-2.03;-0.12) and effects on maximum drinks through norms at 1-month (b=-0.54, 95%CI:-1.65;-0.02). No support for moderation was found. CONCLUSIONS: Intervention reduced alcohol drinking at 1 month only and was not effective thereafter. Mechanisms of effect remain unclear.


Assuntos
Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade , Estudantes , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Estudantes/psicologia , Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade/psicologia , Universidades , Adolescente , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Internet , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Motivação , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Brasil , Adulto , Normas Sociais
3.
Accid Anal Prev ; 204: 107648, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833986

RESUMO

Illegal lane-transgressing is a typical aberrant riding behavior of riders of two-wheelers, i.e., motorcycles, bicycles, and e-bikes, which is highly frequent in accident reports. However, there is insufficient attention to this behavior at present. This study aims to explore the socio-psychologic factors that influence the illegal lane-transgressing behavior of two-wheeler riders when overtaking. For this purpose, a questionnaire was first composed. The questionnaire included the behavioral intention of two-wheeler riders towards illegal overtaking behavior and five influencing factors: safety knowledge, descriptive norms, injunctive norms, perceived behavior control, and risk perception. Second, a survey was conducted on different two-wheeler riders in Xi'an. Third, various types of two-wheelers were analyzed jointly and separately by structural equation models and analyses of variance. Results show that e-bike riders were more similar to motorcycle riders in behavioral intentions, with their risk perception weaker than other riders. Descriptive norms and perceived behavior control played the most significant roles in the structural equation model. It was also found that two-wheeler riders with a car license had better traffic safety performance. Based on the above results, it is recommended that attention be paid to illegal lane-transgression in the process of law enforcement and education, and a higher level of safety training should be provided for two-wheeler riders.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Intenção , Motocicletas , Humanos , Motocicletas/legislação & jurisprudência , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem , Ciclismo , Condução de Veículo/legislação & jurisprudência , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Segurança , Normas Sociais , China , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Assunção de Riscos
4.
J Sch Psychol ; 104: 101312, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38871421

RESUMO

We examined whether inclusive classroom norms predicted children's reasoning and expectations about the inclusion of peers with learning difficulties from different perspectives (i.e., self, friends, and unfamiliar story protagonist). Swiss elementary school children (N = 1019; 51% girls; Mage = 10.20 years; Grades 3-6) shared their perceptions of inclusive classroom norms and answered questions regarding the inclusion of a character with learning difficulties in an academic scenario. Multilevel analyses revealed that children expected less inclusion from their friends (estimated OR = 0.14, p < .001) or the unfamiliar story protagonist (estimated OR = 0.15, p < .001) than from themselves. Inclusive classroom norms positively predicted children's own (estimated OR = 3.17, p = .041) and their friends' inclusion expectations (estimated OR = 4.59, p = .007). Moreover, individuals who perceived higher inclusive norms than the classroom average were less concerned that the inclusion of the child with learning difficulties would threaten successful group functioning (γ = - 0.19, p = .011). To target the inclusion of children with learning difficulties, school psychologists can heighten classmates' perceptions of inclusive norms and pay attention to individual differences in norm perception.


Assuntos
Deficiências da Aprendizagem , Grupo Associado , Instituições Acadêmicas , Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Masculino , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/psicologia , Inclusão Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Normas Sociais , Percepção Social
5.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303558, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768247

RESUMO

Public tolerance for corruption within a society significantly influences the prevalence of corrupt practices, but less is known about how this tolerance evolves with social norms. This paper presents experimental evidences demonstrating that the descriptive social norm indicating widespread corruption can lead to increased tolerance for corruptive acts. We introduce an asymmetric information ultimatum game to simulate the interactions between embezzlers and citizens. Game theoretical analysis reveals that victims anticipating corruption will exhibit greater compliance with embezzlement when the offers are evaluated based on descriptive norms. To test the hypothesis, we employ a framing effect to induce variations in descriptive norms within a behavioral experiment. Although the treatment effect is significant only in the subgroup of student cadres, this subgroup demonstrated increased beliefs about embezzlement, greater tolerance for corruption, and a heightened propensity to embezzle when exposed to framings with hierarchical implications. This paper contributes to the corruption literature by examining the effects of descriptive norms on victims' responses to embezzlement. It offers a more comprehensive perspective on how social standards shape public opinions and corrupt actions, enhancing our understanding of the self-reinforcing nature of corruption.


