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1.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 200: 116068, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38290367

RESUMO

The deposition of MPs in a water column and surface sediment during a mixed spring tidal cycle of the Chao Phraya River estuary was investigated. The settling MPs during flood and ebb tides were collected by deploying traps at 3 m below the surface, while the settled MPs throughout the tidal cycle were collected by deploying traps at 1 m above the bottom. The settling rate of MPs was 2168 pieces/m2/h during highest to low tide, and 639 pieces/m2/h during high to lowest tide. The deposition rate of MPs after the end of the tidal cycle was 3172 pieces/m2/day, while the accumulation rate of MPs in the surface sediment was 1515 pieces/m2/day. The settling MPs tended to decrease inversely to the suspended solids and salinity. The major types of the deposited MPs were polyethylene (36 %) and polyamide (33 %), while that of the surface sediment was epoxy resin (80 %).


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Estuários , Plásticos , Ondas de Maré , Rios , Tailândia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Nature ; 626(7997): 111-118, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38297171

RESUMO

The recovery of top predators is thought to have cascading effects on vegetated ecosystems and their geomorphology1,2, but the evidence for this remains correlational and intensely debated3,4. Here we combine observational and experimental data to reveal that recolonization of sea otters in a US estuary generates a trophic cascade that facilitates coastal wetland plant biomass and suppresses the erosion of marsh edges-a process that otherwise leads to the severe loss of habitats and ecosystem services5,6. Monitoring of the Elkhorn Slough estuary over several decades suggested top-down control in the system, because the erosion of salt marsh edges has generally slowed with increasing sea otter abundance, despite the consistently increasing physical stress in the system (that is, nutrient loading, sea-level rise and tidal scour7-9). Predator-exclusion experiments in five marsh creeks revealed that sea otters suppress the abundance of burrowing crabs, a top-down effect that cascades to both increase marsh edge strength and reduce marsh erosion. Multi-creek surveys comparing marsh creeks pre- and post-sea otter colonization confirmed the presence of an interaction between the keystone sea otter, burrowing crabs and marsh creeks, demonstrating the spatial generality of predator control of ecosystem edge processes: densities of burrowing crabs and edge erosion have declined markedly in creeks that have high levels of sea otter recolonization. These results show that trophic downgrading could be a strong but underappreciated contributor to the loss of coastal wetlands, and suggest that restoring top predators can help to re-establish geomorphic stability.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Estuários , Lontras , Comportamento Predatório , Erosão do Solo , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Biomassa , Braquiúros/fisiologia , Lontras/fisiologia , Estados Unidos , Plantas , Elevação do Nível do Mar , Ondas de Maré , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Cadeia Alimentar
3.
Nature ; 618(7965): 537-542, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37286612

RESUMO

A central goal in ecology is to understand what maintains species diversity in local communities. Classic ecological theory1,2 posits that niches dictate the maximum number of species that can coexist in a community and that the richness of observed species will be below this maximum only where immigration is very low. A new alternative theory3,4 is that niches, instead, dictate the minimum number of coexisting species and that the richness of observed species will usually be well above this because of ongoing immigration. We conducted an experimental test to discriminate between these two unified theories using a manipulative field experiment with tropical intertidal communities. We found, consistent with the new theory, that the relationship of species richness to immigration rate stabilized at a low value at low immigration rates and did not saturate at high immigration rates. Our results suggest that tropical intertidal communities have low niche diversity and are typically in a dispersal-assembled regime where immigration is high enough to overfill the niches. Observational data from other studies3,5 suggest that these conclusions may generalize to other ecological systems. Our new experimental approach can be adapted for other systems and be used as a 'niche detector' and a tool for assessing when communities are niche versus dispersal assembled.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Biodiversidade , Ecologia , Modelos Biológicos , Ecologia/métodos , Dinâmica Populacional , Clima Tropical , Ondas de Maré , Animais
4.
J Contam Hydrol ; 256: 104194, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37167786

