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1.
Am J Bioeth ; 24(6): 89-91, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829599
2.
BMJ Glob Health ; 9(6)2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857946

RESUMO

The use of traditional medicine is a global phenomenon, and the WHO advocated its appropriate integration into modern healthcare systems. However, there is a hot debate about the legitimacy of traditional medicine among the general public. Here, we investigated the debate in the Chinese digital context by analysing 1954 responses related to 100 questions about traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment against COVID-19 on the Zhihu platform. Attitude function theory was applied to understand the reasons underlying public attitudes.Results showed that Zhihu users generally held a supportive attitude toward TCM. Their attitudes mainly came from their own experience and traditional media. The general users were more negative while medical professionals were more positive toward TCM. Ego defence (eg, derogating evidence sources) was used the most to support attitudes, followed by value expression (eg, believing in science). Supporters showed fewer expressions of faith (eg, the use of TCM is a kind of faith), politics (eg, supporting TCM is about politics) and science value (eg, TCM is a field of science), fewer ego defence, more patriotism and cultural confidence expressions (eg, TCM is a cultural pride) and more knowledge explanation (eg, TCM accelerates the metabolism of phlegm) than expected. Opposers showed fewer utilitarian and knowledge functions, fewer expressions of patriotism and more expressions of faith, politics and economics, but more ego defence functions than expected. Opposing posts were more likely to attract engagement than supporting and neutral posts. Posts that mentioned attitude functions generally attracted more engagement.Our findings indicate that TCM debate in modern China is not only relevant to medical science and health, but also rooted deeply in cultural ideology, politics and economics. The findings can provide global insights into the development of proactive policies and action plans that will help the integration of traditional medicine into modern healthcare systems.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , China , Rede Social , Opinião Pública , Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13724, 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38877046

RESUMO

Rural landscapes, as products of the interaction between humans and nature, not only reflect the history and culture of rural areas but also symbolize economic and social progress. This study proposes a deep learning-based model for Weibo data analysis aimed at exploring the development direction of rural landscapes from the perspective of the Chinese public. The research reveals that the Chinese public's attention to rural landscapes has significantly increased with the evolution of government governance concepts. Most people express a high level of satisfaction and happiness with the existing rural landscapes, while a minority harbor negative emotions towards unreasonable new rural construction. Through the analysis of public opinion regarding rural landscapes, this study will assist decision-makers in understanding the mechanisms of public discourse on social media. It will also aid relevant scholars and designers in providing targeted solutions, which hold significant importance for policy formulation and the exploration of specific development patterns.


Assuntos
Opinião Pública , População Rural , China , Humanos , Aprendizado Profundo , Emoções , Mídias Sociais , População do Leste Asiático
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13647, 2024 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38871739

RESUMO

Sentiment analysis aims to classify text based on the opinion or mentality expressed in a situation, which can be positive, negative, or neutral. Therefore, in the world, a lot of opinions are available on various social media sites, which must be gathered and analyzed to assess the general public's opinion. Finding and monitoring comments, as well as manually extracting the information contained in them, is a difficult task due to the vast diversity of ideas on YouTube. Identifying public opinion on war topics is crucial for offering insights to opposing sides based on popular opinion and emotions about the ongoing war. To address the gap, we build a model on YouTube comment sentiment analysis of the Hamas-Israel war to determine public opinion. In this study, we address the gaps by developing a deep learning-based approach for sentiment analysis. We have collected 24,360 comments from popular YouTube News Channels including BBC, WION, Aljazeera, and others about the Hamas-Israel War using YouTube API and Google spreadsheet and labeled them by linguistic experts into three classes: positive, negative, and neutral. Then, textual comments were preprocessed using natural language processing (NLP) techniques, and features were extracted using Word2vec, FastText, and GloVe. Moreover, we have used the SMOTE data balancing technique and used different data splits, but the 80/20 train-test split ratio has the highest accuracy. For classification model building, commonly used classification algorithms LSTM, Bi-LSTM, GRU, and Hybrid of CNN and Bi-LSTM were applied, and their performance is compared. As a result, the Hybrid of CNN and Bi-LSTM with Word2vec achieved the highest performance with 95.73% accuracy for comments classifications.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Opinião Pública , Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Emoções , Processamento de Linguagem Natural
5.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302446, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701079