Assuntos
Normas Sociais , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Opinião Pública , Adulto Jovem , Roubo , Teoria dos Jogos , Comportamento Social
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11495, 2024 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769362

RESUMO

Nudge-based misinformation interventions are presented as cheap and effective ways to reduce the spread of misinformation online. However, despite online information environments typically containing relatively low volumes of misinformation, most studies testing the effectiveness of nudge interventions present equal proportions of true and false information. As the effectiveness of nudges can be highly context-dependent, it is imperative to validate the effectiveness of nudge-based interventions in environments with more realistic proportions of misinformation. The current study (N = 1387) assessed the effectiveness of a combined accuracy and social-norm nudge in simulated social-media environments with varying proportions of misinformation (50%, 20%, and 12.5%) relative to true and non-news-based (i.e., "social") information. The nudge intervention was effective at improving sharing discernment in conditions with lower proportions of misinformation, providing ecologically valid support for the use of nudge-based interventions to counter misinformation propagation on social media.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Normas Sociais
7.
J Health Commun ; 29(5): 347-356, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745474

RESUMO

Drawing upon the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction (IM) and the Bystander Intervention Model, this study investigates the impact of media health information on individuals' intentions to address violations of health norms, specifically noncompliance with mask-wearing during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our survey results (n=1,426) indicate a positive correlation between seeking health information from the media and the intention to confront norm violators regarding mask-wearing. This correlation is mediated through three intermediary pathways: attitudes, normative beliefs, and perceived behavioral control. These discoveries address a previously unexplored area concerning pro-social health behaviors, bystander intervention, and contribute to the field of health communication by linking them to research on media influences. Combining media and peer interventions could lead to more effective health outcomes. The discussion covers both theoretical and practical implications.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Intenção , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Adulto Jovem , Normas Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Modelos Psicológicos
8.
Span J Psychol ; 27: e13, 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38757250

RESUMO

The apparently contradictory co-existence of high levels of gender equality and intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) found in Nordic countries has been termed the Nordic Paradox. The aim of this study was to examine how the Nordic Paradox is discussed and explained by Spanish professionals working in the IPVAW field. Five focus groups (n = 19) and interviews with key informants (n = 10) were conducted. Four main categories of possible explanations for the Nordic Paradox were identified: Macro-micro disconnect (i.e., discordance between individual beliefs and behaviors and macro-social norms of gender equality), IPVAW as multicausal (i.e., IPVAW defined as a multicausal phenomenon that does not necessarily have to be associated with gender equality), cultural patterns of social relationships (i.e., the role of social relationships and the way people relate to each other in the Nordic countries), and backlash effect (i.e., men's reaction to greater equality for women). Although this study does not provide a final explanation for the Nordic paradox, its results provide us with a better understanding of the phenomenon and can help to advance research in this field.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/etnologia , Masculino , Adulto , Espanha/etnologia , Feminino , Equidade de Gênero , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos , Normas Sociais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Grupos Focais , Relações Interpessoais
9.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303853, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771848

