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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12859, 2024 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834673

RESUMO

External eye appearance in avian taxa has been proposed to be driven by social and ecological functions. Recent research in primates suggests, instead, that, photoprotective functions are important drivers of external eye appearance. Using similar methods, we examined the variation in external eye appearance of 132 parrot species (Psittaciformes) in relation to their ecology and sociality. Breeding systems, flock size and sexual dimorphism, as well as species' latitude and maximum living altitude, and estimated UV-B incidence in species' ranges were used to explore the contribution of social and ecological factors in driving external eye appearance. We measured the hue and brightness of visible parts of the eye and the difference in measurements of brightness between adjacent parts of the eye. We found no link between social variables and our measurements. We did, however, find a negative association between the brightness of the inner part of the iris and latitude and altitude. Darker inner irises were more prevalent farther away from the equator and for those species living at higher altitudes. We found no link between UV-B and brightness measurements of the iris, or tissue surrounding the eye. We speculate that these results are consistent with an adaptation for visual functions. While preliminary, these results suggest that external eye appearance in parrots is influenced by ecological, but not social factors.


Assuntos
Altitude , Papagaios , Animais , Papagaios/fisiologia , Olho/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Masculino , Raios Ultravioleta
2.
Parasites Hosts Dis ; 62(2): 243-250, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835265

RESUMO

We investigated organ specific Toxocara canis larval migration in mice infected with T. canis larvae. We observed the worm burden and systemic immune responses. Three groups of BALB/c mice (n=5 each) were orally administered 1,000 T. canis 2nd stage larvae to induce larva migrans. Mice were sacrificed at 1, 3, and 5 weeks post-infection. Liver, lung, brain, and eye tissues were collected. Tissue from 2 mice per group was digested for larval count, while the remaining 3 mice underwent histological analysis. Blood hematology and serology were evaluated and compared to that in a control uninfected group (n=5) to assess the immune response. Cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were also analyzed. We found that, 1 week post-infection, the mean parasite load in the liver (72±7.1), brain (31±4.2), lungs (20±5.7), and eyes (2±0) peaked and stayed constant until the 3 weeks. By 5-week post-infection, the worm burden in the liver and lungs significantly decreased to 10±4.2 and 9±5.7, respectively, while they remained relatively stable in the brain and eyes (18±4.2 and 1±0, respectively). Interestingly, ocular larvae resided in all retinal layers, without notable inflammation in outer retina. Mice infected with T. canis exhibited elevated levels of neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, and immunoglobulin E. At 5 weeks post-infection, interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 levels were elevated in BAL fluid. Whereas IL-4, IL-10, IL-17, and interferon-γ levels in BAL fluid were similar to that in controls. Our findings demonstrate that a small portion of T. canis larvae migrate to the eyes and brain within the first week of infection. Minimal tissue inflammation was observed, probably due to increase of anti-inflammatory cytokines. This study contributes to our understanding of the histological and immunological responses to T. canis infection in mice, which may have implications to further understand human toxocariasis.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Citocinas , Larva , Fígado , Pulmão , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Toxocara canis , Toxocaríase , Animais , Toxocara canis/imunologia , Toxocaríase/imunologia , Toxocaríase/patologia , Toxocaríase/parasitologia , Larva/imunologia , Camundongos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Pulmão/parasitologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Fígado/parasitologia , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/imunologia , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/parasitologia , Feminino , Carga Parasitária , Olho/parasitologia , Olho/imunologia , Olho/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças
3.
Opt Express ; 32(10): 18113-18126, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858975

RESUMO

Hardware architectures and image interpretation can be simplified by partial polarimetry. Mueller matrix (MM) polarimetry allows the investigation of partial polarimeter designs for a given scientific task. In this work, we use MM measurements to solve for a fixed polarization illumination and analyzer state that maximize polariscopic image contrast of the human eye. The eye MM image acquisition takes place over 15 seconds which motivates the development of a partial polarimeter that has snapshot operation. Within the eye, the birefringent cornea produces spatially-varying patterns of retardance exceeding half of a wave with a fast-axis varying from linear, to circular, and elliptical states in between. Our closed-form polariscopic pairs are a general solution that maximizes contrast between two non-depolarizing pure retarder MMs. For these MMs, there is a family of polariscopic pairs that maximize contrast. This range of solutions creates an opportunity to use the distance from optimal as a criteria to adjust polarimetric hardware architecture. We demonstrate our optimization approach by performing both Mueller and polariscopic imaging of an in vivo human eye at 947 nm using a dual-rotating-retarder polarimeter. Polariscopic images are simulated from Mueller measurements of 19 other human subjects to test the robustness of this optimal solution.