RESUMO

Various studies point to the lack of evidence of distributive opinion polarization in Europe. As most studies analyse the same item batteries from international social surveys, this lack of polarization might be due to an item's issue (e.g., the nature or substance of an item) or item formulation characteristics used to measure polarization. Based on a unique sample of 817 political attitudinal items asked in 2022 by respondents of a non-random online panel in Germany, we empirically assess the item characteristics most likely to lead to distributive opinion polarization-measured with the Van der Eijk agreement index. Our results show that only 20% of the items in our sample have some-at most moderate-level of opinion polarization. Moreover, an item's salience in the news media before the survey data collection, whether an item measures attitudes toward individual financial and non-financial costs, and the implicit level of knowledge required to answer an item (level of technicality) are significantly associated with higher opinion polarization. By contrast, items measuring a cultural issue (such as issues on gender, LGTBQI+, and ethnic minorities) and items with a high level of abstraction are significantly associated with a lower level of polarization. Our study highlights the importance of reflecting on the potential influence of an item's issue and item formulation characteristics on the empirical assessment of distributive opinion polarization.


Assuntos
Atitude , Alemanha , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Feminino , Masculino , Opinião Pública , Política
6.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302502, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743773

RESUMO

ChatGPT has demonstrated impressive abilities and impacted various aspects of human society since its creation, gaining widespread attention from different social spheres. This study aims to comprehensively assess public perception of ChatGPT on Reddit. The dataset was collected via Reddit, a social media platform, and includes 23,733 posts and comments related to ChatGPT. Firstly, to examine public attitudes, this study conducts content analysis utilizing topic modeling with the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) algorithm to extract pertinent topics. Furthermore, sentiment analysis categorizes user posts and comments as positive, negative, or neutral using Textblob and Vader in natural language processing. The result of topic modeling shows that seven topics regarding ChatGPT are identified, which can be grouped into three themes: user perception, technical methods, and impacts on society. Results from the sentiment analysis show that 61.6% of the posts and comments hold favorable opinions on ChatGPT. They emphasize ChatGPT's ability to prompt and engage in natural conversations with users, without relying on complex natural language processing. It provides suggestions for ChatGPT developers to enhance its usability design and functionality. Meanwhile, stakeholders, including users, should comprehend the advantages and disadvantages of ChatGPT in human society to promote ethical and regulated implementation of the system.


Assuntos
Opinião Pública , Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Aprendizado de Máquina não Supervisionado , Atitude , Algoritmos
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(5): e2410832, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743425

RESUMO

Importance: Polygenic embryo screening (PES) is a novel technology that estimates the likelihood of developing future conditions (eg, diabetes or depression) and traits (eg, height or cognitive ability) in human embryos, with the goal of selecting which embryos to use. Given its commercial availability and concerns raised by researchers, clinicians, bioethicists, and professional organizations, it is essential to inform key stakeholders and relevant policymakers about the public's perspectives on this technology. Objective: To survey US adults to examine general attitudes, interests, and concerns regarding PES use. Design, Setting, and Participants: For this survey study, data were collected from 1 stratified sample and 1 nonprobability sample (samples 1 and 2, respectively) between March and July 2023. The surveys measured approval, interest, and concerns regarding various applications of PES. In the second sample, presentation of a list of potential concerns was randomized (presented at survey onset vs survey end). The survey was designed using Qualtrics and distributed to participants through Prolific, an online sampling firm. Sample 1 was nationally representative with respect to gender, age, and race and ethnicity; sample 2 was recruited without specific demographic criteria. Analyses were conducted between March 2023 and February 2024. Main Outcomes and Measures: Participants reported their approval, interest, and concerns regarding various applications of PES and outcomes screened (eg, traits and conditions). Statistical analysis was conducted using independent samples t tests and repeated-measures analyses of variance. Results: Of the 1435 respondents in sample 1, demographic data were available for 1427 (mean [SD] age, 45.8 [16.0] years; 724 women [50.7%]). Among these 1427 sample 1 respondents, 1027 (72.0%) expressed approval for PES and 1169 (81.9%) expressed some interest in using PES if already undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Approval among these respondents for using PES for embryo selection was notably high for physical health conditions (1109 [77.7%]) and psychiatric health conditions (1028 [72.0%]). In contrast, there was minority approval for embryo selection based on PES for behavioral traits (514 [36.0%]) and physical traits (432 [30.3%]). Nevertheless, concerns about PES leading to false expectations and promoting eugenic practices were pronounced, with 787 of 1422 (55.3%) and 780 of 1423 (54.8%) respondents finding them very to extremely concerning, respectively. Sample 2 included 192 respondents (mean [SD] age 37.7 [12.2] years; 110 men [57.3%]). These respondents were presented concerns at survey onset (n = 95) vs survey end (n = 97), which was associated with less approval (28-percentage point decrease) and more uncertainty (24 percentage-point increase) but with only slightly higher disapproval (4 percentage-point increase). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that it is critical for health care professionals and medical societies to consider and understand the perspectives of diverse stakeholders (eg, patients undergoing IVF, clinicians, and the general public), given the absence of regulation and the recent commercial availability of PES.