RESUMO

AIM: Our first aim was to present norm values for the Preference for Solitude Scale by sex, age, and other sociodemographic groups. Our second aim was to evaluate the correlates of preference for solitude. METHODS: Data were collected in August/September 2023 from a sample of individuals (N = 5000) living in Germany aged 18 to 74 years (ensuring representativeness in terms of sex, age group and federal state for the German general adult population). The established and valid Preference for Solitude Scale (range 0 to 12, with higher values reflecting a stronger preference for solitude) was used to quantify the preference for solitude. Norm values were provided by sex and age groups. Multiple linear regressions were used to examine the correlates of preference for solitude. RESULTS: Average preference for solitude score was 7.6 (SD = 3.0; 0 to 12). The average score was 7.3 (SD = 3.0) among males and 7.9 (SD = 2.9) among females. Regressions showed that a stronger preference for solitude was associated with being female (ß = .51, p < .001), being older (e.g., being 40 to 49 years compared to 18 to 29 years, ß = .85, p < .001), being single (e.g., divorced compared to being single, ß = -.78, p < .01), higher level of education (secondary education compared to primary education, ß = .43, p < .01), never been a smoker (e.g., daily smoker compared to never smokers, ß = -.61, p < .001), absence of alcohol consumption (e.g., drinking once a week compared to never drinking, ß = -1.09, p < .001), no sports activity (e.g., 2-4 hours per week compared to no sports activity, ß = -.60, p < .001), poorer self-rated health (ß = .28, p < .001) and more depressive symptoms (ß = .05, p < .001). Sex-stratified regressions yielded similar results. CONCLUSION: Norm values provided in this study can be used as a benchmark for comparison with other countries and can guide further research dealing with preferences for solitude. We demonstrated the importance of several sociodemographic factors (e.g., marital status), lifestyle-related factors (e.g., sports activity), and health-related factors (e.g., depressive symptoms) for the preference for solitude. Such knowledge about the correlates of preference for solitude may help to characterize them. This is essential to ensure a good balance between social interaction and being alone. This is important because preference for solitude is associated with poor self-rated health and depression, but also with healthy behaviors such as abstaining from smoking and drinking.


Assuntos
Normas Sociais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Alemanha , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0304805, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38820484

RESUMO

The Comarca Ngäbe-Buglé (CNB), home to >200,000 Indigenous people, is one of the poorest regions in Panama. We describe transactional sex (TS) behaviours, normative beliefs and factors associated with TS among Indigenous adolescents(14-19years) in the CNB. We conducted a mixed-methods study in the CNB between January and November 2018, which included a qualitative study with participant observation and semi-structured interviews that focused on descriptive norms related to TS; and a cross-sectional study among public-school-going adolescents using self-administered questionnaire to report sexual behaviour and injunctive norms related to TS. Participants in the epidemiological study were also asked to submit samples for HIV, syphilis, chlamydia, and gonorrhoea testing. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to organise and analyse field notes and semi-structured interviews. Quantitative analysis included four models: TS experience and acceptance of a TS offer and the associations of these outcome variables with demographic and behavioural variables and HIV/STI infections. In the qualitative study among 20 adolescents, we found that people offering TS were reported to be from within and outside of the community, and included older men and women, and disturbingly, teachers. Participants reported feeling individual and collective agency in the decision to engage in TS and described little social sanctions for participation. In the quantitative study among 700 adolescents(309 girls[45.1%],379 boys[54.9%]), we found that girls(18.8%;58/309) and boys(15.5%;58/379) reported similar levels of having been offered TS, and of acceptance among those offered(girls 81.4% [35/43]; boys 77.8% [35/45]). TS was found to be associated with the reported forced sex and HIV/syphilis seropositivity. Due to widespread acceptance and feelings of agency, interventions would not be effective if they focused on eliminating the transactional component of sexual encounters. Instead, interventions should focus on individual and household economic stability, increasing violence reporting, bringing perpetrators to justice, and adopting condom use during all sexual encounters.


Assuntos
População Rural , Comportamento Sexual , Saúde Sexual , Normas Sociais , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Masculino , Panamá/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Povos Indígenas/psicologia , Trabalho Sexual/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Appetite ; 199: 107503, 2024 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763296

RESUMO

Plant-based eating is beneficial for human and planetary health. It is important to identify factors which may encourage people to reduce meat, and increase plant-based meal intake. Perceived social norms are associated with meat and plant-based meal intake in adults, however, less is known about the relationship between perceived social norms and young adults' own self-reported meat and plant-based eating in general, and in different social contexts. Across two online studies we examined this. In Study 1 (n = 217 young adults, aged 18-25 years, mean age = 19.50 years, SD = 1.37 years, mean BMI = 24.21, SD = 5.45, 91% cisfemale, 92.0% omnivores), perceived descriptive (the perceived behaviour of others) and injunctive (the perceived approval of others) norms were measured in general. In study 2 (n = 151 young adults aged 18-25 years, mean age = 19.62 years, SD = 1.50 years, mean BMI = 24.32, SD = 4.99, 88.8% cisfemale, 71.1% omnivore), perceived descriptive and injunctive norms were examined in a variety of social contexts. In Study 1, perceived descriptive norms about friends were associated with self-reported meat, and descriptive norms about peers and friends, and injunctive norms about friends were positively associated with self-reported plant-based meal intake. In Study 2, descriptive norms about friends were associated with self-reported meat intake in fast-food restaurants and at friends' houses, and injunctive norms about friends were associated with meat intake in restaurants. There were no other significant associations between either type of social norm and meat or plant-based meal intake. We provide the first evidence that peers and friends may be relevant for plant-based meal intake, and only friends may be relevant for meat intake. Further research is needed to examine people's actual food intake, and in longitudinal studies to rule out reverse causality.