RESUMO

Coastal beaches are the most important part of the marine environment and are highly influenced by the interactions taking place between groundwater and surface water of any form. Generally, the purity index of the groundwater is based on the concentration of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) in it. Analytical solutions are the best tools for groundwater flow and transport modeling. However, contaminant transport along the sloping coastal beaches with complex boundaries cannot be addressed with available analytical solutions. In the present study, new analytical models are developed for groundwater flow and contaminant transport for sloping coastal beaches with continuity and tidal boundary conditions. To assess the performance of the new analytical solution and to validate the range of aquifer parameters, numerical simulation is performed using Du-Fort Frankel (DFF) Scheme. Numerical experimentation is carried out using the Tchebycheff and L2 norms. It is observed that the new analytical solution for the contaminant transport gives acceptable results over the wide range of the aquifer parameters. To show the effectiveness of the developed models, two case studies from Indian coastal aquifers namely, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu, and Bhavnagar, Gujarat are considered. The profiles of the contaminant concentration are obtained to study the TDS behavior along these complex coastal beaches in the spatiotemporal directions. The results are compared with numerical model results and found to be satisfactory. The combined effect of the initial rainfall and rainfall decay constants showed a significant impact on the concentration of TDS. TDS concentrations are observed to be varying highly with the variation in the tidal constituents and bed slope.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Ondas de Maré , Índia , Simulação por Computador , Movimentos da Água
5.
Ann Neurol ; 93(3): 427-430, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36546649

RESUMO

The subspecialty of experimental neurotherapeutics trains neurologists in discovering and developing new treatments for neurologic diseases. Based on development of exciting new treatments for genetic and inflammatory diseases, we predict that there will be many other breakthroughs. The job market has expanded rapidly in academia, the pharmaceutical industry, government, and not-for-profit sectors; many new opportunities can be anticipated. The burgeoning opportunities in the field mandate that training address the challenges of overcoming obstacles in therapeutic discovery, implementation science, and development of affordable and equitably available treatments. ANN NEUROL 2023;93:427-430.


Assuntos
Indústria Farmacêutica , Ondas de Maré , Humanos
6.
Harmful Algae ; 119: 102324, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36344196

RESUMO

Green tides, which are widespread problems, are harmful issues that affect the protection of ocean ecosystems and natural resources. Scientific assessment and prevention of the green tides are essential for sustainable planning and the utilization of maritime traffic, tourism, and industry. However, the suitable or risk habitats and their dominant factors of green tides from global perspective are unknown. Here, this study proposed a novel framework to show the habitat suitability and risk of ocean green tides by considering marine environmental factors (i.e., sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, solar irradiance, chlorophyll-a concentration, and sea surface wind). Through global remote sensing images and marine environmental factor data, this study found that (1) suitable and at-risk green tides areas are located in the north and south temperate zones; (2) marine physical factors are expected to weaken the green tide risk globally and enhance the green tide risk in coastal areas; (3) the green tides in the North Atlantic Ocean and the West Pacific Ocean are dominated by environmental factors and physical factors, respectively; and (4) when reducing carbon to promote sustainability, more potentially suitable green tide areas may appear at high latitudes. The results demonstrate the at-risk location and future trend of green tides, which are helpful for sustainable planning of ocean ecosystems.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Ondas de Maré , Oceano Atlântico , Oceano Pacífico , Vento
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17622, 2022 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36271246

RESUMO

The observation of electromechanical coupling might be used as an important tool to detect pre-seismic changes associated with the preparation of earthquakes. This paper attempts to study the electromechanical coupling process before the large earthquakes by using the load/unload response ratio (LURR) approach in which the geo-electric data and Benioff strain of small earthquakes were adopted as the data input. The variation of Coulomb failure stress induced by earth tides on the fault surface of the mainshock is applied to differentiate the loading and unloading stages. Using this technique, we test the geo-electric data recorded at the Hotan observatory near the epicenter of 2020 Yutian Ms 6.4 earthquake. Results show that the LURR time sequence fluctuated around 1.0 for many years and reached significant high peaks at the beginning of 2020. More importantly, this evolution correlates well with the LURR time series calculated by using the Benioff strain of small earthquakes within the circular region of 300 km radius centered at the epicenter. The underlying physics of the changes should be caused by the fluid infiltration derived from pre-seismic rock dilatancy. The corresponding volume variations in the crust could be found in the geophysical observation time series in the same neighborhoods.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Fatores de Tempo , Ondas de Maré , China
8.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263416, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35202425