Assuntos
Olho , Humanos , Olho/diagnóstico por imagem , Raios Infravermelhos
4.
5.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 570, 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844864

RESUMO

Compound eyes formation in decapod crustaceans occurs after the nauplius stage. However, the key genes and regulatory mechanisms of compound eye development during crustacean embryonic development have not yet been clarified. In this study, RNA-seq was used to investigate the gene expression profiles of Neocaridina denticulata sinensis from nauplius to zoea stage. Based on RNA-seq data analysis, the phototransduction and insect hormone biosynthesis pathways were enriched, and molting-related neuropeptides were highly expressed. There was strong cell proliferation in the embryo prior to compound eye development. The formation of the visual system and the hormonal regulation of hatching were the dominant biological events during compound eye development. The functional analysis of DEGs across all four developmental stages showed that cuticle formation, muscle growth and the establishment of immune system occurred from nauplius to zoea stage. Key genes related to eye development were discovered, including those involved in the determination and differentiation of the eye field, eye-color formation, and visual signal transduction. In conclusion, the results increase the understanding of the molecular mechanism of eye formation in crustacean embryonic stage.


Assuntos
Olho Composto de Artrópodes , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Animais , Olho Composto de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Olho Composto de Artrópodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transcriptoma , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Decápodes/genética , Decápodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Olho/metabolismo , Olho/embriologia , Olho/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 431, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693480

RESUMO

Ophthalmic manifestations have recently been observed in acute and post-acute complications of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our precious study has shown that host RNA editing is linked to RNA viral infection, yet ocular adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing during SARS-CoV-2 infection remains uninvestigated in COVID-19. Herein we used an epitranscriptomic pipeline to analyze 37 samples and investigate A-to-I editing associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, in five ocular tissue types including the conjunctiva, limbus, cornea, sclera, and retinal organoids. Our results revealed dramatically altered A-to-I RNA editing across the five ocular tissues. Notably, the transcriptome-wide average level of RNA editing was increased in the cornea but generally decreased in the other four ocular tissues. Functional enrichment analysis showed that differential RNA editing (DRE) was mainly in genes related to ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process, transcriptional regulation, and RNA splicing. In addition to tissue-specific RNA editing found in each tissue, common RNA editing was observed across different tissues, especially in the innate antiviral immune gene MAVS and the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase MDM2. Analysis in retinal organoids further revealed highly dynamic RNA editing alterations over time during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our study thus suggested the potential role played by RNA editing in ophthalmic manifestations of COVID-19, and highlighted its potential transcriptome impact, especially on innate immunity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Edição de RNA , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , Inosina/metabolismo , Inosina/genética , Transcriptoma , Olho/metabolismo , Olho/virologia
7.
Skin Res Technol ; 30(5): e13719, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The assessment of skin aging through skin measurements faces limitations, making perceived age evaluation a more valuable and direct tool for assessing skin aging. Given that the aging process markedly affects the appearance of the eye contour, characterizing the eye region could be beneficial for perceived age assessment. This study aimed to analyze age-correlated changes in the eye contour within the Chinese Han female population and to develop, validate, and apply a multiple linear regression model for predicting perceived age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A naïve panel of 107 Chinese women assessed the perceived ages of 212 Chinese Han women. Instrumental analysis evaluated periorbital parameters, including palpebral fissure width (PFW), palpebral fissure height (PFH), acclivity of palpebral fissure (AX), angle of inner canthal (AEN), and angle of outer canthal (AEX). These parameters were used to construct a multiple linear regression model for predicting the perceived ages of Chinese Han women. A combined treatment using Fotona 4D and an anti-aging eye cream, formulated with plant extracts, peptides, and antioxidants, was conducted to verify the cream's anti-aging efficacy and safety. This eye cream was then tested in a large-scale clinical trial involving 101 participants. The prediction model was employed in this trial to assess the perceived ages of the women after an 8-week application of the eye cream. RESULTS: All parameters were observed to decrease with age. An intergroup comparison indicated that eyelid aging in Chinese Han women accelerates beyond the age of 50. Consequently, a linear regression model was constructed and validated, with the perceived age being calculated as 183.159 - 1.078 * AEN - 4.487 * PFW + 6.061 * PFH - 1.003 * AX - 0.328 * AEX. The anti-aging efficacy and safety of the eye cream were confirmed through combined treatment with Fotona 4D, showing improvements in wrinkles, elasticity, and dark circles under the eyes. In a large-scale clinical evaluation using this eye cream, a perceived age prediction model was applied, suggesting that 8 weeks of use made participants appear 2.25 years younger. CONCLUSION: Our study developed and validated a multiple linear regression model to predict the perceived age of Chinese Han women. This model was successfully utilized in a large-scale clinical evaluation of anti-aging eye cream, revealing that 8 weeks of usage made participants appear 2.25 years younger. This method effectively bridges the gap between clinical research and consumer perceptions, explores the complex factors influencing perceived age, and aims to improve anti-aging formulations.