Assuntos
Carne , Autorrelato , Normas Sociais , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Adolescente , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Refeições/psicologia , Amigos/psicologia , Dieta Vegetariana/psicologia , Dieta/psicologia
12.
Health Lit Res Pract ; 8(2): e69-e78, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research indicates that the effectiveness of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) physical distancing mandates is influenced by several individual factors, including health literacy; internal health locus of control (IHLOC), the belief that physical distancing can reduce COVID-19 risk; social norms; self-efficacy; and perceptions of the benefits and barriers associated with distancing. However, further investigation is needed to understand the links between these factors and compliance intentions. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the mechanism linking these factors with the intentions to comply with physical distancing mandates. METHODS: A total of 759 participants (Mean age = 29.13, standard deviation [SD] = 8.33; 68.5% women) were surveyed online from September 2020 to October 2020. Data were analyzed using ANOVA (analysis of variance) and structural equation modeling. KEY RESULTS: Health literacy was associated with more perceived benefits (ß = .175, p = .001), greater self-efficacy (ß = .193, p < .001), and less perceived barriers (ß = -.391, p < .001). IHLOC was significantly associated with greater perceived benefits (ß = .156, p = .007) and self-efficacy (ß = .294, p < .001). Family descriptive norms were significantly associated with fewer perceived barriers (ß = -.276, p < .001), while injunctive norms were associated with more perceived benefits (ß = .202, p = .001) and higher self-efficacy (ß = .299, p < .001). Intentions to adhere to physical distancing mandates were significantly associated with past compliance (ß = .427, p < .001) and perceived barriers (ß = -.205, p < .001) and benefits (ß = .295, p < .001). Post-hoc mediation analyses revealed several small yet significant indirect effects, highlighting the complex pathways shaping adherence intentions. CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies how health literacy, IHLOC, social norms, perceived benefits and barriers, and self-efficacy intricately shape intentions to comply with physical distancing mandates. These findings offer valuable implications for public health policy and interventions. [HLRP: Health Literacy Research and Practice. 2024;8(2):e69-e78.].


PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY: This study examined the factors associated with Omanis' intentions to comply with physical distancing mandates during COVID-19. Results revealed that individuals with higher health literacy perceived fewer barriers and more benefits to physical distancing, making them more willing to comply with mandates. Those who believed their actions could reduce the risk of contracting the virus also reported greater benefits and were more likely to comply.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Letramento em Saúde , Controle Interno-Externo , Distanciamento Físico , Autoeficácia , Humanos , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Omã , Intenção , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Normas Sociais
13.
Addict Behav ; 156: 108061, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744213