RESUMO

The Above Ground Biomass (AGB) of seaweeds is the most fundamental ecological parameter as the material and energy basis of intertidal ecosystems. Therefore, there is a need to develop an efficient survey method that has less impact on the environment. With the advent of technology and the availability of popular filming devices such as smartphones and cameras, intertidal seaweed wet biomass can be surveyed by remote sensing using popular RGB imaging sensors. In this paper, 143 in situ sites of seaweed in the intertidal zone of GouQi Island, ShengSi County, Zhejiang Province, were sampled and biomass inversions were performed. The hyperspectral data of seaweed at different growth stages were analyzed, and it was found that the variation range was small (visible light range < 0.1). Through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Most of the variance is explained in the first principal component, and the load allocated to the three kinds of seaweed is more than 90%. Through Pearson correlation analysis, 24 parameters of spectral features, 9 parameters of texture features (27 in total for the three RGB bands) and parameters of combined spectral and texture features of the images were selected for screening, and regression prediction was performed using two methods: Random Forest (RF), and Gradient Boosted Decision Tree (GBDT), combined with Pearson correlation coefficients. Compared with the other two models, GBDT has better fitting accuracy in the inversion of seaweed biomass, and the highest R2 was obtained when the top 17, 17 and 11 parameters with strong correlation were selected for the regression prediction by Pearson's correlation coefficient for Ulva australis, Sargassum thunbergii, and Sargassum fusiforme, and the R2 for Ulva australis was 0.784, RMSE 156.129, MAE 50.691 and MAPE 28.201, the R2 for Sargassum thunbergii was 0.854, RMSE 790.487, MAE 327.108 and MAPE 19.039, and the R2 for Sargassum fusiforme was 0.808, RMSE 445.067 and MAPE 28.822. MAE was 180.172 and MAPE was 28.822. The study combines in situ survey with machine learning methods, which has the advantages of being popular, efficient and environmentally friendly, and can provide technical support for intertidal seaweed surveys.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Ecossistema , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Alga Marinha/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Análise de Componente Principal , Ondas de Maré
10.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(1)2022 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35051028

RESUMO

Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are produced mainly by Alexandrium catenella (formerly A. tamarense). Since 2000, the National Institute of Fisheries Science (NIFS) has been providing information on PST outbreaks in Korean coastal waters at one- or two-week intervals. However, a daily forecast is essential for immediate responses to PST outbreaks. This study aimed to predict the outbreak timing of PSTs in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in Jinhae Bay and along the Geoje coast in the southern coast of the Korea Peninsula. We used a long-short-term memory (LSTM) neural network model for temporal prediction of PST outbreaks from environmental data, such as water temperature (WT), tidal height, and salinity, measured at the Geojedo, Gadeokdo, and Masan tidal stations from 2006 to 2020. We found that PST outbreaks is gradually accelerated during the three years from 2018 to 2020. Because the in-situ environmental measurements had many missing data throughout the time span, we applied LSTM for gap-filling of the environmental measurements. We trained and tested the LSTM models with different combinations of environmental factors and the ground truth timing data of PST outbreaks for 5479 days as input and output. The LSTM model trained from only WT had the highest accuracy (0.9) and lowest false-alarm rate. The LSTM-based temporal prediction model may be useful as a monitoring system of PSP outbreaks in the coastal waters of southern Korean.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Mytilus/química , Redes Neurais de Computação , Animais , Modelos Teóricos , República da Coreia , Salinidade , Temperatura , Ondas de Maré , Fatores de Tempo , Água/química
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 807(Pt 3): 151013, 2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662618

