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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15464, 2024 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38965303

RESUMO

The process of implementation of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which were approved by the UN General Assembly in 2015 has not been simple, being influenced by variety of social, economic, and logistical problems. It has also been negatively affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. There are to date no specific studies aimed at assessing the extent to which higher universities institutions in Europe are active in the SDGs implementation process. Departing from this research need, this paper reports on a study aimed at examining the current degree of engagement of European universities in the implementing the SDGs. By using a multi-methods approach, which entails a review of existing documents, a survey involving participants from 22 countries and case studies, the paper maps, documents and disseminates examples of what European universities are doing to implement the SDGs, the challenges they face, and the solutions being deployed to overcome them.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Universidades , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Objetivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemias , Nações Unidas
2.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 45(10): e26770, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38970217

RESUMO

Alpha oscillations are known to play a central role in several higher-order cognitive functions, especially selective attention, working memory, semantic memory, and creative thinking. Nonetheless, we still know very little about the role of alpha in the generation of more remote semantic associations, which is key to creative and semantic cognition. Furthermore, it remains unclear how these oscillations are shaped by the intention to "be creative," which is the case in most creativity tasks. We aimed to address these gaps in two experiments. In Experiment 1, we compared alpha oscillatory activity (using a method which distinguishes genuine oscillatory activity from transient events) during the generation of free associations which were more vs. less distant from a given concept. In Experiment 2, we replicated these findings and also compared alpha oscillatory activity when people were generating free associations versus associations with the instruction to be creative (i.e. goal-directed). We found that alpha was consistently higher during the generation of more distant semantic associations, in both experiments. This effect was widespread, involving areas in both left and right hemispheres. Importantly, the instruction to be creative seems to increase alpha phase synchronisation from left to right temporal brain areas, suggesting that intention to be creative changed the flux of information in the brain, likely reflecting an increase in top-down control of semantic search processes. We conclude that goal-directed generation of remote associations relies on top-down mechanisms compared to when associations are freely generated.


Assuntos
Ritmo alfa , Criatividade , Objetivos , Semântica , Humanos , Ritmo alfa/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Associação , Eletroencefalografia , Adolescente
3.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 5677, 2024 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38971789

RESUMO

Goal-directed navigation requires continuously integrating uncertain self-motion and landmark cues into an internal sense of location and direction, concurrently planning future paths, and sequentially executing motor actions. Here, we provide a unified account of these processes with a computational model of probabilistic path planning in the framework of optimal feedback control under uncertainty. This model gives rise to diverse human navigational strategies previously believed to be distinct behaviors and predicts quantitatively both the errors and the variability of navigation across numerous experiments. This furthermore explains how sequential egocentric landmark observations form an uncertain allocentric cognitive map, how this internal map is used both in route planning and during execution of movements, and reconciles seemingly contradictory results about cue-integration behavior in navigation. Taken together, the present work provides a parsimonious explanation of how patterns of human goal-directed navigation behavior arise from the continuous and dynamic interactions of spatial uncertainties in perception, cognition, and action.


Assuntos
Navegação Espacial , Humanos , Navegação Espacial/fisiologia , Incerteza , Sinais (Psicologia) , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Orientação/fisiologia , Objetivos
4.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 9(1): 44, 2024 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38971905

RESUMO

Research in cognitive science has highlighted the effectiveness of several learning techniques, and a number of studies have analyzed their prevalence among university students and their relationship with academic achievement. In this study, we surveyed a large, heterogeneous sample of secondary school students to reveal how often they use research-supported techniques in comparison with other frequent techniques, and we analyzed the association between their study strategies and school achievement. We also assessed the associations between study techniques and several students' beliefs and attitudes toward learning (self-efficacy, goal orientation, control beliefs, growth mindset, and examination anxiety). Results showed that, except for distributed practice, only those techniques that are supported by previous research yielded an association with achievement, and they exhibited higher associations with self-efficacy, growth mindset, control beliefs, and learning goal orientation than non-supported techniques.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Aprendizagem , Autoeficácia , Estudantes , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Objetivos
6.
Nature ; 631(8020): 378-385, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38961292