Assuntos
Povo Asiático , Envelhecimento da Pele , Humanos , Feminino , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento da Pele/fisiologia , Envelhecimento da Pele/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Idoso , China/etnologia , Adulto Jovem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Creme para a Pele/administração & dosagem , Modelos Lineares , Olho , População do Leste Asiático
8.
J Radiol Prot ; 44(2)2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701771

RESUMO

Given the new recommendations for occupational eye lens doses, various lead glasses have been used to reduce irradiation of interventional radiologists. However, the protection afforded by lead glasses over prescription glasses (thus over-glasses-type eyewear) has not been considered in detail. We used a phantom to compare the protective effects of such eyewear and regular eyewear of 0.07 mm lead-equivalent thickness. The shielding rates behind the eyewear and on the surface of the left eye of an anthropomorphic phantom were calculated. The left eye of the phantom was irradiated at various angles and the shielding effects were evaluated. We measured the radiation dose to the left side of the phantom using RPLDs attached to the left eye and to the surface/back of the left eyewear. Over-glasses-type eyewear afforded good protection against x-rays from the left and below; the average shielding rates on the surface of the left eye ranged from 0.70-0.72. In clinical settings, scattered radiation is incident on physicians' eyes from the left and below, and through any gap in lead glasses. Over-glasses-type eyewear afforded better protection than regular eyewear of the same lead-equivalent thickness at the irradiation angles of concern in clinical settings. Although clinical evaluation is needed, we suggest over-glasses-type Pb eyewear even for physicians who do not wear prescription glasses.


Assuntos
Dispositivos de Proteção dos Olhos , Óculos , Exposição Ocupacional , Doses de Radiação , Proteção Radiológica , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Imagens de Fantasmas , Olho/efeitos da radiação , Lesões por Radiação/prevenção & controle
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731972

RESUMO

Vaccination is a public health cornerstone that protects against numerous infectious diseases. Despite its benefits, immunization implications on ocular health warrant thorough investigation, particularly in the context of vaccine-induced ocular inflammation. This review aimed to elucidate the complex interplay between vaccination and the eye, focusing on the molecular and immunological pathways implicated in vaccine-associated ocular adverse effects. Through an in-depth analysis of recent advancements and the existing literature, we explored various mechanisms of vaccine-induced ocular inflammation, such as direct infection by live attenuated vaccines, immune complex formation, adjuvant-induced autoimmunity, molecular mimicry, hypersensitivity reactions, PEG-induced allergic reactions, Type 1 IFN activation, free extracellular RNA, and specific components. We further examined the specific ocular conditions associated with vaccination, such as uveitis, optic neuritis, and retinitis, and discussed the potential impact of novel vaccines, including those against SARS-CoV-2. This review sheds light on the intricate relationships between vaccination, the immune system, and ocular tissues, offering insights into informed discussions and future research directions aimed at optimizing vaccine safety and ophthalmological care. Our analysis underscores the importance of vigilance and further research to understand and mitigate the ocular side effects of vaccines, thereby ensuring the continued success of vaccination programs, while preserving ocular health.