RESUMO

The world's largest Sihwa Tidal Power Plant (TPP), located on the west coast of Korea, was built in 2011 for the purpose of improving water quality and producing renewable energy. After several years of actual operation, most of the original purpose was achieved, but unexpected coastal environmental changes such as tidal flat damage and sediment accumulation also occurred. In this study, in order to understand the causes of these environmental changes, field observations were conducted near TPP, and spatial and temporal variability of flow structure and water exchange process were investigated. Three-dimensional velocity data were collected along the closed line surrounding the outside of the TPP for 11 h during spring tide and analyzed according to two discharge phases: power generation phase (PGP) and drainage phase (DP). The results show that the depth-averaged maximum current velocity was more than three times greater at DP than at PGP. Jet-like flow during DP caused very high horizontal shear, whereas vertical shear was relatively weak, indicating that the horizontal and vertical flow structures were very different. The most notable result is that the mass transport patterns between PGP and DP are significantly different, i.e., during PGP, mass transport is dominated on the left side of the TPP, whereas during DP, it occurs at the front of the TPP. This means that there is a strong spatiotemporal asymmetry between the inflow from the downstream (outside of the TPP) during PGP and the outflow from the upstream (inside of the TPP) during DP. These asymmetric processes can have a significant impact on the material exchange and sediment transport near the TPP. Since observational studies on TPP are extremely rare, this study is expected to contribute to future TPP related research, such as numerical modeling.


Assuntos
Hidrodinâmica , Centrais Elétricas , Energia Renovável , República da Coreia , Ondas de Maré
12.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0256707, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669722

RESUMO

Understanding the rates and patterns of tidal wetland elevation changes relative to sea-level is essential for understanding the extent of potential wetland loss over the coming years. Using an enhanced and more flexible modeling framework of an ecosystem model (WARMER-2), we explored sea-level rise (SLR) impacts on wetland elevations and carbon sequestration rates through 2100 by considering plant community transitions, salinity effects on productivity, and changes in sediment availability. We incorporated local experimental results for plant productivity relative to inundation and salinity into a species transition model, as well as site-level estimates of organic matter decomposition. The revised modeling framework includes an improved calibration scheme that more accurately reconstructs soil profiles and incorporates parameter uncertainty through Monte Carlo simulations. Using WARMER-2, we evaluated elevation change in three tidal wetlands in the San Francisco Bay Estuary, CA, USA along an estuarine tidal and salinity gradient with varying scenarios of SLR, salinization, and changes in sediment availability. We also tested the sensitivity of marsh elevation and carbon accumulation rates to different plant productivity functions. Wetland elevation at all three sites was sensitive to changes in sediment availability, but sites with greater initial elevations or space for upland transgression persisted longer under higher SLR rates than sites at lower elevations. Using a multi-species wetland vegetation transition model for organic matter contribution to accretion, WARMER-2 projected increased elevations relative to sea levels (resilience) and higher rates of carbon accumulation when compared with projections assuming no future change in vegetation with SLR. A threshold analysis revealed that all three wetland sites were likely to eventually transition to an unvegetated state with SLR rates above 7 mm/yr. Our results show the utility in incorporating additional estuary-specific parameters to bolster confidence in model projections. The new WARMER-2 modeling framework is widely applicable to other tidal wetland ecosystems and can assist in teasing apart important drivers of wetland elevation change under SLR.


Assuntos
Sequestro de Carbono/fisiologia , Carbono/análise , Aquecimento Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Elevação do Nível do Mar/estatística & dados numéricos , Áreas Alagadas , Baías , Modelos Teóricos , Salinidade , São Francisco , Solo/química , Ondas de Maré
13.
Cell Rep ; 35(2): 108987, 2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852865

RESUMO

Rats have been used as animal models for human diseases for more than a century, yet a systematic understanding of basal biobehavioral phenotypes of laboratory rats is still missing. In this study, we utilize wireless tracking technology and videography, collect and analyze more than 130 billion data points to fill this gap, and characterize the evolution of behavior and physiology of group-housed male and female rats (n = 114) of the most commonly used strains (Lister Hooded, Long-Evans, Sprague-Dawley, and Wistar) throughout their development. The resulting intensive longitudinal data suggest the existence of strain and sex differences and bi-stable developmental states. Under standard laboratory 12-h light/12-h dark conditions, our study found the presence of multiple oscillations such as circatidal-like rhythms in locomotor activity. The overall findings further suggest that frequent movement along cage walls or thigmotaxic activity may be a physical feature of motion in constrained spaces, critically affecting the interpretation of basal behavior of rats in cages.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Animais , Espaços Confinados , Feminino , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ratos Wistar , Fatores Sexuais , Especificidade da Espécie , Ondas de Maré
14.
Int Psychogeriatr ; 33(1): 3-5, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543694

