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1.
Opt Express ; 32(10): 18113-18126, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858975

RESUMO

Hardware architectures and image interpretation can be simplified by partial polarimetry. Mueller matrix (MM) polarimetry allows the investigation of partial polarimeter designs for a given scientific task. In this work, we use MM measurements to solve for a fixed polarization illumination and analyzer state that maximize polariscopic image contrast of the human eye. The eye MM image acquisition takes place over 15 seconds which motivates the development of a partial polarimeter that has snapshot operation. Within the eye, the birefringent cornea produces spatially-varying patterns of retardance exceeding half of a wave with a fast-axis varying from linear, to circular, and elliptical states in between. Our closed-form polariscopic pairs are a general solution that maximizes contrast between two non-depolarizing pure retarder MMs. For these MMs, there is a family of polariscopic pairs that maximize contrast. This range of solutions creates an opportunity to use the distance from optimal as a criteria to adjust polarimetric hardware architecture. We demonstrate our optimization approach by performing both Mueller and polariscopic imaging of an in vivo human eye at 947 nm using a dual-rotating-retarder polarimeter. Polariscopic images are simulated from Mueller measurements of 19 other human subjects to test the robustness of this optimal solution.


Assuntos
Olho , Humanos , Olho/diagnóstico por imagem , Raios Infravermelhos
2.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 570, 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844864

RESUMO

Compound eyes formation in decapod crustaceans occurs after the nauplius stage. However, the key genes and regulatory mechanisms of compound eye development during crustacean embryonic development have not yet been clarified. In this study, RNA-seq was used to investigate the gene expression profiles of Neocaridina denticulata sinensis from nauplius to zoea stage. Based on RNA-seq data analysis, the phototransduction and insect hormone biosynthesis pathways were enriched, and molting-related neuropeptides were highly expressed. There was strong cell proliferation in the embryo prior to compound eye development. The formation of the visual system and the hormonal regulation of hatching were the dominant biological events during compound eye development. The functional analysis of DEGs across all four developmental stages showed that cuticle formation, muscle growth and the establishment of immune system occurred from nauplius to zoea stage. Key genes related to eye development were discovered, including those involved in the determination and differentiation of the eye field, eye-color formation, and visual signal transduction. In conclusion, the results increase the understanding of the molecular mechanism of eye formation in crustacean embryonic stage.


Assuntos
Olho Composto de Artrópodes , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Animais , Olho Composto de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Olho Composto de Artrópodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transcriptoma , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Decápodes/genética , Decápodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Olho/metabolismo , Olho/embriologia , Olho/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12859, 2024 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834673

RESUMO

External eye appearance in avian taxa has been proposed to be driven by social and ecological functions. Recent research in primates suggests, instead, that, photoprotective functions are important drivers of external eye appearance. Using similar methods, we examined the variation in external eye appearance of 132 parrot species (Psittaciformes) in relation to their ecology and sociality. Breeding systems, flock size and sexual dimorphism, as well as species' latitude and maximum living altitude, and estimated UV-B incidence in species' ranges were used to explore the contribution of social and ecological factors in driving external eye appearance. We measured the hue and brightness of visible parts of the eye and the difference in measurements of brightness between adjacent parts of the eye. We found no link between social variables and our measurements. We did, however, find a negative association between the brightness of the inner part of the iris and latitude and altitude. Darker inner irises were more prevalent farther away from the equator and for those species living at higher altitudes. We found no link between UV-B and brightness measurements of the iris, or tissue surrounding the eye. We speculate that these results are consistent with an adaptation for visual functions. While preliminary, these results suggest that external eye appearance in parrots is influenced by ecological, but not social factors.


