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1.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 2): 132100, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826889

RESUMO

An integrated multi-functional additive was fabricated by successively grafting melamine (MEL) and phytic acid (PhA) on multiwalled carbon-nanotubes (MWNCTs), and was then applied in PA6 to improve the flame retardancy and light aging resistance of the composite. The limit oxygen index of PA6 composite containing 7 wt% PhA-MEL-MWCNTs was increased to 26.4 from 21.0. The smoke and CO release were significantly reduced by 48% and 88% respectively, and the severe melt dripping of PA6 in burning was eliminated. It is proved that PhA-MEL-MWCNTs can absorb ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and hence significantly reduces the mechanical property loss of the PA6 composite after UV aging. The tensile strength of the aged PA6/7 wt%PhA-MEL-MWCNTs composite sample only decreased by 18.1%, which was significantly lower than the loss rate of the control aged PA6 sample (62.5%). This protocol provides a new opportunity for fabricating long-life flame retardant polyamide composites.


Assuntos
Caprolactama , Nanotubos de Carbono , Caprolactama/análogos & derivados , Nylons , Polímeros
2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(21): 14863-14875, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677944

RESUMO

While polyamide reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes have been extensively utilized in water purification and desalination processes, the molecular details governing water and solute permeation in these membranes are not fully understood. In this study, we apply transition-state theory for transmembrane permeation to systematically break down the intrinsic permeabilities of water and small ions in loose and tight polyamide nanofiltration membranes into enthalpic and entropic components using an Eyring-type equation. We analyze trends in these components to elucidate molecular phenomena that induce water-salt, monovalent-divalent, and monovalent-monovalent selectivity at different pH values. Our results suggest that in pores that are either too small or contain an electrostatically repelling mouth, the thermal activation of ions in the form of ion dehydration is less likely, promoting entropically driven selectivity with steric exclusion of hydrated ions. Instead, larger uncharged pores enable ion dehydration, inducing enthalpic selectivity that is driven by differences in the ion hydration properties. We also demonstrate that electrostatic interactions between cations and intrapore carboxyl groups hinder salt permeability, increasing the enthalpic barrier of the transport. Last, permeation tests of monovalent cations in the loose and tight polyamide membranes expose opposite rejection trends that further support the phenomenon of ion dehydration in large subnanopores.


Assuntos
Nylons , Purificação da Água , Cátions , Filtração , Membranas Artificiais , Água
3.
Anal Chem ; 93(39): 13235-13241, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549586

RESUMO

Electrospun nylon 6,6 fibers incorporating polypyrrole (PPy) molecular-imprinted polymers (MIPs) were produced for the selective detection of d-glucose using a thermal detection methodology. PPy MIPs were produced using a facile bulk synthesis approach and electrospun into intricate fibrous scaffolds giving a highly mass-producible sensing interface. The maximum incorporation of MIPs and greatest sensing performance was found to be 12.1 wt % in conjunction with the heat-transfer method (HTM), a low-cost and simple thermal detection method that measures changes in the thermal resistance at the solid-liquid interface. It is demonstrated that a 12.1% incorporation of MIPs into electrospun fibers produces the widest working linear range with a limit of detection of 0.10 ± 0.01 mM. There were no observed changes in the measured thermal resistance response to incubation with a series of structurally similar compounds, providing evidence toward the selectivity of the platform. Additionally, the sensing platform exhibited a linear working response to glucose samples in artificial sweat solutions in the biologically relevant range. This is the first report of the incorporation of MIPs into nylon 6,6 fibers for the detection of glucose and points toward the possibility of developing mass-producible electrospun fibers embedded with low-cost recognition elements of improved thermal and chemical stability for the application of wearable sensor technology.