Assuntos
Vacinação , Humanos , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Olho/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas/imunologia , Animais , Oftalmopatias/imunologia , Oftalmopatias/prevenção & controle
10.
Mol Biol Cell ; 35(7): br13, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696256

RESUMO

Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process where double membrane-bound structures form around macromolecules or organelles targeted for degradation. Autophagosomes fuse with lysosomes to facilitate degradation and macromolecule recycling for homeostasis or growth in a cell autonomous manner. In cancer cells, autophagy is often up-regulated and helps cancer cells survive nutrient deprivation and stressful growth conditions. Here, we propose that the increased intracellular pH (pHi) common to cancer cells is sufficient to induce autophagic cell death. We previously developed tools to increase pHi in the Drosophila eye via overexpression of DNhe2, resulting in aberrant patterning and reduced tissue size. We examined fly eyes at earlier stages of development and found fewer interommatidial cells. We next tested whether this decrease in cell number was due to increased cell death. We found that the DNhe2-induced cell death was caspase independent, which is inconsistent with apoptosis. However, this cell death required autophagy genes, which supports autophagy as the mode of cell death. We also found that expression of molecular markers supports increased autophagy. Together, our findings suggest new roles for ion transport proteins in regulating conserved, critical developmental processes and provide evidence for new paradigms in growth control.


Assuntos
Morte Celular Autofágica , Autofagia , Proteínas de Drosophila , Drosophila melanogaster , Animais , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/genética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Olho/metabolismo , Apoptose , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Drosophila/metabolismo , Autofagossomos/metabolismo
11.
Int J Pharm ; 658: 124192, 2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703931

RESUMO

Ocular delivery is the most challenging aspect in the field of pharmaceutical research. The major hurdle for the controlled delivery of drugs to the eye includes the physiological static barriers such as the complex layers of the cornea, sclera and retina which restrict the drug from permeating into the anterior and posterior segments of the eye. Recent years have witnessed inventions in the field of conventional and nanocarrier drug delivery which have shown considerable enhancement in delivering small to large molecules across the eye. The dynamic challenges associated with conventional systems include limited drug contact time and inadequate ocular bioavailability resulting from solution drainage, tear turnover, and dilution or lacrimation. To this end, various bioactive-based nanosized carriers including liposomes, ethosomes, niosomes, dendrimer, nanogel, nanofibers, contact lenses, nanoprobes, selenium nanobells, nanosponge, polymeric micelles, silver nanoparticles, and gold nanoparticles among others have been developed to circumvent the limitations associated with the conventional dosage forms. These nanocarriers have been shown to achieve enhanced drug permeation or retention and prolong drug release in the ocular tissue due to their better tissue adherence. The surface charge and the size of nanocarriers (10-1000 nm) are the important key factors to overcome ocular barriers. Various nanocarriers have been shown to deliver active therapeutic molecules including timolol maleate, ampicillin, natamycin, voriconazole, cyclosporine A, dexamethasone, moxifloxacin, and fluconazole among others for the treatment of anterior and posterior eye diseases. Taken together, in a nutshell, this extensive review provides a comprehensive perspective on the numerous facets of ocular drug delivery with a special focus on bioactive nanocarrier-based approaches, including the difficulties and constraints involved in the fabrication of nanocarriers. This also provides the detailed invention, applications, biodistribution and safety-toxicity of nanocarriers-based therapeutcis for the ophthalmic delivery.