Assuntos
Altitude , Papagaios , Animais , Papagaios/fisiologia , Olho/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Masculino , Raios Ultravioleta
4.
Parasites Hosts Dis ; 62(2): 243-250, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835265

RESUMO

We investigated organ specific Toxocara canis larval migration in mice infected with T. canis larvae. We observed the worm burden and systemic immune responses. Three groups of BALB/c mice (n=5 each) were orally administered 1,000 T. canis 2nd stage larvae to induce larva migrans. Mice were sacrificed at 1, 3, and 5 weeks post-infection. Liver, lung, brain, and eye tissues were collected. Tissue from 2 mice per group was digested for larval count, while the remaining 3 mice underwent histological analysis. Blood hematology and serology were evaluated and compared to that in a control uninfected group (n=5) to assess the immune response. Cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were also analyzed. We found that, 1 week post-infection, the mean parasite load in the liver (72±7.1), brain (31±4.2), lungs (20±5.7), and eyes (2±0) peaked and stayed constant until the 3 weeks. By 5-week post-infection, the worm burden in the liver and lungs significantly decreased to 10±4.2 and 9±5.7, respectively, while they remained relatively stable in the brain and eyes (18±4.2 and 1±0, respectively). Interestingly, ocular larvae resided in all retinal layers, without notable inflammation in outer retina. Mice infected with T. canis exhibited elevated levels of neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, and immunoglobulin E. At 5 weeks post-infection, interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 levels were elevated in BAL fluid. Whereas IL-4, IL-10, IL-17, and interferon-γ levels in BAL fluid were similar to that in controls. Our findings demonstrate that a small portion of T. canis larvae migrate to the eyes and brain within the first week of infection. Minimal tissue inflammation was observed, probably due to increase of anti-inflammatory cytokines. This study contributes to our understanding of the histological and immunological responses to T. canis infection in mice, which may have implications to further understand human toxocariasis.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Citocinas , Larva , Fígado , Pulmão , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Toxocara canis , Toxocaríase , Animais , Toxocara canis/imunologia , Toxocaríase/imunologia , Toxocaríase/patologia , Toxocaríase/parasitologia , Larva/imunologia , Camundongos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Pulmão/parasitologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Fígado/parasitologia , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/imunologia , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/parasitologia , Feminino , Carga Parasitária , Olho/parasitologia , Olho/imunologia , Olho/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13798, 2024 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38877041

RESUMO

We assessed the short-term effects of switching from intravitreal aflibercept (IVA) to intravitreal faricimab (IVF) on ocular blood flow in patients with treatment-resistant diabetic macular edema (DME). The medical records of 15 patients with DME who had received IVA injection ≥ 3 months before were retrospectively reviewed. The best-corrected visual acuity, central macular thickness (CMT) on optical coherence tomography, and mean blur rate (MBR) of all disc areas on laser speckle flowgraphy were measured before, 1 week after, and 4 weeks after IVA and IVF, respectively. The changes in visual acuity showed no significant difference after switching from IVA to IVF (P = 0.732). The mean CMT decreased significantly during the follow-up period (both P < 0.001). MBR showed no significant difference during the follow-up period (P = 0.26). However, it decreased significantly 4 weeks after IVF (P = 0.01) compared with the baseline value, but not 4 weeks after IVA (P = 0.074). A significant association was observed between decreased MBR and decreased CMT in patients who received IVF (correlation coefficient: 0.501, P = 0.005) but not in those who received IVA (P = 0.735). Thus, IVF maintained ocular blood flow reduction, although no significant differences in visual acuity and CMT changes were observed compared to IVA.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética , Injeções Intravítreas , Edema Macular , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão , Humanos , Edema Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Edema Macular/etiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/administração & dosagem , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acuidade Visual/efeitos dos fármacos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/efeitos dos fármacos , Olho/irrigação sanguínea , Olho/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(11)2024 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38891923

RESUMO

The ocular glymphatic system subserves the bidirectional polarized fluid transport in the optic nerve, whereby cerebrospinal fluid from the brain is directed along periarterial spaces towards the eye, and fluid from the retina is directed along perivenous spaces following upon its axonal transport across the glial lamina. Fluid homeostasis and waste removal are vital for retinal function, making the ocular glymphatic fluid pathway a potential route for targeted manipulation to combat blinding ocular diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. Several lines of work investigating the bidirectional ocular glymphatic transport with varying methodologies have developed diverging mechanistic models, which has created some confusion about how ocular glymphatic transport should be defined. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of the current understanding of the ocular glymphatic system, aiming to address misconceptions and foster a cohesive understanding of the topic.