Assuntos
Polímeros , Pirróis , Glucose , Polímeros Molecularmente Impressos , Nylons
4.
Nano Lett ; 21(19): 8126-8134, 2021 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570519

RESUMO

Photothermal bimorph actuators have attracted considerable attention in intelligent devices because of their cordless control and lightweight and easy preparation. However, current photothermal bimorph actuators are mostly based on films or papers driven by near-infrared sources, which are deficient in flexibility and adaptability, restricting their potential in wearable applications. Herein, a bimorph textile actuator that can be scalably fabricated with a traditional textile route and autonomously triggered by sunlight is reported. The active layer and passive layer of the bimorph are constructed by polypropylene tape and a MXene-modified polyamide filament. Because of the opposite thermal expansion and MXene-enhanced photothermal efficiency (>260%) of the bimorph, the textile actuator presents effective deformation (1.38 cm-1) under low sunlight power (100 mW/cm2). This work provides a new pathway for wearable sunlight-triggered actuators and finds attractive applications for smart textiles.


Assuntos
Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Nylons , Polipropilenos , Luz Solar , Têxteis
5.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257718, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591871

RESUMO

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) aberration is related to high-risk neuroblastomas and is an important therapeutic target. As acquired resistance to ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors is inevitable, novel anti-ALK drug development is necessary in order to overcome potential drug resistance against ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors. In this study, to overcome ALK inhibitor resistance, we examined the growth inhibition effects of newly developed ALK-targeting pyrrole-imidazole polyamide CCC-003, which was designed to directly bind and alkylate DNA within the F1174L-mutated ALK gene. CCC-003 suppressed cell proliferation in ALK-mutated neuroblastoma cells. The expression of total and phosphorylated ALK was downregulated by CCC-003 treatment but not by treatment with a mismatch polyamide without any binding motif within the ALK gene region. CCC-003 preferentially bound to the DNA sequence with the F1174L mutation and significantly suppressed tumor progression in a human neuroblastoma xenograft mouse model. Our data suggest that the specific binding of CCC-003 to mutated DNA within the ALK gene exerts its anti-tumor activity through a mode of action that is distinct from those of other ALK inhibitors. In summary, our current study provides evidence for the potential of pyrrole-imidazole polyamide ALK inhibitor CCC-003 for the treatment of neuroblastoma thus offering a possible solution to the problem of tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance.


Assuntos
Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/genética , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Pirróis/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imidazóis/síntese química , Imidazóis/química , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Camundongos , Mutação , Neuroblastoma/genética , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Nylons/síntese química , Nylons/química , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
6.
Forensic Sci Int ; 327: 110981, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482285

RESUMO

Multi-metal deposition (MMD) is a versatile fingermarks detection technique adapted from the colloidal gold biolabeling. However, the tedious procedures of MMD makes it receive little attention compared with other methods. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of MMD technique on several common fabrics, which is considered notoriously challenging for latent fingermark detection. Four different MMD formulations were examined to process fingermarks deposited on nylon taffeta, polyester taffeta, polyester pongee and cotton sateen to determine the most suitable one and the influence of aging and water immersion were also determined through subsequent experiments. It was found that MMD I outperformed other three formulations and obtained excellent results on nylon taffeta, polyester taffeta and satin ribbon, with polyester taffeta and satin ribbon providing more than 30% of identifiable marks even for fingermarks aged over 28 days. Cotton sateen and oxford cloth failed to produce ridge details but evidence of "touch" were successfully visualized, which may contribute to further DNA extraction. Water immersion did have some observable influence on the quality of detected marks as part of the MMD reactant within fingermarks lost during immersion, but the result from nylon taffeta and satin ribbon is still satisfying with the percentage of marks scored 3 and 4 reached 30%. The result of this study confirmed the capability of MMD I in treated with fingermarks on several kinds of fabrics, and shows potential to promote this non-instrumentation dependent technique.