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Social media are important venues for youth's exposure to e-cigarette content. This study examined how exposure to user-generated e-cigarette content (i.e., content created and shared by individual social media users) is associated with vulnerabilities to e-cigarette use among youth non-users. METHODS: We pooled data from the 2021 and 2022 National Youth Tobacco Survey. Youth who have never used e-cigarettes were included. Weighted linear and logistic regressions were conducted to examine how exposure to user-generated e-cigarette content (from real-life friends, online-only friends, and celebrities/influencers) on social media was associated with e-cigarette use vulnerabilities measured by perceived norms, perceived risk, and susceptibility of use, controlling for demographics, advertising exposure, and mental health conditions. Multiple imputations were performed to account for missing data. RESULTS: Exposure to e-cigarette content on social media posted by real-life friends, online-only friends, and celebrities/influencers were associated with more positive descriptive norm (ßs = 1.56, 0.37, and 0.35, respectively, all ps < .001), more positive injunctive norm (ßs = 0.46, 0.19, and 0.10, respectively, all ps < .001), and higher odds of e-cigarette use susceptibility (ORs = 1.48, 1.50. 1.29, respectively, all ps < .001). Exposure to content posted by real-life and online-only friends were associated with reduced risk perception of e-cigarette use (ß = -0.04, p < 0.05 and ß = -0.07, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlighted that friends and celebrities/influencers are important sources on social media that can influence youth non-users' vulnerabilities to e-cigarette use. Interventional messages communicated through friends and influencers on social media may in turn help reduce e-cigarette vulnerability among youth non-users.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Vaping , Humanos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Vaping/psicologia , Vaping/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Amigos/psicologia , Publicidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Normas Sociais
14.
Addict Behav ; 156: 108046, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As more states legalize cannabis, studies are needed to understand the potential impacts of recreational cannabis legalization (RCL) on adolescents from the perspective of clinicians who care for them. METHODS: This qualitative study characterized clinician perspectives on whether cannabis legalization is associated with changes in adolescents' cannabis use beliefs, behaviors, and consequences. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 32 clinicians in a large healthcare organization from 9/6/2022-12/21/2022. Video-recorded interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: The 32 participants (56.3 % female, mean [SD] age, 45.9 [7.6] years; 65.3 % non-Hispanic White) were from Addiction Medicine (n = 13), Psychiatry/Mental Health (n = 7), Pediatrics (n = 5), and the Emergency Department (n = 7). Clinicians described post-RCL increases in adolescent cannabis use, use of non-combustible modes and high-potency products, and younger age of first use. Clinicians reported social, physical, and policy changes, including changes in social norms, appealing advertisements, marketing, and easier access. Many noted fewer perceived harms among adolescents and greater self-medication post-RCL. They described how RCL contributed to increased parental cannabis use and permissiveness around adolescent use. Finally, many described post-RCL increases in cannabis hyperemesis syndrome, and several noted increased cannabis-related psychosis and acute intoxication, and decreased court-mandated treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians from diverse specialties described post-RCL increases in adolescent cannabis use and cannabis-related consequences, alongside changes in social norms, access, marketing and advertisements, and decreased perceptions of harms. Findings can inform strategies to support adolescents in the context of increased cannabis availability and acceptability post-legalization and support the development of hypotheses for broader-scale quantitative work.


Assuntos
Legislação de Medicamentos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adolescente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Cannabis , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Uso da Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Normas Sociais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
15.
Soc Sci Med ; 351: 116952, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38749255

RESUMO

This research aims to investigate the causal effects of consumers' Covid-19 pandemic experiences on their preferences for sustainable consumption. Drawing on social identity theory, we argue that pandemic experiences heighten consumers' awareness of the importance of adhering to collective social norms, subsequently motivating them to adopt sustainable consumption practices that promote collective interests. Through three preregistered experiments, we demonstrate that: (i) Covid-19 pandemic experiences increase consumers' preferences for sustainable consumption; (ii) this effect is more pronounced for individuals with severer pandemic experiences and females; (iii) pandemic experiences influence sustainable consumption preferences by enhancing consumers' social normative compliance. This study contributes to the understanding of Covid-19's consequences from a micro-level perspective of consumer behavior and offers insights into the factors driving consumers' sustainable consumption preferences.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Comportamento do Consumidor , Normas Sociais , Humanos , COVID-19/psicologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , SARS-CoV-2 , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Adulto Jovem , Identificação Social
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9289, 2024 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38654095

RESUMO

Previous research suggests that descriptive norms positively influence proenvironmental behavior, including littering prevention. However, in some behavioral contexts, a weak descriptive norm may increase individuals' feelings of responsibility by signaling a need for action. We examined this effect in the context of litter prevention by conducting structural equation modeling of survey data from 1400 Singapore residents. The results showed that descriptive norms negatively predicted ascription of responsibility and were negatively related to littering prevention behavior via ascription of responsibility and personal norms. It also showed that strong injunctive norms can reduce the inhibitory effect of descriptive norms on ascription of responsibility. These findings were consistent with several hypotheses constituting the model of norm-regulated responsibility, a novel explanatory framework offering new insights and a more nuanced and comprehensive understanding of social norms' influence on proenvironmental behavior.