Assuntos
Sistema Glinfático , Humanos , Sistema Glinfático/fisiologia , Sistema Glinfático/metabolismo , Animais , Nervo Óptico/metabolismo , Nervo Óptico/fisiologia , Retina/metabolismo , Retina/fisiologia , Olho/metabolismo , Glaucoma/metabolismo , Glaucoma/fisiopatologia , Glaucoma/patologia
7.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892705

RESUMO

Background: Dietary quality and the consumption of antioxidant-rich foods have been shown to protect against memory decline. Therefore, this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study aimed to investigate the effects of a nutritional supplement on changes in cognitive performance. Methods: In adults aged 40 to 70 years with subjective memory complaints, participants were randomly allocated to take a supplement containing vitamin E, astaxanthin, and grape juice extract daily for 12 weeks or a matching placebo. The primary outcomes comprised changes in cognitive tasks assessing episodic memory, working memory, and verbal memory. Secondary and exploratory measures included changes in the speed of information processing, attention, and self-report measures of memory, stress, and eye and skin health. Moreover, changes in plasma concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, malondialdehyde, tumor-necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 were measured, along with changes in skin carotenoid concentrations. Results: Compared to the placebo, nutritional supplementation was associated with larger improvements in one primary outcome measure comprising episodic memory (p = 0.037), but not for working memory (p = 0.418) or verbal learning (p = 0.841). Findings from secondary and exploratory outcomes demonstrated that the nutraceutical intake was associated with larger improvements in the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (p = 0.022), increased plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (p = 0.030), decreased plasma malondialdehyde (p = 0.040), and increased skin carotenoid concentrations (p = 0.006). However, there were no group differences in changes in the remaining outcome measures. Conclusions: Twelve weeks of supplementation with a nutritional supplement was associated with improvements in episodic memory and several biological markers associated with cognitive health. Future research will be essential to extend and validate the current findings.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Cognição , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método Duplo-Cego , Masculino , Feminino , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Vitamina E , Xantofilas/administração & dosagem , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes , Interleucina-6/sangue , Autorrelato , Carotenoides/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Memória de Curto Prazo/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória Episódica , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Malondialdeído/sangue , Olho/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 616, 2024 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38890587

RESUMO

The Drosophila eye has been an important model to understand principles of differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis and tissue morphogenesis. However, a single cell RNA sequence resource that captures gene expression dynamics from the initiation of differentiation to the specification of different cell types in the larval eye disc is lacking. Here, we report transcriptomic data from 13,000 cells that cover six developmental stages of the larval eye. Our data show cell clusters that correspond to all major cell types present in the eye disc ranging from the initiation of the morphogenetic furrow to the differentiation of each photoreceptor cell type as well as early cone cells. We identify dozens of cell type-specific genes whose function in different aspects of eye development have not been reported. These single cell data will greatly aid research groups studying different aspects of early eye development and will facilitate a deeper understanding of the larval eye as a model system.


Assuntos
Olho , Larva , Análise de Célula Única , Animais , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Olho/metabolismo , Olho/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Transcriptoma , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Drosophila/genética , Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Sequência de RNA
9.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2023): 20240239, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38808445