Assuntos
Dermatoglifia , Ciências Forenses/métodos , Manufaturas , Feminino , Coloide de Ouro/química , Humanos , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nylons , Poliésteres , Propriedades de Superfície , Têxteis
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361005

RESUMO

Although the development of gene delivery systems based on non-viral vectors is advancing, it remains a challenge to deliver plasmid DNA into human blood cells. The current "gold standard", namely linear polyethyleneimine (l-PEI 25 kDa), in particular, is unable to produce transgene expression levels >5% in primary human B lymphocytes. Here, it is demonstrated that a well-defined 24-armed poly(2-dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate (PDMAEMA, 755 kDa) nano-star is able to reproducibly elicit high transgene expression (40%) at sufficient residual viability (69%) in primary human B cells derived from tonsillar tissue. Moreover, our results indicate that the length of the mitogenic stimulation prior to transfection is an important parameter that must be established during the development of the transfection protocol. In our hands, four days of stimulation with rhCD40L post-thawing led to the best transfection results in terms of TE and cell survival. Most importantly, our data argue for an impact of the B cell subsets on the transfection outcomes, underlining that the complexity and heterogeneity of a given B cell population pre- and post-transfection is a critical parameter to consider in the multiparametric approach required for the implementation of the transfection protocol.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Linfócitos B/citologia , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Metacrilatos/química , Nylons/química , Transgenes
8.
Nano Lett ; 21(15): 6525-6532, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339209

RESUMO

A highly permselective nanofiltration membrane was engineered via zwitterionic copolymer assembly regulated interfacial polymerization (IP). The copolymer was molecularly synthesized using single-step free-radical polymerization between 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and 2-aminoethyl methacrylate hydrochloride (AEMA) (P[MPC-co-AEMA]). The dynamic network of P[MPC-co-AEMA] served as a regulator to precisely control the kinetics of the reaction by decelerating the transport of piperazine toward the water/hexane interface, forming a polyamide (PA) membrane with ultralow thickness of 70 nm, compared to that of the pristine PA (230 nm). Concomitantly, manipulating the phosphate moieties of P[MPC-co-AEMA] integrated into the PA matrix enabled the formation of ridge-shaped nanofilms with loose internal architecture exhibiting enhanced inner-pore interconnectivity. The resultant P[MPC-co-AEMA]-incorporated PA membrane exhibited a high water permeance of 15.7 L·m-2·h-1·bar-1 (more than 3-fold higher than that of the pristine PA [4.4 L·m-2·h-1·bar-1]), high divalent salt rejection of 98.3%, and competitive mono-/divalent ion selectivity of 52.9 among the state-of-the-art desalination membranes.


Assuntos
Membranas Artificiais , Polímeros , Nylons , Polimerização , Água
9.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361725

RESUMO

This study investigated supercritical solvent impregnation of polyamide microfiltration membranes with carvacrol and the potential application of the modified membranes in ventilation of open surgical wounds. The impregnation process was conducted in batch mode at a temperature of 40 °C under pressures of 10, 15, and 20 MPa for contact times from 1 to 6 h. FTIR was applied to confirm the presence of carvacrol on the membrane surface. In the next step, the impact of the modification on the membrane structure was studied using scanning electron and ion beam microscopy and cross-filtration tests. Further, the release of carvacrol in carbon dioxide was determined, and finally, an open thoracic cavity model was applied to evaluate the efficiency of carvacrol-loaded membranes in contamination prevention. Carvacrol loadings of up to 43 wt.% were obtained under the selected operating conditions. The swelling effect was detectable. However, its impact on membrane functionality was minor. An average of 18.3 µg of carvacrol was released from membranes per liter of carbon dioxide for the flow of interest. Membranes with 30-34 wt.% carvacrol were efficient in the open thoracic cavity model applied, reducing the contamination levels by 27% compared to insufflation with standard membranes.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cimenos/farmacologia , Nylons/química , Agentes Molhantes/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Bandagens/microbiologia , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Cimenos/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Humanos , Insuflação , Cinética , Manequins , Membranas Artificiais , Ferida Cirúrgica/reabilitação , Molhabilidade , Agentes Molhantes/química
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443993

RESUMO

The fabrication of a non-metal clasp removable partial denture (RPD) using polymethylmethacrylate in a fully digital workflow has been reported. According to some studies, the polyamide material may be alternatively used for this purpose. The authors are unaware of any reports concerning the additive manufacturing of polyamide. The current proof-of-concept dental technique describes the pathway to construct the non-metal clasp RPD using intraoral scanning and fused filament fabrication (FFF) printing of gingiva-colored polyamide. The present RPD showed acceptable fit and sufficient retention and was considered a valid temporary treatment option.


