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1.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113780, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607134

RESUMO

DESIGN: /methodology/approach: This study conducts a systematic review to analyze the relationship between corporate governance and corporate sustainability. PURPOSE: As enterprises are directed through corporate governance, the integration of corporate sustainability is a necessary step to secure long-term firm success and react to recent social and environmental developments. Against this background, this paper investigates the following research question: Which internal corporate governance mechanisms drive corporate sustainability? FINDINGS: The results gained from a sample of 56 articles show findings for different internal corporate governance mechanisms such as board diversity, board independence, the board size, the board-level sustainability committee, the role of the CEO, ownership concentration, and the disclosure and transparency practice, which play a role in guiding a firm in a sustainable direction and achieving sustainability integration. The role of board diversity is discussed the most throughout the literature. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The results suggest that boards should be designed diversely and independently while having an appropriate size to work effectively. Furthermore, the sustainability strategies of CEOs should be motivated by incentives. Nevertheless, there has to be a consideration of the interrelations of the investigated mechanisms. SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS: The results suggest that being more transparent and showing non-financial performance at least compliant to sustainability regulations increases the orientation on stakeholder interests and long-term focus. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: The paper systemizes the research field related to internal corporate governance mechanisms and corporate sustainability to give an overview of the current research landscape and discuss the identified drivers. Overall, this research comprehensively sketches of what is known and unknown about the questions addressed in the systematic review.


Assuntos
Organizações , Propriedade , Revelação
2.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113920, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731945

RESUMO

Adaptive management is a systematic approach for linking learning with implementation to facilitate ongoing improvement in natural resource management. The idea of learning from experience and adapting subsequent policies, strategies and actions, is intuitively appealing. However, application of adaptive management has been hindered by several obstacles, including a paucity of documented lessons from existing adaptive management practices and inadequate attention to the complex social aspects of learning. Here we address these two impediments through (i) a case study of an established version of adaptive management and its application in the context of protected area management plans, and (ii) its critical comparison and conceptual integration with the seminal theory of organizational knowledge creation (TOKC), which emphasizes the social aspects of learning. As case study, we focus on Strategic Adaptive Management (SAM), which has been iteratively developed and implemented by South African National Parks for more than 20 years. We used TOKC as a conceptual sounding board to reflect on and appraise the learning that takes place through SAM. A comparison of the main steps of the SAM cycle with corresponding stages outlined by TOKC revealed remarkable complementarity between these two approaches, but also important differences. The conceptual comparison deepened our understanding of SAM's learning performance as well as potential, revealing strengths, weaknesses and opportunities for improvement. Key insights include that valuable and different forms of learning takes place during each step of the SAM cycle. This learning can be enhanced through careful attention to approaches for creating, sharing and making explicit the tacit knowledge of individuals. Furthermore, dialogue and co-learning with stakeholders should be maintained beyond the visioning and objectives setting step of SAM. Based on insights gained, we developed a new and complementary conceptualization of SAM, as a spiraling process of organizational learning enabled by the interplay between tacit and explicit forms of knowledge, which in turn is mediated by different types of social interactions, media and engagement with practice. We believe that this conceptualization can help to better acknowledge and enable learning as one of the most fundamental purposes and outcomes of SAM, and adaptive management more generally.


Assuntos
Conhecimento , Organizações , Humanos
3.
J Emerg Manag ; 19(7): 109-126, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723372

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated emergency management offices and organizations across Canada to activate their Emergency Operations Center (EOC) in a virtual capacity due to government restrictions limiting in-person activities and with the goal of reducing the spread of the virus. The aim of this exploratory research paper is to document the personal experiences of Canadian emergency management professionals working in a Virtual EOC (VEOC) environment during the COVID-19 response, including challenges and benefits they experienced, as well as lessons identified. Based on a sample of 81 emergency management professionals and using an inductive coding approach, the survey results illustrate both technological and nontechnological challenges and benefits. The findings highlight the need to incorporate three main elements into VEOC planning and operations: technology, processes, and people.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Canadá , Humanos , Organizações , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 29(Special Issue): 1271-1274, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34792876