RESUMO

The ocean's midwater is a uniquely challenging yet predictable and simple visual environment. The need to see without being seen in this dim, open habitat has led to extraordinary visual adaptations. To understand these adaptations, we compared the morphological and functional differences between the eyes of three hyperiid amphipods-Hyperia galba, Streetsia challengeri and Phronima sedentaria. Combining micro-CT data with computational modelling, we mapped visual field topography and predicted detection distances for visual targets viewed in different directions through mesopelagic depths. Hyperia's eyes provide a wide visual field optimized for spatial vision over short distances, while Phronima's and Streetsia's eyes have the potential to achieve greater sensitivity and longer detection distances using spatial summation. These improvements come at the cost of smaller visual fields, but this loss is compensated for by a second pair of eyes in Phronima and by behaviour in Streetsia. The need to improve sensitivity while minimizing visible eye size to maintain crypsis has likely driven the evolution of hyperiid eye diversity. Our results provide an integrative look at how these elusive animals have adapted to the unique visual challenges of the mesopelagic.


Assuntos
Anfípodes , Animais , Anfípodes/fisiologia , Anfípodes/anatomia & histologia , Ecossistema , Campos Visuais , Olho/anatomia & histologia , Visão Ocular , Microtomografia por Raio-X
10.
Arthropod Struct Dev ; 80: 101361, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38795499

RESUMO

One of the least studied eyes of any beetle taxon are those of the scarabaeoid family Passalidae. Some members of this family of around 600 species worldwide are known to have superposition eyes (Aceraius grandis; A. hikidai) while others have apposition eyes (Cylindrocaulus patalis; Ceracupes yui). In C. yui of nearly 3 cm body length (this paper) the retinal layer is very thin and occupies approximately half of an ommatidium's total length, the latter amounting to 284 and 266 µm in the respective dorsal and ventral eye regions. The two eye regions are almost completely separated by a prominent cuticular canthus, a feature usually associated with the presence of a tracheal tapetum, a clear-zone between dioptric and light-perceiving structures and a regular array of smooth facets. In C. yui the facets are smooth (but not very regular) and a tracheal tapetum and a clear-zone are absent. The rhabdoms, formed by 8-9 retinula cells, are complicated, multilobed structures with widths and lengths of around 15 and 80 µm, respectively. The combination of some superposition and mostly apposition eye features, e.g., extensive corneal exocones, relatively small number of ommatidia, absence of a clear-zone and tracheal bush, suggest an adaptation of this species' eye to the fossorial lifestyle of C. yui, and, thus, a manifestation of the passalid eye's plasticity.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Besouros/ultraestrutura , Besouros/anatomia & histologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Olho Composto de Artrópodes/ultraestrutura , Olho Composto de Artrópodes/anatomia & histologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Feminino , Masculino , Olho/ultraestrutura , Olho/anatomia & histologia
11.
Toxicon ; 244: 107775, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38782188

RESUMO

Patients occasionally present with reports of ocular exposure to fluids from rattlesnakes, claiming or suspecting the substance to be venom. This study set out to evaluate and characterize reported cases of suspected venom-induced ophthalmia in humans. A retrospective review of rattlesnake exposures reported to the Arizona Poison and Drug Information Center over a 24-year period was conducted for ocular exposures. Recorded information included patient demographics, clinical course, laboratory results, and treatments. Documentation regarding interactions between patients and snakes was reviewed by Arizona Poison and Drug Information Center herpetologists to evaluate what substance was expelled from the snake resulting in ocular exposure. Our review of rattlesnake encounters found a total of 26 ocular exposure cases. Patient demographics were largely intentional interactions and involved the male sex. Symptoms ranged from asymptomatic to minor effects with 46.2% managed from home and treated with fluid irrigation. A review of cases by herpetologists concluded the exposure patients commonly experienced was to snake musk. Kinematics of venom expulsion by rattlesnakes conclude the venom gland must be compressed, fangs erected to ≥60o, and fang sheath compressed against the roof of the mouth for venom expulsion. Evidence suggests the chance of venom "spitting" by rattlesnakes is close to zero. Rattlesnakes are documented to forcefully expel airborne malodorous "musk" defensively. An important distinction to remember is musk has a foul odor and is usually colorless, while venom is comparatively odorless and yellow. Rattlesnake venom-induced ophthalmia is a rare event as venom expulsion requires the kinematics of feeding or defensive bites. If the rattlesnake is not in the process of biting or otherwise contacting some other object with its mouth, it is more biologically plausible patients are being exposed to snake musk as a deterrent. Whether it's venom or musk, topical exposure to the eyes should prompt immediate irrigation.