Assuntos
Prótese Parcial Removível , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Nylons , Impressão Tridimensional , Fluxo de Trabalho
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 799: 149370, 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358743

RESUMO

Taking advantage of the unique properties of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and monoclinic crystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2(B)) nanomaterials, a novel rGO-TiO2(B) composite membrane (MrGO-TiO2(B)) was constructed by UV-light-assisted self-assembly of rGO and TiO2 on a nylon membrane. The structure of MrGO-TiO2(B) was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. Through 2D/2D self-assembly, rGO and TiO2(B) were more tightly combined, and then MrGO-TiO2(B) exhibited outstanding photocatalytic activity and an excellent methylene blue (MB) removal rate. MB was completely removed in 60 min at a constant rate of 0.042 min-1 by the MrGO-TiO2(B)/H2O2/MB system upon solar simulating Xe lamp irradiation. The synergistic effect of rGO and TiO2(B) facilitated the photocatalytic degradation of MB. TiO2(B) was excited and generated electrons and holes upon irradiation. Some electrons migrated to the surface of TiO2(B) to react with H2O2 to produce hydroxyl radicals (OH), while the other electrons migrated to the surface of rGO to react with H2O2, producing OH. In addition, a number of superoxide radicals (O2-) was detected. The holes in the valence band of TiO2(B) directly oxidized MB. The catalytic activity of MrGO-TiO2(B) toward MB degradation remained stable after four rounds of reuse. Therefore, the surface modification of a nylon membrane with TiO2(B) and rGO can serve as a promising route to fabricate photocatalytic membranes for use in the water treatment industry.


Assuntos
Nanocompostos , Nylons , Catálise , Grafite , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Luz , Óxidos , Titânio
12.
Bioresour Technol ; 341: 125767, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419884

RESUMO

Polyamide (PA), a prevalent microplastics (MPs), is often collected from wastewater treatment plants. However, the responses of partial nitrification system to PA MPs are unclear. The short-term and long-term effect of PA MPs on the partial nitrification system was slight, but the ammonia oxidation rate decreased slowly with the increase of PA MPs concentration. Meantime, the PA MPs addition could decrease the microbial diversity, alter microbial community structure of the system and facilitate the propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) including fabI, intI1 and Tn916/1545. Correlation analysis and network analysis indicated that Ferruginibacter, Hyphomicrobium, Terrimonas, Brevundimonas and Plasticicumulans in the system might be the dominant hosts of ARGs. In addition, oligotyping analysis indicated not all oligotypes of the relevant genus showed positive correlation with ARGs. In general, PA MPs had almost no effect on performance but altered community structure and increased ARGs spread risk of the partial nitrification system.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Nitrificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Nylons , Plásticos
13.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; 42(19): e2100341, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347330

RESUMO

Chirality is omnipresent in nature and plays vital roles in living organism, and has become a hot research topic across multidisciplinary fields including chemistry, biology, physics, and material science. Meanwhile, polyamides constitute an important class of polymers and have received significant attention owing to their outstanding properties and wide-ranging applications in many areas. Judiciously introducing chirality into polyamides will undoubtedly obtain attractive chiral polymers, namely, optically active polyamides. This review describes the preparation methods of chiral polyamides, including solution polycondensation, interfacial polycondensation, ring-open polymerization, and others; the newly emerging categories of chiral polyamides, i.e., helical polyamides, chiral polyamide-imides, are also presented. The applications of optically active polyamides in chiral research fields including asymmetric catalysis, membrane separation, and enantioselective crystallization are also summarized. In addition, current challenges in chiral polyamides are further presented and future perspectives in the field are proposed.