RESUMO

The execution of goal-oriented behaviours requires a spatially coherent alignment between sensory and motor maps. The current model for sensorimotor transformation in the superior colliculus relies on the topographic mapping of static spatial receptive fields onto movement endpoints1-6. Here, to experimentally assess the validity of this canonical static model of alignment, we dissected the visuo-motor network in the superior colliculus and performed in vivo intracellular and extracellular recordings across layers, in restrained and unrestrained conditions, to assess both the motor and the visual tuning of individual motor and premotor neurons. We found that collicular motor units have poorly defined visual static spatial receptive fields and respond instead to kinetic visual features, revealing the existence of a direct alignment in vectorial space between sensory and movement vectors, rather than between spatial receptive fields and movement endpoints as canonically hypothesized. We show that a neural network built according to these kinetic alignment principles is ideally placed to sustain ethological behaviours such as the rapid interception of moving and static targets. These findings reveal a novel dimension of the sensorimotor alignment process. By extending the alignment from the static to the kinetic domain this work provides a novel conceptual framework for understanding the nature of sensorimotor convergence and its relevance in guiding goal-directed behaviours.


Assuntos
Modelos Neurológicos , Movimento , Colículos Superiores , Percepção Visual , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Objetivos , Cinética , Neurônios Motores/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/citologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Colículos Superiores/citologia , Colículos Superiores/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
7.
BMC Cancer ; 24(1): 831, 2024 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38992616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Listening to patient voices is critical, in terms of how people experience their condition as well as their treatment preferences. This research explored the patient journey, therapy attributes and goals among treatment experienced adults with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We sought to understand patient experiences, needs and expectations to identify areas for improvement of treatment and care delivery. METHODS: Two online surveys were developed for completion by CLL patients. In Stage 1, participants completed a best-worst scaling (BWS) task to evaluate eleven previously validated healthcare journey moments that matter (MTM). Responses were used to generate the patient experience index (PEI) score. In Stage 2, participants completed a survey that included both a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to assess drivers of treatment preferences by evaluating the relative attribute importance (RAI) of seven features and a BWS exercise which explored long-term treatment goals. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients completed Stage 1 and thirty patients Stage 2. Treatment experience was balanced between oral and intravenous medication. The most important/least satisfied MTM were treatment effectiveness, access to support and other treatments as well as monitoring progress. The median PEI score was 66.2 (out of 100). DCE results demonstrated that patients most value treatments for CLL that are associated with prolonged progression free survival (PFS; RAI: 24.6%), followed by treatments that have a lower risk of severe side effects and lower out-of-pocket costs (RAI: 19.5%, 17.4%, respectively). The remainder of the weight in decision making (38.5%) was split between the remaining attributes, namely 'mild to moderate side effects' (13.4%), 'long-term risks' (12.2%), type of treatment (i.e., oral, IV or a combination of oral and IV; 8.7%) and treatment duration (i.e., ongoing versus fixed; 4.2%). Patients preferred oral to intravenous therapy. The most valued long-term treatment goal was to be physically healthy, followed by living a long life, spending time with family/friends, and avoiding hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Treatment experienced patients with CLL are focused on receiving effective, safe therapies and value long PFS. Consideration and discussion of other attributes, such as once daily dosing, oral only medication, out-of-pocket costs and access to support services may affect patient treatment choices and ultimately enhance their healthcare experience and outcomes.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B , Preferência do Paciente , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/terapia , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Austrália , Inquéritos e Questionários , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto , Objetivos
8.
Elife ; 132024 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39012807