Assuntos
Venenos de Crotalídeos , Crotalus , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Animais , Arizona , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Feminino , Venenos de Crotalídeos/toxicidade , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Idoso , Criança , Olho/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações
12.
J Radiol Prot ; 44(2)2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701771

RESUMO

Given the new recommendations for occupational eye lens doses, various lead glasses have been used to reduce irradiation of interventional radiologists. However, the protection afforded by lead glasses over prescription glasses (thus over-glasses-type eyewear) has not been considered in detail. We used a phantom to compare the protective effects of such eyewear and regular eyewear of 0.07 mm lead-equivalent thickness. The shielding rates behind the eyewear and on the surface of the left eye of an anthropomorphic phantom were calculated. The left eye of the phantom was irradiated at various angles and the shielding effects were evaluated. We measured the radiation dose to the left side of the phantom using RPLDs attached to the left eye and to the surface/back of the left eyewear. Over-glasses-type eyewear afforded good protection against x-rays from the left and below; the average shielding rates on the surface of the left eye ranged from 0.70-0.72. In clinical settings, scattered radiation is incident on physicians' eyes from the left and below, and through any gap in lead glasses. Over-glasses-type eyewear afforded better protection than regular eyewear of the same lead-equivalent thickness at the irradiation angles of concern in clinical settings. Although clinical evaluation is needed, we suggest over-glasses-type Pb eyewear even for physicians who do not wear prescription glasses.


Assuntos
Dispositivos de Proteção dos Olhos , Óculos , Exposição Ocupacional , Doses de Radiação , Proteção Radiológica , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Imagens de Fantasmas , Olho/efeitos da radiação , Lesões por Radiação/prevenção & controle
13.
J Med Primatol ; 53(3): e12711, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38790083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study used infrared thermography (IRT) for mapping the facial and ocular temperatures of howler monkeys, to determine parameters for the diagnosis of febrile processes. There are no published IRT study in this species. METHODS: Were evaluated images of a group of monkeys kept under human care at Sorocaba Zoo (São Paulo, Brazil). The images were recorded during 1 year, in all seasons. Face and eye temperatures were evaluated. RESULTS: There are statistically significant differences in face and eye temperatures. Mean values and standard deviations for facial and ocular temperature were respectively: 33.0°C (2.1) and 36.5°C (1.9) in the summer; 31.5°C (4.5) and 35.3°C (3.6) in the autumn; 30.0°C (4.3) and 35.6°C (3.9) in the winter; 30.8°C (2.9) and 35.5°C (2.1) in the spring. CONCLUSIONS: The IRT was effective to establish a parameter for facial and ocular temperatures of black-and-gold howler monkeys kept under human care.


Assuntos
Alouatta , Temperatura Corporal , Olho , Face , Raios Infravermelhos , Termografia , Animais , Termografia/veterinária , Termografia/métodos , Alouatta/fisiologia , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Feminino , Febre/veterinária , Febre/diagnóstico , Animais de Zoológico
14.
J Therm Biol ; 121: 103867, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744026