Assuntos
Administração Oftálmica , Portadores de Fármacos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Olho , Nanopartículas , Humanos , Animais , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Olho/metabolismo , Olho/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Nanopartículas/química , Oftalmopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Sistemas de Liberação de Fármacos por Nanopartículas/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12508, 2024 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822021

RESUMO

Adult vertebrate cartilage is usually quiescent. Some vertebrates possess ocular scleral skeletons composed of cartilage or bone. The morphological characteristics of the spotted wolffish (Anarhichas minor) scleral skeleton have not been described. Here we assessed the scleral skeletons of cultured spotted wolffish, a globally threatened marine species. The healthy spotted wolffish we assessed had scleral skeletons with a low percentage of cells staining for the chondrogenesis marker sex-determining region Y-box (Sox) 9, but harboured a population of intraocular cells that co-express immunoglobulin M (IgM) and Sox9. Scleral skeletons of spotted wolffish with grossly observable eye abnormalities displayed a high degree of perochondrial activation as evidenced by cellular morphology and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and phosphotyrosine. Cells staining for cluster of differentiation (CD) 45 and IgM accumulated around sites of active chondrogenesis, which contained cells that strongly expressed Sox9. The level of scleral chondrogenesis and the numbers of scleral cartilage PCNA positive cells increased with the temperature of the water in which spotted wolffish were cultured. Our results provide new knowledge of differing Sox9 spatial tissue expression patterns during chondrogenesis in normal control and ocular insult paradigms. Our work also provides evidence that spotted wolffish possess an inherent scleral chondrogenesis response that may be sensitive to temperature. This work also advances the fundamental knowledge of teleost ocular skeletal systems.


Assuntos
Condrogênese , Fatores de Transcrição SOX9 , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição SOX9/metabolismo , Esclera/metabolismo , Temperatura , Imunoglobulina M/metabolismo , Olho/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Cartilagem/metabolismo
13.
Life Sci ; 349: 122730, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768774

RESUMO

Chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) represent a significant proportion of global health burden, with a wide spectrum of varying, heterogenic conditions largely affecting the pulmonary system. Recent advances in immunology and respiratory biology have highlighted the systemic impact of these diseases, notably through the elucidation of the lung-eye axis. The current review focusses on understanding the pivotal role of the lung-eye axis in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic respiratory infections and diseases. Existing literature published on the immunological crosstalk between the eye and the lung has been reviewed. The various roles of the ocular microbiome in lung health are also explored, examining the eye as a gateway for respiratory virus transmission, and assessing the impact of environmental irritants on both ocular and respiratory systems. This novel concept emphasizes a bidirectional relationship between respiratory and ocular health, suggesting that respiratory diseases may influence ocular conditions and vice versa, whereby this conception provides a comprehensive framework for understanding the intricate axis connecting both respiratory and ocular health. These aspects underscore the need for an integrative approach in the management of chronic respiratory diseases. Future research should further elucidate the in-depth molecular mechanisms affecting this axis which would pave the path for novel diagnostics and effective therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Olho , Pulmão , Humanos , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Olho/microbiologia , Oftalmopatias/fisiopatologia , Oftalmopatias/etiologia , Animais , Doenças Respiratórias/fisiopatologia , Doenças Respiratórias/microbiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/virologia , Microbiota/fisiologia
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 934: 173246, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768728

RESUMO

Triphenyltin (TPT) is widely used in crop pest control and ship antifouling coatings, which leads to its entry into aquatic environment and poses a threat to aquatic organisms. However, the effects of TPT on the early life stages of wild fish in natural water environments remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the toxic effects of TPT on the early life stages of fish under two different environments: field investigation and laboratory experiment. The occurrence of deformities in wild fish embryos and larvae in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) and the developmental toxicity of TPT at different concentrations (0, 0.15, 1.5 and 15 µg Sn/L) to zebrafish embryos and larvae were observed. The results showed that TPT content was higher in wild larvae, reaching 27.21 ng Sn/g w, and the malformation of wild fish larvae mainly occurred in the eyes and spine under natural water environment. Controlled experiment exposure of zebrafish larvae to TPT also resulted in eye and spinal deformities. Gene expression analysis showed that compared with the control group, the expression levels of genes related to eye development (sox2, otx2, stra6 and rx1) and spine development (sox9a and bmp2b) were significantly up-regulated in the 15 µg Sn/L exposure group, which may be the main cause of eye and spine deformity in the early development stage of fish. In addition, the molecular docking results further elucidate that the strong hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions between TPT and protein residues are the main mechanism of TPT induced abnormal gene expression. Based on these results, it can be inferred that TPT is one of the teratogenic factors of abnormal eye and spine development in the early life stage of fish in the TGR. These findings have important implications for understanding the toxicity of TPT on fish.