RESUMO

The relevance of the problem under study is due to the fact that the medical organization must be aware of the target patient: to know who he is, how and why he wants to receive a particular medical service. All the information received and its analysis will allow us to develop a real scheme of mutually beneficial communication, convenient for each of the parties-the medical organization and the patient, which will allow us to reveal the weaknesses in the work and respond to them in a timely manner. The purpose of the study: to form an assessment of the patient's satisfaction with the medical organization and its services, taking into account the interest, feelings, purpose, arguments and thoughts that appear in the patient from the moment of the first contact with the clinic, with the display of the point of contact in graphic form, in order to minimize all possible obstacles in his route to receiving quality medical services and increasing the economic efficiency of the clinic.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Satisfação do Paciente , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Humanos , Masculino , Organizações , Satisfação Pessoal
5.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 29(Special Issue): 1275-1280, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34792877

RESUMO

Ensuring effective epidemiological surveillance of tuberculosis is essential and one of the paramount tasks for any national tuberculosis control program. The article analyzes the organization of the tuberculosis epidemiological monitoring system at the level of the subject, based on the experience of implementing such a system in the city of Moscow in 1996-2020, defines its tasks and principles of its construction. The systems of epidemiological monitoring of tuberculosis, implemented taking into account the developed principles, provide an analysis of the epidemiological situation in the territory, the results of which can be successfully used for making managerial decisions, program-target planning and evaluating the effectiveness of the measures taken.


Assuntos
Tuberculose , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Humanos , Moscou/epidemiologia , Organizações , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769974

RESUMO

Activity-based workplaces (ABW) have been implemented in many organizations to offer office flexibility and decrease facility costs. Evaluations of the ABW implementation process are rare. The study aimed to examine the ABW relocation process of two offices in a Swedish governmental agency and to explore factors that influence the implementation process and satisfaction with it. Qualitative or quantitative data were collected on process variables (context, recruitment, reach, dose delivered, dose received, satisfaction), barriers and facilitators to the process were explored in focus group interviews, and immediate outcomes (perceived knowledge, understanding office rules, satisfying information and support) were measured by questionnaire before and after the relocation. The evaluation showed that recruitment was unsatisfactory and reach insufficient-and participation in activities was thus low for both offices. However, intended changes improved. Unclear aims of ABW, lack of manager support and, lack of communication were some of the reported barriers to participation, while a well-planned process, work groups, and program activities were facilitators. Thus, to increase satisfaction with the relocation, our results suggest that recruitment should be thoroughly planned, taking these factors into account to increase participation. This knowledge may be useful for planning and designing successful ABW relocations and evaluations.


Assuntos
Satisfação Pessoal , Local de Trabalho , Grupos Focais , Organizações , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Waste Manag ; 136: 337-347, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752973

RESUMO

Research on recycling has advanced across different disciplines, although the current knowledge about recycling behaviors at the corporate level remains elusive. While most studies on recycling are focused on households, there is no indication that people who recycle at home engage in similar behavior when at work. To understand how to facilitate recycling at work, this study investigates recycling behavior at work and its antecedents. The study adopts a sequential exploratory mixed method (MM) approach as its methodological framework, using semi-structured interviews and statistical analysis through structural equation modelling (SEM). According to the findings, factors such as types and volumes of waste, responsibility/accountability, personal control, recycling schemes, institutional supports, and group harmony contribute to recycling behavior in organizational settings. The study demonstrates contextual attributes' contribution, particularly organizational support and social context of recycling to employees' recycling behavior. For recycling to be normative at the corporate level, this MM study argues for the need to harmonize schemes within and across contexts. There is a need to install similar recycling schemes and facilities within and across waste generation contexts to reduce the recycling complexity and maintain consistency in recycling behavior. This study's findings could assist waste planners and policymakers in designing effective waste management schemes that would contribute to the circular economy initiatives. We further discussed the implication of the study.


Assuntos
Reciclagem , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Humanos , Conhecimento , Organizações , Responsabilidade Social
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770191

RESUMO

Based on the trickle-down effect model, social learning theory and trait activation theory, this study explores the mechanisms of multi-level responsible leadership on employees' pro-environmental behaviors in the hotel industry in China. The results show that responsible leadership positively influences employees' pro-environmental behaviors; mid-level responsible leadership significantly mediates the positive relationship between high-level responsible leadership and employees' pro-environmental behaviors; and the perceived role of ethics and social responsibility positively moderates the relationship between responsible leadership and employees' pro-environmental behaviors. The results of this study provide empirical support for further analysis of the "black box" of responsible leadership on employees' pro-environmental behaviors, fill the gap of the trickle-down model in leadership, and provide new directions for sustainable value creation in hospitality industry organizations.