RESUMO

Goal-directed navigation requires the hippocampus to process spatial information in a value-dependent manner, but its underlying mechanism needs to be better understood. Here, we investigated whether the dorsal (dHP) and intermediate (iHP) regions of the hippocampus differentially function in processing place and its associated value information. Rats were trained in a place-preference task involving reward zones with different values in a visually rich virtual reality environment where two-dimensional navigation was possible. Rats learned to use distal visual scenes effectively to navigate to the reward zone associated with a higher reward. Inactivation of both dHP and iHP with muscimol altered the efficiency and precision of wayfinding behavior, but iHP inactivation induced more severe damage, including impaired place preference. Our findings suggest that the iHP is more critical for value-dependent navigation toward higher-value goal locations.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Hipocampo , Navegação Espacial , Realidade Virtual , Animais , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Ratos , Navegação Espacial/fisiologia , Masculino , Muscimol/farmacologia , Ratos Long-Evans , Recompensa
9.
Elife ; 122024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38959057

RESUMO

Songbirds' vocal mastery is impressive, but to what extent is it a result of practice? Can they, based on experienced mismatch with a known target, plan the necessary changes to recover the target in a practice-free manner without intermittently singing? In adult zebra finches, we drive the pitch of a song syllable away from its stable (baseline) variant acquired from a tutor, then we withdraw reinforcement and subsequently deprive them of singing experience by muting or deafening. In this deprived state, birds do not recover their baseline song. However, they revert their songs toward the target by about 1 standard deviation of their recent practice, provided the sensory feedback during the latter signaled a pitch mismatch with the target. Thus, targeted vocal plasticity does not require immediate sensory experience, showing that zebra finches are capable of goal-directed vocal planning.


Assuntos
Tentilhões , Objetivos , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Tentilhões/fisiologia , Masculino
10.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 398, 2024 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39026323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hope has been extensively studied as a predictor of college students' academic success. Most previous studies used domain-general, global hope measures to gauge the association between hope and academic performance among college students. However, a few studies have suggested that hope is domain-specific and domain-specific academic hope measures should be included in related research to better assess the influence of hope on academic outcomes. In this study, we aimed to further examine this issue to ascertain if there is value in including academic hope measures when studying the link between hope and academic outcomes in college students. METHODS: Two samples of Hong Kong college students (total N = 1321) were recruited. Each participant completed a set of self-reported online questionnaires. RESULTS: In both samples, global hope and academic hope emerged as related but separate factors in confirmatory factor analyses. Academic hope had consistently stronger unique explanatory power on academic performance and goal setting than global hope did. On the other hand, global hope explained more variance in general wellbeing than academic hope did, but its explanatory role in academic performance was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support domain-specificity and show that hope measures explain more variance in outcomes in the matched domains. Therefore, academic hope measures should more routinely be included in related research to better evaluate the role of hope in academic pursuit among college students. Possible implications for hope interventions are also discussed.


Assuntos
Esperança , Estudantes , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Universidades , Hong Kong , Adulto , Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Sucesso Acadêmico , Adolescente , Objetivos
11.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0306072, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38935629

RESUMO

The successful unfolding of many social interactions relies on our capacity to predict other people's action goals, whether these are proximal (i.e., immediate) or distal (i.e., upcoming). The present set of studies asks whether observers can predict the distal goal of two-step action sequences when presented with communicative modulations of the first movement component of the sequence. We conducted three online experiments in which we presented participants with animations of a box moving to a first target location before moving onwards to a final, either near or far, target location. The second movement component and the target locations were occluded. After observing the first movement, participants were asked to select the most likely final target location, i.e., the distal goal of the sequence. Experiment 1 showed that participants relied on the velocity modulations of the first movement to infer the distal goal. The results of Experiment 2 indicated that such predictions of distal goals are possible even when the second movement in the sequence does not contain any velocity information, thus suggesting that the information present in the first movement plays the major role in the process of linking movements to their distal goals. However, Experiment 3 showed that under some circumstances the second movement can also contribute to how observers predict a distal goal. We discuss these results in terms of the underlying simulation processes that enable observers to predict a distal goal from the observation of proximal communicative modulations.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Objetivos , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Movimento/fisiologia
12.
Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev ; 27(2): 561-575, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38850473