Assuntos
Normas Sociais , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Singapura , Adulto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Comportamento Social , Responsabilidade Social
17.
Public Health Nutr ; 27(1): e110, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38576146

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the differences in social norms around parents' food provision in different provision contexts and by demographics. DESIGN: Qualitative study using story completion methodology via an online survey in September 2021. Adults 18+ with or without children were randomised to one of three story stems focusing on food provision in different contexts; food provision at home (non-visitor), with visitors present and with the involvement of sport. Stories were coded and themed using thematic analysis. A content analysis was performed to determine count and frequency of codes in stories by participant demographics and story assumptions. SETTING: Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (n 196). RESULTS: Nine themes were identified from the data resulting in four social norms around providing healthy foods and justifying non-adherence to healthy eating guidelines, evolution of family life and mealtime values, the presence of others influencing how we engage with food provision and unhealthy foods used as incentives/rewards in sport. Following content analysis, no differences of themes or norms by participant demographics or story assumptions were found. CONCLUSIONS: We identified pervasive social norms around family food provision and further identified how contextual factors resulted in variations or distinct norms. This highlights the impact context may have on the social norms parents face when providing food to their children and the opportunities and risks of leveraging these social norms to influence food choice in these contexts. Public health interventions and practitioners should understand the influence of context and social environments when promoting behaviour change and providing individualised advice. Future research could explore parents' experiences of these norms and to what extent they impact food choice.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Normas Sociais , Adulto , Humanos , Austrália , Preferências Alimentares , Pais , Adulto Jovem
19.
Appetite ; 198: 107374, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38679066

RESUMO

The modern food-rich environment has contributed to the rise of unhealthy diets linked to noncommunicable diseases. Previous in-person research has found that the effect of social norms on food intake is greater when set by a perceived in-group member relative to an out-group member. Given recent increased social media use, we investigated whether this effect of group membership extends to food choices and to normative information presented remotely online. Participants (N = 179 female university students, 18-32 years) viewed a Facebook page pertaining to either their university (in-group) or a rival university (out-group). They were presented with either a healthy or an unhealthy norm via a post in which a student discussed their order at a café on the relevant campus. Food choice was assessed through an online menu where participants were asked to order one main, side, and dessert dish. As predicted, participants who viewed the healthy norm ordered a higher percentage of healthy items (especially in the desserts category) relative to those who viewed the unhealthy norm. However, this effect was significant only for those in the in-group condition; there was no such pattern for participants in the out-group condition. These findings provide insight into the role of group membership in the effect of social norms, and have practical implications regarding the design of identity-based social media health campaigns to promote healthier eating behaviours.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Preferências Alimentares , Mídias Sociais , Normas Sociais , Estudantes , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Adolescente , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Internet
20.
Arch Sex Behav ; 53(6): 2205-2224, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570424

RESUMO

Sexual norms define perceptions of who is acceptable to partner with, how many partners are appropriate, and what sexual behaviors are acceptable to engage in. This shapes, in part, who has access to sexual pleasure and who is minoritized based on their sexuality. Though well theorized and researched for "in-person" sexuality, much less is known about sexual norms in other contexts/modalities, such as porn use and sexual fantasy, or how norms connect across these contexts. In the present study, we investigated sexual norms in porn, fantasy, and in-person sexuality, and similarities or differences between these. In an online study, gender/sex and sexually diverse participants (N = 706) manipulated digital circles representing porn use, sexual fantasy, and in-person sexuality. They used circle overlap to represent branchedness (i.e., distinction) and coincidence (i.e., similarity) in norm content, and circle size to indicate perceived norm strength. We found evidence that norm content was perceived to be more branched (i.e., distinct) than coincident (similar) and that norm strength for each context was high. This provides evidence that when people engage in each of these sexual contexts, they tend to do so through distinct normative lenses, rather than a singular lens that represents a universal set of norms applying across all sexual situations. This has implications for how we understand the associations between porn use, fantasy, and in-person sexuality, and highlights the importance of attending to sexuality in context.


Assuntos
Literatura Erótica , Fantasia , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Humanos , Literatura Erótica/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adulto , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , Sexualidade/psicologia , Normas Sociais , Adolescente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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