Assuntos
Embrião não Mamífero , Larva , Compostos Orgânicos de Estanho , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Compostos Orgânicos de Estanho/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Coluna Vertebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Coluna Vertebral/anormalidades , Olho/efeitos dos fármacos , Olho/embriologia
15.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2023): 20240239, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38808445

RESUMO

The ocean's midwater is a uniquely challenging yet predictable and simple visual environment. The need to see without being seen in this dim, open habitat has led to extraordinary visual adaptations. To understand these adaptations, we compared the morphological and functional differences between the eyes of three hyperiid amphipods-Hyperia galba, Streetsia challengeri and Phronima sedentaria. Combining micro-CT data with computational modelling, we mapped visual field topography and predicted detection distances for visual targets viewed in different directions through mesopelagic depths. Hyperia's eyes provide a wide visual field optimized for spatial vision over short distances, while Phronima's and Streetsia's eyes have the potential to achieve greater sensitivity and longer detection distances using spatial summation. These improvements come at the cost of smaller visual fields, but this loss is compensated for by a second pair of eyes in Phronima and by behaviour in Streetsia. The need to improve sensitivity while minimizing visible eye size to maintain crypsis has likely driven the evolution of hyperiid eye diversity. Our results provide an integrative look at how these elusive animals have adapted to the unique visual challenges of the mesopelagic.


Assuntos
Anfípodes , Animais , Anfípodes/fisiologia , Anfípodes/anatomia & histologia , Ecossistema , Campos Visuais , Olho/anatomia & histologia , Visão Ocular , Microtomografia por Raio-X
16.
J Med Primatol ; 53(3): e12711, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38790083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study used infrared thermography (IRT) for mapping the facial and ocular temperatures of howler monkeys, to determine parameters for the diagnosis of febrile processes. There are no published IRT study in this species. METHODS: Were evaluated images of a group of monkeys kept under human care at Sorocaba Zoo (São Paulo, Brazil). The images were recorded during 1 year, in all seasons. Face and eye temperatures were evaluated. RESULTS: There are statistically significant differences in face and eye temperatures. Mean values and standard deviations for facial and ocular temperature were respectively: 33.0°C (2.1) and 36.5°C (1.9) in the summer; 31.5°C (4.5) and 35.3°C (3.6) in the autumn; 30.0°C (4.3) and 35.6°C (3.9) in the winter; 30.8°C (2.9) and 35.5°C (2.1) in the spring. CONCLUSIONS: The IRT was effective to establish a parameter for facial and ocular temperatures of black-and-gold howler monkeys kept under human care.


Assuntos
Alouatta , Temperatura Corporal , Olho , Face , Raios Infravermelhos , Termografia , Animais , Termografia/veterinária , Termografia/métodos , Alouatta/fisiologia , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Feminino , Febre/veterinária , Febre/diagnóstico , Animais de Zoológico
17.
J Therm Biol ; 121: 103867, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744026

RESUMO

Infrared thermography (IRT) has become more accessible due to technological advancements, making thermal cameras more affordable. Infrared thermal cameras capture the infrared rays emitted by objects and convert it into temperature representations. IRT has emerged as a promising and non-invasive approach for examining the human eye. Ocular surface temperature assessment based on IRT is vital for the diagnosis and monitoring of various eye conditions like dry eye, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, allergic conjunctivitis, and inflammatory diseases. A collective sum of 192 articles was sourced from various databases, and through adherence to the PRISMA guidelines, 29 articles were ultimately chosen for systematic analysis. This systematic review article seeks to provide readers with a thorough understanding of IRT's applications, advantages, limitations, and recent developments in the context of eye examinations. It covers various aspects of IRT-based eye analysis, including image acquisition, processing techniques, ocular surface temperature measurement, three different approaches to identifying abnormalities, and different evaluation metrics used. Our review also delves into recent advancements, particularly the integration of machine learning and deep learning algorithms into IRT-based eye examinations. Our systematic review not only sheds light on the current state of research but also outlines promising future prospects for the integration of infrared thermography in advancing eye health diagnostics and care.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias , Raios Infravermelhos , Termografia , Humanos , Termografia/métodos , Oftalmopatias/diagnóstico , Oftalmopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Olho/diagnóstico por imagem , Aprendizado de Máquina , Temperatura Corporal
18.
Sci Robot ; 9(90): eadp5682, 2024 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38809997