Assuntos
Opinião Pública , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Herança Multifatorial , Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes Genéticos/métodos
8.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303558, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768247

RESUMO

Public tolerance for corruption within a society significantly influences the prevalence of corrupt practices, but less is known about how this tolerance evolves with social norms. This paper presents experimental evidences demonstrating that the descriptive social norm indicating widespread corruption can lead to increased tolerance for corruptive acts. We introduce an asymmetric information ultimatum game to simulate the interactions between embezzlers and citizens. Game theoretical analysis reveals that victims anticipating corruption will exhibit greater compliance with embezzlement when the offers are evaluated based on descriptive norms. To test the hypothesis, we employ a framing effect to induce variations in descriptive norms within a behavioral experiment. Although the treatment effect is significant only in the subgroup of student cadres, this subgroup demonstrated increased beliefs about embezzlement, greater tolerance for corruption, and a heightened propensity to embezzle when exposed to framings with hierarchical implications. This paper contributes to the corruption literature by examining the effects of descriptive norms on victims' responses to embezzlement. It offers a more comprehensive perspective on how social standards shape public opinions and corrupt actions, enhancing our understanding of the self-reinforcing nature of corruption.


Assuntos
Normas Sociais , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Opinião Pública , Adulto Jovem , Roubo , Teoria dos Jogos , Comportamento Social
10.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4168, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755215

RESUMO

The need for public engagement is increasingly evident as discussions intensify around emerging methods for carbon dioxide removal and controversial proposals around solar geoengineering. Based on 44 focus groups in 22 countries across the Global North and Global South (N = 323 participants), this article traces public preferences for a variety of bottom-up and top-down engagement practices ranging from information recipient to broad decision authority. Here, we show that engagement practices need to be responsive to local political cultures and socio-technical environments, while attending to the global dimensions and interconnectedness of the issues at stake. Establishing public engagement as a cornerstone of inclusive and sustainable governance of climate-intervention technologies requires (i) recognizing the diversity of forms and intensities of engaging, (ii) considering national contexts and modes of engagement, (iii) tailoring to technological idiosyncrasies, (iv) adopting power-sensitive practices, (v) accounting for publics' prior experience, (vi) establishing trust and procedural legitimacy and (vii) engaging with tensions and value disagreements.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Participação da Comunidade , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Grupos Focais , Dióxido de Carbono , Opinião Pública , Feminino , Masculino
11.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302498, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical Waste (MW), conceptualized as waste generated in the diagnosis, treatment, or immunization of human beings or animals, posing massive threat to public health. Environment-friendly public attitudes promotes the shaping of pro-environmental behavior. However, the public attitudes of MW and the potential determinants remained scarce. The present study aims to reveal globally public attitudes towards MW and captured the determinants. METHODS: We integrated the crawler technology with sentiment analysis to captured the public attitudes toward MW across 141 specific countries from 3,789,764 related tweets. Multiple cross-national databases were integrated to assess characteristics including risk, resistance, environment, and development. The spatial regression model was taken to counterbalence the potential statistical bias. RESULTS: Overall, the global public attitudes towards MW were positive, and varied significantly across countries. Resilience (ß = 0.78, SD = 0.14, P < 0.01) and development (ß = 1.66, SD = 0.13, P < 0.01) posed positive influence on public attitudes towards MW, meanwhile, risk (ß = -0.1, SD = 0.12, P > 0.05) and environment (ß = 0.09, SD = 0.09, P > 0.05) were irrelated to the shaping of positive MW public attitudes. Several positive moderating influences was also captured. Additionally, the cross-national disparities of the determiants were also captured, more specific, public attitudes towards MW in extremely poor areas were more likely to be negatively affected by risks, resilience and development. CONCLUSIONS: This study focused mainly on the public attitudes as well as captured the potential determinants. Public attitudes towards MW were generally positive, but there were large cross-national disparities. Stakeholders would need to designate targeted strategies to enhance public satisfaction with MW management.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Opinião Pública , Humanos , Atitude , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/métodos
12.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0300967, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748669