Assuntos
Nylons , Polímeros , Catálise , Cristalização , Polimerização
14.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(12): 5912-5919, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229786

RESUMO

Chitosan (CS), the only alkaline polysaccharose available in nature, has always been a promising candidate for drug delivery owing to its excellent biodegradability and biocompatibility. However, inherent solubility and polycationic properties of CS largely hinder electrospinning, which is an efficient method of fabricating nanofibers for drug carriers. To solve this problem and extend the applications of CS, polyamide/chitosan/tetraethyl orthosilicate (PA/CS/TEOS) composite nanofibers were successfully prepared as drug carriers in this study via electrospinning. The PA/CS/TEOS ratios significantly influenced the nanofiber morphology. As the content of each was increased, the beads among the membranes increased initially and then decreased, determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The morphology of the optimum membranes with the ratio of 1:0.13:0.67 was smoother with less beads and uniform fiber diameter. Finally, the membranes with optimum ratios were used as carriers of ofloxacin in the study of drug release performance to identify their future feasibility, which revealed an initial fast release followed by a relatively stable release.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Nanofibras , Portadores de Fármacos , Nylons , Silanos
15.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 263: 120162, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280799

RESUMO

The EU goal to reduce marine plastic litter by ca. 30% by 2020 stressed the need to deploy analytical methods to ascertain the polymeric nature of a residue. Furthermore, as plastics age under natural conditions and usual databases do not include their weathered spectra, (micro)plastics in environmental samples may be unidentified. In this paper, polyamide (nylon) microplastics weathering was monitored because of its ubiquity in household commodities, clothes, fishery items and industry, whose residues end up frequently in the environment. Infrared spectra (ATR and microreflectance) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images were collected periodically while exposing nylon to controlled weathering. It was seen that ATR was more sensitive than microreflectance to monitor the structural evolution of polyamide and that the spectra and the surface of weathered microplastics showed remarkable differences with the pristine material, which stresses the need for considering its evolution when identifying microplastics in environmental studies. The evolution of six band ratios related to the chemical evolution of this polymer are presented. SEM images revealed the formation of secondary microplastics at the most advanced weathering stages of polyamide.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nylons , Plásticos , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 796: 148983, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328888

RESUMO

Microplastics of polyamide are commonly found in aquatic environments and might act as vectors of different contaminants such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC). Therefore, sorption of 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), 17ß-estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3) on polyamide microplastics was studied under different simulated environments. The results suggest that the sorption process was affected by the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and salinity, where both positive and negative effects were observed. Kinetics revealed that the process occurs through multiple steps wherever the sorption rate depicting the transportation of EDC molecules from the liquid phase to the solid boundary of the sorbent, is higher than the intraparticle and pore diffusion process. In addition, the sorption rate of E2 decreased with the increase of water matrix complexity from ultrapure water (UPW) > artificial seawater (ASW) > fulvic acid water (FAW) > artificial seawater with fulvic acid (AS/FAW), while the sorption rate of EE2 decreased from UPW > ASW > FAW and increased in the matrix combining salinity and organic matter (AS/FAW). On the contrary, the E3 sorption rate increased with matrix complexity, from UPW < ASW < FAW and decreased with the influence of salinity and organic matter combination (AS/FAW). The sorption capacity of the EDC reached maximum values of 82% for E2, 90% for EE2 and 56% for E3. Isotherms demonstrated the occurrence of multilayer sorption. A positive relationship has been found between the hydrophobicity of polyamide microplastics and the Log Kow of EDC, showing an important role of hydrophobic interactions in the sorption process under all the studied conditions. Moreover, hydrogen bonding and binding of contaminants and DOM to microplastics through bridges were also suggested. The results show that salinity and DOM can greatly influence the sorption and transportation of EDC in the aquatic environment and pose a risk to aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Ecossistema , Nylons , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 12(14): 2693-2704, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213884

RESUMO

In our efforts to discover new drugs to treat pain, we identified molleamines A-E (1-5) as major neuroactive components of the sea slug, Pleurobranchus forskalii, and their prey, Didemnum molle, tunicates. The chemical structures of molleamines were elucidated by spectroscopy and confirmed by the total synthesis of molleamines A (1) and C (3). Synthetic 3 completely blocked acetylcholine-induced calcium flux in peptidergic nociceptors (PNs) in the somatosensory nervous system. Compound 3 affected neither the α7 nAChR nor the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in calcium flux assays. In addition to nociceptors, 3 partially blocked the acetylcholine-induced calcium flux in the sympathetic nervous system, including neurons from the superior cervical ganglion. Electrophysiology revealed a block of α3ß4 (mouse) and α6/α3ß4 (rat) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), with IC50 values of 1.4 and 3.1 µM, respectively. Molleamine C (3) is a partial antagonist, reaching a maximum block of 76-82% of the acetylcholine signal and showing no partial agonist response. Molleamine C (3) may thus provide a lead compound for the development of neuroactive compounds with unique biological properties.