Assuntos
Ondas de Maré , Humanos
15.
Ann Rev Mar Sci ; 13: 501-536, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635795

RESUMO

Sediment transfer from land to ocean begins in coastal settings and, for large rivers such as the Amazon, has dramatic impacts over thousands of kilometers covering diverse environmental conditions. In the relatively natural Amazon tidal river, combinations of fluvial and marine processes transition toward the ocean, affecting the transport and accumulation of sediment in floodplains and tributary mouths. The enormous discharge of Amazon fresh water causes estuarine processes to occur on the continental shelf, where much sediment accumulation creates a large clinoform structure and where additional sediment accumulates along its shoreward boundary in tidal flats and mangrove forests. Some remaining Amazon sediment is transported beyond the region near the river mouth, and fluvial forces on it diminish. Numerous perturbations to Amazon sediment transport and accumulation occur naturally, but human actions will likely dominate future change, and now is the time to document, understand, and mitigate their impacts.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Rios/química , Movimentos da Água , Humanos , Oceanos e Mares , América do Sul , Ondas de Maré , Áreas Alagadas
16.
Ann Rev Mar Sci ; 13: 201-226, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600217

RESUMO

Over the past several decades, there has developed a community-wide appreciation for the importance of mixing at the smallest scales to geophysical fluid dynamics on all scales. This appreciation has spawned greater participation in the investigation of ocean mixing and new ways to measure it. These are welcome developments given the tremendous separation in scales between the basins, [Formula: see text]) m, and the turbulence, [Formula: see text]) m, and the fact that turbulence that leads to thermodynamically irreversible mixing in high-Reynolds-number geophysical flows varies by at least eight orders of magnitude in both space and time. In many cases, it is difficult to separate the dependencies because measurements are sparse, also in both space and time. Comprehensive shipboard turbulence profiling experiments supplemented by Doppler sonar current measurements provide detailed observations of the evolution of the vertical structure of upper-ocean turbulence on timescales of minutes to weeks. Recent technical developments now permit measurements of turbulence in the ocean, at least at a few locations, for extended periods. This review summarizes recent and classic results in the context of our expanding knowledge of the temporal variability of ocean mixing, beginning with a discussion of the timescales of the turbulence itself (seconds to minutes) and how turbulence-enhanced mixing varies over hours, days, tidal cycles, monsoons, seasons, and El Niño-Southern Oscillation timescales (years).


Assuntos
Hidrodinâmica , Modelos Teóricos , Água do Mar/química , El Niño Oscilação Sul , Oceanos e Mares , Reologia , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Ondas de Maré , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127977, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182103

RESUMO

Coastal wetlands are ecologically and economically important; however, they are currently faced with fragmentation and loss. Plants are a fundamental element of wetlands and previous researches have focused on wetland plant connectivity; however, these researches have been conducted at the landscape but not species level. Here, given that tidal flats are important areas in coastal wetlands, we investigated the connectivity characteristics of typical plant species and environmental factors in different wetland regions influenced by various tidal conditions to reveal vegetation connectivity and its relationship with environmental factors on a small-patch scale. We found that tides negatively affect plant connectivity because both the Tamarix chinensis and Suaeda salsa have the highest connectivity on river banks, which are not influenced by tides. Of two tidal regions, different tides conditions have different influence on two plant species. T. chinensis had higher connectivity in the supratidal zone, whereas S. salsa had higher connectivity in the intertidal zone. Besides, the soil water content and soil salinity were significantly different in the three regions, but the soil total nitrogen and phosphorous were not. Soil water content and soil salinity were two factors that significantly affected plant connectivity. Specifically, soil water content positively affected the connectivity of T. chinensis and S. salsa, whereas soil salinity negatively affected the connectivity of T. chinensis. Taken together, these results indicate that tidal conditions affect plant connectivity on a small-patch scale. River banks and supratidal zone are beneficial for the recovery and growth of T. chinensis, intertidal zone and river banks are more conducive to the recovery and growth of S. salsa. Based on the above research, this study provides insights that could be applied to vegetation restoration in coastal wetlands.