RESUMO

Can exposure to extreme weather change political opinion and preferences about climate change? There is a growing literature on both the effects of extreme weather events and the factors explaining attitudes toward global warming, though there remains no clear consensus about whether being exposed to extreme weather influences public opinion about climate change. We contribute to this literature by studying the impact of a variety of extreme weather events associated with climate variability, including severe storms, floods, fires, and hurricanes, on attitudes toward climate change. Specifically, we use a three-wave panel survey and a dynamic difference-in-differences design to analyze public opinion data at the individual level in the US. We find that exposure to only one extreme weather type-fires-has a small but significant effect on acknowledging the existence of climate change and supporting the need for action. However, that impact quickly vanishes, and other types of extreme weather do not appear to have any effect on opinion.


Assuntos
Atitude , Mudança Climática , Clima Extremo , Opinião Pública , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Feminino , Masculino , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aquecimento Global , Estados Unidos
13.
Brain Impair ; 252024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38801748

RESUMO

Background Sports concussion (SC) management guidelines have recently been updated. A key focus is the emphasis on rest (immediately postinjury) followed by gradual resumption of activity (active recovery). This study aimed to explore community views on SC management and compared these with the guidelines. Methods A total of 157 volunteers completed an online SC survey, including listing three pieces of advice for a concussed person immediately postinjury, and after 2weeks (subacute). Quantitative data were statistically compared, and qualitative data underwent content analysis. Results Almost all participants offered different immediate versus subacute advice; however, rest featured highly at both timepoints. Commonly expressed themes, consistent with guidelines were immediate rest; safety and reinjury prevention; and symptom monitoring. Two themes were identified in the community advice with limited emphasis in the guidelines: general health advice and psychological and social support. Expert clinical assessment was not always identified in community advice. Conclusion Community members hold some views that align with expert advice for SC, particularly the importance of immediate postinjury rest. However, there is scope to grow public awareness of some recommended practices, including expert clinical assessment following injury and when to engage in active recovery.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Concussão Encefálica , Humanos , Concussão Encefálica/psicologia , Concussão Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Traumatismos em Atletas/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Opinião Pública , Volta ao Esporte
14.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1292747, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38808003

RESUMO

Based on the data of the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) in 2021, this study aims to investigate the public attitudes toward COVID-19 prevention and control in China. The household survey CGSS 2021 contains 8,148 valid samples gathered from 320 communities across 19 provinces in China. The logistic regression model is adopted to examine the relationship between public attitudes and influencing factors. The results show that the vast majority of respondents firmly believe that the government has the authority to implement strict measures; their confidence in the government and in the healthcare system has increased; and they willingly choose to be vaccinated. The regression results suggest that gender, age, health condition, political affiliation, source of information, sense of fairness, socio-economic status, and place of residence are significantly associated with individuals' attitudes toward COVID-19 prevention and control. These findings highlight the importance for the government to design epidemic or pandemic policies based on data and to tailor them toward specific demographics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Opinião Pública , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , China , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Adolescente , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
15.
Glob Public Health ; 19(1): 2348646, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718287