RESUMO

Infrared thermography (IRT) has become more accessible due to technological advancements, making thermal cameras more affordable. Infrared thermal cameras capture the infrared rays emitted by objects and convert it into temperature representations. IRT has emerged as a promising and non-invasive approach for examining the human eye. Ocular surface temperature assessment based on IRT is vital for the diagnosis and monitoring of various eye conditions like dry eye, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, allergic conjunctivitis, and inflammatory diseases. A collective sum of 192 articles was sourced from various databases, and through adherence to the PRISMA guidelines, 29 articles were ultimately chosen for systematic analysis. This systematic review article seeks to provide readers with a thorough understanding of IRT's applications, advantages, limitations, and recent developments in the context of eye examinations. It covers various aspects of IRT-based eye analysis, including image acquisition, processing techniques, ocular surface temperature measurement, three different approaches to identifying abnormalities, and different evaluation metrics used. Our review also delves into recent advancements, particularly the integration of machine learning and deep learning algorithms into IRT-based eye examinations. Our systematic review not only sheds light on the current state of research but also outlines promising future prospects for the integration of infrared thermography in advancing eye health diagnostics and care.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias , Raios Infravermelhos , Termografia , Humanos , Termografia/métodos , Oftalmopatias/diagnóstico , Oftalmopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Olho/diagnóstico por imagem , Aprendizado de Máquina , Temperatura Corporal
15.
J Craniofac Surg ; 35(4): 1143-1145, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709070

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It is important to generate predictable statistical models by increasing the number of variables on the human skeletal and soft tissue structures on the face to increase the accuracy of human facial reconstructions. The purpose of this study was to determine mouth width 3-dimensionally based on statistical regression model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cone-beam computed tomography scan data from 130 individuals were used to measure the horizontal and vertical dimensions of orbital and nasal structures and intercanine width. The correlation between these hard tissue variables and the mouth width was evaluated using the statistical regression model. RESULTS: Orbital width, nasal width, and intercanine width were found to be strong predictors of the mouth width determination and were used to generate the regression formulae to find the most approximate position of the mouth. CONCLUSION: These specific variables may contribute to improving the accuracy of mouth width determination for oral and maxillofacial reconstructions.


Assuntos
Face , Reconstrução Mandibular , Boca , Análise de Regressão , Boca/anatomia & histologia , Boca/diagnóstico por imagem , Face/anatomia & histologia , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Dente/diagnóstico por imagem , Olho/anatomia & histologia , Olho/diagnóstico por imagem , Nariz/anatomia & histologia , Nariz/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Humanos
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 934: 173246, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768728

RESUMO

Triphenyltin (TPT) is widely used in crop pest control and ship antifouling coatings, which leads to its entry into aquatic environment and poses a threat to aquatic organisms. However, the effects of TPT on the early life stages of wild fish in natural water environments remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the toxic effects of TPT on the early life stages of fish under two different environments: field investigation and laboratory experiment. The occurrence of deformities in wild fish embryos and larvae in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) and the developmental toxicity of TPT at different concentrations (0, 0.15, 1.5 and 15 µg Sn/L) to zebrafish embryos and larvae were observed. The results showed that TPT content was higher in wild larvae, reaching 27.21 ng Sn/g w, and the malformation of wild fish larvae mainly occurred in the eyes and spine under natural water environment. Controlled experiment exposure of zebrafish larvae to TPT also resulted in eye and spinal deformities. Gene expression analysis showed that compared with the control group, the expression levels of genes related to eye development (sox2, otx2, stra6 and rx1) and spine development (sox9a and bmp2b) were significantly up-regulated in the 15 µg Sn/L exposure group, which may be the main cause of eye and spine deformity in the early development stage of fish. In addition, the molecular docking results further elucidate that the strong hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions between TPT and protein residues are the main mechanism of TPT induced abnormal gene expression. Based on these results, it can be inferred that TPT is one of the teratogenic factors of abnormal eye and spine development in the early life stage of fish in the TGR. These findings have important implications for understanding the toxicity of TPT on fish.