Assuntos
Receptores Nicotínicos , Urocordados , Animais , Aplysia , Camundongos , Antagonistas Nicotínicos/farmacologia , Nylons , Ratos , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7
18.
Waste Manag ; 131: 423-432, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252692

RESUMO

Billion tons of post-consumer Tetra Pak cartons are discarded annually as land and ocean wastes, creating significant environmental problems and resource losses. Recycling of the carton wastes is hindered by its multi-material compositions and low values of the recycled products. In this study, a novel upcycling of the cartons was investigated. A post-consumer carton consisting of paper, polyolefin, and polyamide was directly converted in 210-230 °C tetrahydrofuran containing 10-20 mM acid to produce up to 19.2% of levoglucosenone and 8.6% of furfural by selectively decomposing paper fraction. The remaining solids containing mostly intact polyethylene and polyamide but also a smaller fraction of paper-derived char were separated using a solvent-dissolution method. The xylene-soluble fraction was a recycled polymer similar to the original polyethylene, which was verified by its functional groups, the composition of the pyrolysis products, and the melt rheology results. The xylene-insoluble fraction was a mixture of polyamide and paper-derived char. Upon pyrolysis, caprolactam was produced as the only major vapor product. The remaining, thermally stable paper-derived char could be used as a high-quality solid fuel. Overall, the demonstrated recycling method could potentially maximize the values of the products recovered from carton wastes.


Assuntos
Nylons , Polímeros , Gases , Embalagem de Produtos , Reciclagem
19.
Int J Pharm ; 606: 120855, 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224840

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to develop a drug-coated floss to allow delivery of therapeutics into diseased gum pocket. Periodontal (gum) disease affects nearly 45% of adults over 30 years of age. Bacterial persistence makes treatment challenging. Drug-coated floss is expected to provide a self-administrable and targeted method for drug delivery into the diseased gum pockets. We investigated various types of floss and sutures as potential candidates to coat drug. An un-waxed nylon braided floss was selected and dip-coated with model hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs either in free form or after encapsulation in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) particles. By tuning the drug concentration or the number of times a floss is dipped into the coating solution we were able to coat from as little as 0.4 µg to as high as 1.6 mg of drug. Coated floss was passed within the gum pocket of excised porcine mandibles to demonstrate delivery efficiency up to 91%. Utilizing the porcine jaw in an ex-vivo condition we illustrated the ability of the delivered drug to diffuse into the tissue. Overall, the data illustrates the potential of coated floss as an innovative modality for drug delivery to the gum pocket.


Assuntos
Doenças Periodontais , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Animais , Bactérias , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Nylons , Suínos
20.
Langmuir ; 37(29): 8847-8854, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259525

RESUMO

A new magnetic nanocomposite with a statistical star polymer structure was designed and synthesized. Nanocomposite fabrication is based on the polymerization of aromatic polyamide chains on the surface of functionalized magnetic copper ferrite nanoparticles (CuFe2O4 MNPs). This magnetic nanostructure was characterized by several analysis methods. All the analytical methods used, for instance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric, vibrating-sample magnetometer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confirmed the formation of polyamide chains. The obtained images from SEM imaging showed a unique nanoflower morphology which was the proper orientation results of synthesized nanoplates. Finally, the magnetic nanostructure showed a good potential for hyperthermia applications, with a maximum specific absorption rate of 7 W/g for 1 mg/mL of the sample under a magnetic field in different frequencies (100, 200, 300, and 400 MHz) and 5 to 20 min time intervals.


Assuntos
Cobre , Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Compostos Férricos , Humanos , Hipertermia , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Nylons , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
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