RESUMO

The implementation of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is crucial for eliminating cervical cancer in India. The infodemic, characterised by misleading information, could hinder the successful implementation of the initiative. Misinformation related to the HPV vaccine, such as rumours, has been reported and circulated, contributing to an alarming pattern of vaccine hesitancy observed on social media. This study aimed to identify the public sentiment towards HPV vaccination based on the 'Behavioral and Social Drivers (BeSD)' framework through geospatial, content and sentiment analysis. A total of 1,487 tweets were extracted. After preprocessing, 1010 tweets were identified for sentiment and content analysis. The sentiments expressed towards the HPV vaccine are mixed, with a generally positive outlook on the vaccines. Within the population, there is a pervasive proliferation of misinformation, primarily focusing on vaccine safety and efficacy, contentious subjects, ethical considerations, and a prevalent sense of uncertainty in selecting the appropriate vaccine. These observations are crucial for developing targeted strategies to address public concerns and enhance vaccination rates. The insights gained from these results will guide policymakers, healthcare practitioners, and public health organisations to implement evidence-based interventions, thereby countering vaccine hesitancy and improving public health outcomes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Mídias Sociais , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Humanos , Índia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Hesitação Vacinal , Opinião Pública , Vacinação , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Papillomavirus Humano
16.
Hum Genomics ; 18(1): 45, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Implementing genomic sequencing into newborn screening programs allows for significant expansion in the number and scope of conditions detected. We sought to explore public preferences and perspectives on which conditions to include in genomic newborn screening (gNBS). METHODS: We recruited English-speaking members of the Australian public over 18 years of age, using social media, and invited them to participate in online focus groups. RESULTS: Seventy-five members of the public aged 23-72 participated in one of fifteen focus groups. Participants agreed that if prioritisation of conditions was necessary, childhood-onset conditions were more important to include than later-onset conditions. Despite the purpose of the focus groups being to elicit public preferences, participants wanted to defer to others, such as health professionals or those with a lived experience of each condition, to make decisions about which conditions to include. Many participants saw benefit in including conditions with no available treatment. Participants agreed that gNBS should be fully publicly funded. CONCLUSION: How many and which conditions are included in a gNBS program will be a complex decision requiring detailed assessment of benefits and costs alongside public and professional engagement. Our study provides support for implementing gNBS for treatable childhood-onset conditions.


Assuntos
Triagem Neonatal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Austrália , Adulto , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Genômica , Grupos Focais , Opinião Pública , Testes Genéticos , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1393, 2024 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38783233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, was one of the greatest modern public health crises that the world has faced. Countries undertook sweeping public health and social measures (PHSM); including environmental actions such as disinfection and ventilation; surveillance and response, such as contact tracing and quarantine; physical, such as crowd control; and restrictions on travel. This study focuses on the public perceptions of PHSM in two countries, Japan and the United Kingdom (UK) as examples of high-income countries that adopted different measures over the course of the pandemic. METHODS: This study was conducted between November 2021 and February 2022, a period in which the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 was predominant. Fourteen online focus group discussions were conducted in each country. Overall, 106 total participants (50 from the UK and 56 from Japan) participated in 23 focus groups (11 in the UK and 12 in Japan) with an average of three to six participants per group. Both countries were compared using a thematic analysis method. RESULTS: Both countries' participants agreed that vaccination was an effective measure. However, they did not favor mandatory vaccination policies. Working from home was well accepted by both sides, but they reported that schools should have continued to be opened as before COVID-19. Both sides of participants expressed that temperature testing alone in indoor facilities was ineffective as a COVID-19 control measure. There were contrasting views on face covering rules in public spaces, international and domestic movement restrictions. High acceptance of mask-wearing was reflective of Japanese customs, while it was accepted as a strong recommendation for participants in the UK. Japanese participants favored quarantine for international travel, while the UK participants supported banning non-essential travel. CONCLUSION: Similar and contrasting views on PHSM against COVID-19 between Japan and the UK demonstrated how policies in controlling an epidemic should be tailored by country with respect to its norms, cultures, economic and disease burden. Our findings may guide how policy makers can engage with the public through effective health communication and consider regulations that are aligned with the public's views and capacities in changing their behavior for future pandemic preparedness.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Grupos Focais , Saúde Pública , Opinião Pública , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Japão , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Idoso
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(21): e2322920121, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748587