Assuntos
Embrião não Mamífero , Larva , Compostos Orgânicos de Estanho , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Compostos Orgânicos de Estanho/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Coluna Vertebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Coluna Vertebral/anormalidades , Olho/efeitos dos fármacos , Olho/embriologia
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(9)2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732804

RESUMO

In general, it is difficult to visualize internal ocular structure and detect a lesion such as a cataract or glaucoma using the current ultrasound brightness-mode (B-mode) imaging. This is because the internal structure of the eye is rich in moisture, resulting in a lack of contrast between tissues in the B-mode image, and the penetration depth is low due to the attenuation of the ultrasound wave. In this study, the entire internal ocular structure of a bovine eye was visualized in an ex vivo environment using the compound acoustic radiation force impulse (CARFI) imaging scheme based on the phase-inverted ultrasound transducer (PIUT). In the proposed method, the aperture of the PIUT is divided into four sections, and the PIUT is driven by the out-of-phase input signal capable of generating split-focusing at the same time. Subsequently, the compound imaging technique was employed to increase signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and to reduce displacement error. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed technique could provide an acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) image of the bovine eye with a broader depth-of-field (DOF) and about 80% increased SNR compared to the conventional ARFI image obtained using the in-phase input signal. Therefore, the proposed technique can be one of the useful techniques capable of providing the image of the entire ocular structure to diagnose various eye diseases.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Olho , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Transdutores , Animais , Bovinos , Olho/diagnóstico por imagem , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos
18.
J Clin Invest ; 134(9)2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38690727

RESUMO

Careful regulation of the complement system is critical for enabling complement proteins to titrate immune defense while also preventing collateral tissue damage from poorly controlled inflammation. In the eye, this balance between complement activity and inhibition is crucial, as a low level of basal complement activity is necessary to support ocular immune privilege, a prerequisite for maintaining vision. Dysregulated complement activation contributes to parainflammation, a low level of inflammation triggered by cellular damage that functions to reestablish homeostasis, or outright inflammation that disrupts the visual axis. Complement dysregulation has been implicated in many ocular diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the last two decades, complement activity has been the focus of intense investigation in AMD pathogenesis, leading to the development of novel therapeutics for the treatment of atrophic AMD. This Review outlines recent advances and challenges, highlighting therapeutic approaches that have advanced to clinical trials, as well as providing a general overview of the complement system in the posterior segment of the eye and selected ocular diseases.


Assuntos
Ativação do Complemento , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento , Degeneração Macular , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/imunologia , Degeneração Macular/patologia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/imunologia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , Ativação do Complemento/imunologia , Animais , Olho/imunologia , Olho/patologia
19.
Sci Robot ; 9(90): eadp5682, 2024 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38809997

RESUMO

Bioinspiration from avian eyes allows development of artificial vision systems with foveated and multispectral imaging.


Assuntos
Biomimética , Aves , Visão Ocular , Animais , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Biomimética/instrumentação , Olho , Robótica/instrumentação , Humanos , Desenho de Equipamento , Materiais Biomiméticos
20.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 431, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693480

RESUMO

Ophthalmic manifestations have recently been observed in acute and post-acute complications of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our precious study has shown that host RNA editing is linked to RNA viral infection, yet ocular adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing during SARS-CoV-2 infection remains uninvestigated in COVID-19. Herein we used an epitranscriptomic pipeline to analyze 37 samples and investigate A-to-I editing associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, in five ocular tissue types including the conjunctiva, limbus, cornea, sclera, and retinal organoids. Our results revealed dramatically altered A-to-I RNA editing across the five ocular tissues. Notably, the transcriptome-wide average level of RNA editing was increased in the cornea but generally decreased in the other four ocular tissues. Functional enrichment analysis showed that differential RNA editing (DRE) was mainly in genes related to ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process, transcriptional regulation, and RNA splicing. In addition to tissue-specific RNA editing found in each tissue, common RNA editing was observed across different tissues, especially in the innate antiviral immune gene MAVS and the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase MDM2. Analysis in retinal organoids further revealed highly dynamic RNA editing alterations over time during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our study thus suggested the potential role played by RNA editing in ophthalmic manifestations of COVID-19, and highlighted its potential transcriptome impact, especially on innate immunity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Edição de RNA , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , Inosina/metabolismo , Inosina/genética , Transcriptoma , Olho/metabolismo , Olho/virologia
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