Assuntos
Chenopodiaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rios/química , Solo/química , Tamaricaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ondas de Maré , Áreas Alagadas , China , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Salinidade
18.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244494, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362230

RESUMO

The tri-spine horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus, is a threatened species that inhabits coastal areas from South to East Asia. A Conservation management system is urgently required for managing its nursery habitats, i.e., intertidal flats, especially in Japan. Habitat suitability maps are useful in drafting conservation plans; however, they have rarely been prepared for juvenile T. tridentatus. In this study, we examined the possibility of constructing robust habitat suitability models (HSMs) for juveniles based on topographical data acquired using unmanned aerial vehicles and the Structure from Motion (UAV-SfM) technique. The distribution data of the juveniles in the Tsuyazaki and Imazu intertidal flats from 2017 to 2019 were determined. The data were divided into a training dataset for HSM construction and three test datasets for model evaluation. High accuracy digital surface models were built for each region using the UAV-SfM technique. Normalized elevation was assessed by converting the topographical models that consider the tidal range in each region, and the slope was calculated based on these models. Using the training data, HSMs of the juveniles were constructed with normalized elevation and slope as the predictor variables. The HSMs were evaluated using the test data. The results showed that HSMs exhibited acceptable discrimination performance for each region. Habitat suitability maps were built for the juveniles in each region, and the suitable areas were estimated to be approximately 6.1 ha of the total 19.5 ha in Tuyazaki, and 3.7 ha of the total 7.9 ha area in Imazu. In conclusion, our findings support the usefulness of the UAV-SfM technique in constructing HSMs for juvenile T. tridentatus. The monitoring of suitable habitat areas for the juveniles using the UAV-SfM technique is expected to reduce survey costs, as it can be conducted with fewer investigators over vast intertidal zones within a short period of time.


Assuntos
Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/métodos , Ecossistema , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Caranguejos Ferradura/fisiologia , Animais , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/instrumentação , Mapeamento Geográfico , Japão , Fotografação/instrumentação , Fotografação/métodos , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos , Ondas de Maré
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207680

RESUMO

Seaports' energy strategy should rely on the use of renewable energy. Presently, the share of renewable energy used by many of the ports worldwide is negligible. Some initiatives are in the process of implementation to produce some of the energy used by the Port of Valencia, one the largest ports in the Mediterranean Basin. Among these initiatives, a photovoltaic plant with an installed capacity of 5.5 MW is under a tendering process and the assessment studies for the deployment of three to five windmills are close to being finished. However, this is not enough to make it a "zero emissions port" as some of the energy demand would still be covered by fossil fuels. Therefore, we should consider clean alternative energy sources. This article analyses the wave energy resources in the surroundings of the Port of Valencia using a 7-year series of data obtained from numerical modelling (forecast). The spatial distribution of wave power is analysed using data from 3 SIMAR points at Valencia Bay and is compared to the data obtained by the Valencia Buoy I (removed in 2005). The obtained results are used to estimate the power matrices and the average energy output of two wave energy converters suitable to be integrated into the port's infrastructure. Finally, the wave energy converters' production is compared to the average amount of energy that is forecast to be obtained from other renewable sources such as solar and wind. Due to the nature of the Gulf's wave climate (mostly low waves), the main conclusion is that the energy obtainable from the waves in the Valencia Gulf will be in correlation with such climate. However, when dealing with great energy consumers every source of production is worthwhile and further research is needed to optimize the production of energy from renewable sources and its use in an industrial environment such as ports.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Energia Renovável , Ondas de Maré , Eletricidade , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/normas , Oceanos e Mares
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