RESUMO

In this paper, we present findings from four separate studies using different data sources and methods to examine Chinese attitudes toward the United States amid the COVID-19 pandemic. The empirical results consistently indicate a marked and significant decline in Chinese attitudes toward the US between late 2019 and the end of 2022. Using a quasi-experimental design and granular survey data that exploit daily variations in public opinion, we offer additional evidence that the decline in Chinese attitudes toward the United States followed a distinct pattern not true for Chinese attitudes toward other countries. Specifically, the rise in Chinese unfavorability toward the United States closely corresponded to the heightened Chinese attention to the pandemic's progression in the United States. These results collectively suggest a causal effect of COVID-19, shedding light on how public health crises, international relations, and media jointly shape the increasing enmity between the two great powers.


Assuntos
Atitude , COVID-19 , Pandemias , Opinião Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , População do Leste Asiático
19.
CMAJ ; 196(19): E646-E656, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Through medicare, residents in Canada are entitled to medically necessary physician services without paying out of pocket, but still many people struggle to access primary care. We conducted a survey to explore people's experience with and priorities for primary care. METHODS: We conducted an online, bilingual survey of adults in Canada in fall 2022. We distributed an anonymous link through diverse channels and a closed link to 122 053 people via a national public opinion firm. We weighted completed responses to mirror Canada's population and adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics using regression models. RESULTS: We analyzed 9279 completed surveys (5.9% response rate via closed link). More than one-fifth of respondents (21.8%) reported having no primary care clinician, and among those who did, 34.5% reported getting a same or next-day appointment for urgent issues. Of respondents, 89.4% expressed comfort seeing another team member if their doctor recommended it, but only 35.9%, 9.5%, and 12.4% reported that their practice had a nurse, social worker, or pharmacist, respectively. The primary care attribute that mattered most was having a clinician who "knows me as a person and considers all the factors that affect my health." After we adjusted for respondent characteristics, people in Quebec, the Atlantic region, and British Columbia had lower odds of reporting a primary care clinician than people in Ontario (adjusted odds ratio 0.30, 0.33, and 0.39, respectively; p < 0.001). We also observed large provincial variations in timely access, interprofessional care, and walk-in clinic use. INTERPRETATION: More than 1 in 5 respondents did not have access to primary care, with large variation by province. Reforms should strive to expand access to relationship-based, longitudinal care in a team setting.


Assuntos
Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Idoso , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Opinião Pública , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Environ Manage ; 360: 121216, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38781877

RESUMO

The joint participation of multiple subjects is crucial for environmental governance. Using panel data for 273 Chinese cities during 2013-2019, this study investigates the impact and mechanism of public demands on environmental pollution. The results demonstrate that public demands measured by the number of environmental complaints placed on government leaders significantly reduce environmental pollution. Furthermore, increases in the rate and speed of government responses improve the effect of public demands on environmental governance. Public demands placed on provincial leaders reduce local environmental pollution to a greater extent than public demands placed on prefectural and county leaders. Province-level governments are more willing to consider public opinions and attach more importance to environmental governance; Prefecture-level governments prioritize province-level governments' attention to the environment when implementing environmental governance. Moreover, strong political ties between provincial and prefectural leaders and long tenures among prefectural leaders strengthen the pollution reduction effect of public demands placed on provincial leaders. The reduction effect of environmental complaints on pollution emission is more significant in cities with high level of Internet construction and environmental disclosure. Our results illustrate the role of public demands in environmental governance, offering a reference for developing effective environmental policies.


Assuntos
Política Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , China , Humanos , Governo Local , Opinião Pública , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Governo , Cidades
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