RESUMO

Bioinspiration from avian eyes allows development of artificial vision systems with foveated and multispectral imaging.


Assuntos
Biomimética , Aves , Visão Ocular , Animais , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Biomimética/instrumentação , Olho , Robótica/instrumentação , Humanos , Desenho de Equipamento , Materiais Biomiméticos
19.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 25(5): 119, 2024 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38816667

RESUMO

Loteprednol etabonate (LE) is a topical corticosteroid for the symptomatic management of ocular conditions, encompassing both allergic and infectious etiologies. Owing to the dynamic and static barriers of the eye, LE exhibits significantly low bioavailability, necessitating an increase in the frequency of drug administration. The objective of this study is to overcome the limitations by developing niosomal systems loaded with LE. Design of Experiments (DoE) approach was used for the development of optimal niosome formulation. The optimal formulation was characterized using DLS, FT-IR, and DSC analysis. In vitro and ex vivo release studies were performed to demonstrate drug release patterns. After that HET-CAM evaluation was conducted to determine safety profile. Then, in vivo studies were carried out to determine therapeutic activity of niosomes. Zeta potential (ZP), particle size, polydispersity index (PI), and encapsulation efficacy (EE) were -33.8 mV, 89.22 nm, 0.192, and 89.6%, respectively. Medicated niosomes had a broad distribution within rabbit eye tissues and was absorbed by the aqueous humor of the bovine eye for up to 6 h after treatment. Cumulative permeated drug in the bovine eye and rabbit eye were recorded 52.45% and 54.8%, respectively. No irritation or hemorrhagic situation was observed according to the results of HET-CAM study. Thus, novel LE-loaded niosomal formulations could be considered as a promising treatment option for the dry-eye-disease (DED) due to enhanced bioavailability and decreased side effects.


Assuntos
Preparações de Ação Retardada , Síndromes do Olho Seco , Lipossomos , Etabonato de Loteprednol , Animais , Coelhos , Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacocinética , Etabonato de Loteprednol/administração & dosagem , Etabonato de Loteprednol/farmacocinética , Síndromes do Olho Seco/tratamento farmacológico , Bovinos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Tamanho da Partícula , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Administração Oftálmica , Disponibilidade Biológica , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Olho/metabolismo , Olho/efeitos dos fármacos , Humor Aquoso/metabolismo , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Soluções Oftálmicas/administração & dosagem , Soluções Oftálmicas/farmacocinética
20.
J Clin Invest ; 134(9)2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38690727

RESUMO

Careful regulation of the complement system is critical for enabling complement proteins to titrate immune defense while also preventing collateral tissue damage from poorly controlled inflammation. In the eye, this balance between complement activity and inhibition is crucial, as a low level of basal complement activity is necessary to support ocular immune privilege, a prerequisite for maintaining vision. Dysregulated complement activation contributes to parainflammation, a low level of inflammation triggered by cellular damage that functions to reestablish homeostasis, or outright inflammation that disrupts the visual axis. Complement dysregulation has been implicated in many ocular diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the last two decades, complement activity has been the focus of intense investigation in AMD pathogenesis, leading to the development of novel therapeutics for the treatment of atrophic AMD. This Review outlines recent advances and challenges, highlighting therapeutic approaches that have advanced to clinical trials, as well as providing a general overview of the complement system in the posterior segment of the eye and selected ocular diseases.


Assuntos
Ativação do Complemento , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento , Degeneração Macular , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/imunologia , Degeneração Macular/patologia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/imunologia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , Ativação do Complemento/imunologia , Animais , Olho/imunologia , Olho/patologia
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