RESUMO

Children and adolescents with conduct problems participate in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), either in individual or group format, in view of learning social problem-solving skills that enable them to behave in more independent and situation-appropriate ways. Parents must support their child's learning processes in everyday life and therefore these processes need attention in CBT sessions in which parents and their child participate. The social problem-solving model of CBT previously described (Matthys & Schutter, Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 25:552-572, 2022; Matthys & Schutter, Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 26:401-415, 2023) consists of nine psychological skills. In this narrative review we propose that instead of addressing each skill separately in sessions with both parents and their child, therapists work on three schemas (latent mental structures): (1) goals, (2) outcome expectations, and (3) normative beliefs about aggression. Based on social-cognitive and cognitive neuroscience studies we argue that these three schemas affect five core social problem-solving skills: (1) interpretation, (2) clarification of goals, (3) generations of solutions, (4) evaluation of solutions, and (5) decision-making. In view of tailoring CBT to the individual child's characteristic schemas and associated social problem-solving skills, we suggest that children and adolescents participate in individual sessions with their parents. The therapist uses Socratic questioning in order to find out characteristic schemas of the child, encourage reflection on these schemas, and explore alternative schemas that had previously been outside the child's attention. The therapist functions as a model for parents to ask their child questions about the relevant schemas with a view of achieving changes in the schemas.


Assuntos
Agressão , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Objetivos , Pais , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Transtorno da Conduta/terapia , Relações Pais-Filho , Resolução de Problemas
16.
Toxins (Basel) ; 16(6)2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38922151

RESUMO

The goal-setting process is pivotal in managing patients with disabling spasticity. This case-control study assessed the role of diagnostic nerve blocks in guiding the goal-setting process within goal-targeted treatment of spasticity with botulinum neurotoxin-A. In this case-control study, patients with disabling spasticity underwent either a goal-setting process based on the patient's needs and clinical evaluation (control group) or additional diagnostic nerve block procedures (case group). All enrolled patients underwent a focal treatment with botulinum neurotoxin-A injection and a 1-month follow-up evaluation during which goal achievement was quantified using the goal attainment scaling-light score system. Data showed a higher goal achievement rate in the case group (70%) than in the control group (40%). In conclusion, diagnostic nerve blocks may help guide the goal-setting process within goal-targeted treatment of spasticity with botulinum neurotoxin-A towards more realistic and achievable goals, thereby improving the outcomes of botulinum neurotoxin-A injection. Future studies should better explore the role of diagnostic nerve blocks to further personalize botulinum neurotoxin-A according to individual patients' preferences and requirements.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A , Espasticidade Muscular , Bloqueio Nervoso , Reabilitação Neurológica , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/uso terapêutico , Espasticidade Muscular/diagnóstico , Espasticidade Muscular/terapia , Reabilitação Neurológica/métodos , Objetivos
17.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 19(1): 2367844, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38912882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health agency refers to one's capacity to form health-related goals, experience control, and possess the means to pursue them. Low socioeconomic status (SES) is linked to impaired health agency and increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, potentially due to a reduced tendency to seek care. Better healthcare availability may not improve their pregnancy outcomes, and therefore improved understanding of maternal health agency is paramount. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 participants who either had children or desired to have them. Low SES was determined by neighborhood median income and educational attainment. A thematic content analyses was conducted. RESULTS: Two themes emerged: 1) Origin and development of personal goals, and 2) Awareness and competence. Participant's goals stemmed from cultural norms, personal narratives, and intuition. Integrated goals were those participants valued highly, were aware of, and strived for. Four subthemes were identified in goal-awareness and competence. Internal conflict due to discrepancies between goals and behavior resulted in the need to balance the burdens and benefits of behavior change. CONCLUSION: Maternal health agency is a modifiable outcome dependent on goal-awareness and various factors. Impaired agency seemed to stem from lack of goal-awareness rather than an inability to meet established pillars.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Saúde Materna , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Classe Social , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem , Pobreza , Baixo Nível Socioeconômico
18.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 144(6): 591-598, 2024.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38825465

RESUMO

Postgraduate clinical training for physicians in Japan has been mandatory since 2004, with the provision that the system itself is to be revised every 5 years if necessary. Major revisions were implemented in 2020, involving the objectives, strategies, and evaluations of the clinical training program. Among the revisions was a section on professionalism in the first part of objectives. As one of the committee members involved in the process of this revision, I provide an explanation of the historical background, learning strategies, and assessment of professionalism in physician training.


Assuntos
Profissionalismo , Humanos , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Objetivos , Japão
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(26): e2402282121, 2024 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38885383

RESUMO

Goal-directed actions are characterized by two main features: the content (i.e., the action goal) and the form, called vitality forms (VF) (i.e., how actions are executed). It is well established that both the action content and the capacity to understand the content of another's action are mediated by a network formed by a set of parietal and frontal brain areas. In contrast, the neural bases of action forms (e.g., gentle or rude actions) have not been characterized. However, there are now studies showing that the observation and execution of actions endowed with VF activate, in addition to the parieto-frontal network, the dorso-central insula (DCI). In the present study, we established-using dynamic causal modeling (DCM)-the direction of information flow during observation and execution of actions endowed with gentle and rude VF in the human brain. Based on previous fMRI studies, the selected nodes for the DCM comprised the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), the premotor cortex (PM), and the DCI. Bayesian model comparison showed that, during action observation, two streams arose from pSTS: one toward IPL, concerning the action goal, and one toward DCI, concerning the action vitality forms. During action execution, two streams arose from PM: one toward IPL, concerning the action goal and one toward DCI concerning action vitality forms. This last finding opens an interesting question concerning the possibility to elicit VF in two distinct ways: cognitively (from PM to DCI) and affectively (from DCI to PM).


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Objetivos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Neurosurg Focus ; 56(6): E4, 2024 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823050

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of selective tibial neurotomy (STN) for the treatment of the spastic foot using a goal-centered approach. METHODS: Between 2011 and 2018, adult patients with a spastic foot (regardless of etiology) who received STN followed by a rehabilitation program were included. The primary outcome was the achievement of individual goals defined preoperatively (T0) and compared at 1-year (T1) and 5-year (T5) follow-up by using the Goal Attainment Scaling methodology (T-score). The secondary outcomes were the presence of spastic deformities (equinus, varus, and claw toes), modified Ashworth scale (MAS) score for the targeted muscles, and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at T0, T1, and T5. RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients were included. At T5, 88.7% of patients had achieved their goals at least "as expected." The mean T-score was significantly higher at T1 (62.5 ± 9.5) and T5 (60.6 ± 11.3) than at T0 (37.9 ± 2.8) (p < 0.0001), and the difference between T1 and T5 was not significant (p = 0.2). Compared to T0, deformities (equinus, varus, and claw toes; all p < 0.0001), MAS score (p < 0.0001), and mRS score (p < 0.0001) were significantly improved at T1 and T5. Compared to T1, MAS score increased slightly only at T5 (p = 0.05) but remained largely below the preoperative value. There was no difference between T1 and T5 regarding other clinical parameters (e.g., deformities, walking abilities, mRS score). CONCLUSIONS: This study found that STN associated with a postoperative rehabilitation program can enable patients to successfully achieve personal goals that are sustained within a 5-year follow-up period.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Nervo Tibial , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Resultado do Tratamento , Nervo Tibial/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Tíbia/cirurgia , Espasticidade Muscular/cirurgia , Espasticidade Muscular/etiologia , Idoso , Seguimentos , Estudos Retrospectivos
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