Assuntos
Liderança , Organizações , China , Comportamento Social , Responsabilidade Social
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769661

RESUMO

The Washington Group questions (WGQ) on functioning have been widely promoted as the go-to tool for disability data collection. Designed for use by government, the WGQ have been adopted by non-government organizations (NGOs) for use in programming. However, little is known about how the WGQs are being used by NGOs or how use may be contributing to disability inclusion. METHOD: This paper describes exploratory research on the use of the WGQ in NGO programming. An online survey provided an overview of adoption followed by semi-structured interviews from a purposive sample to explore data collection, analysis, and use. RESULTS: Thematic analysis showed limited inclusion outcomes directly attributable to use of the WGQ, adoption driven by individual champions rather than systematically across organizations, and challenges in data collection resulting in a wide range of prevalence rates. What information the WGQ can realistically contribute to programs was also overestimated. However, the process of using the WGQ was raising awareness on disability inclusion within program teams and communities. CONCLUSION: Acknowledging differences in emerging use by NGOs beyond the WGQ's intended purpose, alongside promoting a flexible and staged approach to adoption and use in programming, may improve utility and disability inclusion outcomes over time.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Governo , Humanos , Organizações , Inquéritos e Questionários , Washington
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769695

RESUMO

An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that humor can impact interpersonal relationships in organizations and employee well-being. However, there is little evidence coming from intervention studies in organizational settings. In response, we developed a training following the principles of positive psychology that aims at improving employees' adaptive use of humor as a successful mechanism to deal with stress. In this study, we assess the effectiveness of such training and its impact on employee well-being. Results from this one-group intervention study in an emergency ambulance service (N = 58) revealed that the participants reported higher levels of cheerfulness (Z = -3.93; p < 0.001) and lower levels of seriousness (Z = -3.32; p < 0.001) after being exposed to the training. Indeed, the participants reported lower scores on psychological distress after the training (Z = -3.35; p < 0.001). The effect size of the training was medium (r = 0.31 to 0.36), suggesting that interventions to improve adaptive humor at work can be a useful resource to deal with workplace stress and foster employee well-being. These results may have interesting implications for designing and implementing positive interventions as well as for developing healthy organizations.


Assuntos
Estresse Ocupacional , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Estresse Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Organizações , Local de Trabalho
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770045

RESUMO

The most recent version of the job demands-resources (JD-R) theory proposes that demanding working conditions and employee strain form a self-perpetuating loss cycle. By acknowledging that such cycles are detrimental for both employees and organizations, the present study aimed to contribute to enhancing the current scarce understanding regarding their explanatory mechanisms. For this purpose, it applied social cognitive theory to propose that occupational self-efficacy mediates the effects of two role stressors (i.e., role ambiguity and role conflict) on employee mental health complaints and vice versa. The hypothesized reciprocal mediation effects were tested using a three-wave full panel research design and a dataset of 917 (NT1 = 513, NT1+T2 = 122, NT1+T3 = 70, NT1+T2+T3 = 212) Croatian employees working in heterogeneous private sector industries. The results demonstrated that role conflict, but not role ambiguity, undermined employees' beliefs in their capabilities to successfully master their jobs which, in turn, led them to experience more mental health complaints over time. Contrary to expectations, poor mental health did not lead to diminished efficacy beliefs nor, in turn, more job demands over time. Overall, the results of this study demonstrated an additional mechanism in the job demands-strain relationship and, at the same time, shed new light on the role of personal resources within the JD-R theory. Accounting for the malleable nature of employee efficacy beliefs, the study proposes several ways in which organizations can enhance occupational self-efficacy and thereby curb the causal chain linking job demands and employee strain reactions.


Assuntos
Saúde do Trabalhador , Autoeficácia , Satisfação no Emprego , Saúde Mental , Organizações
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770092

RESUMO

Social media has rapidly become an important tool in organizations and has a significant impact on employees' work and organizational operations. By applying social media to their daily work, employees gain access to important information resources that can help them get things done. Using the conservation of resources theory, this study examines the impact of work resources generated by employees' work-based social media use on work status, as well as job performance. Data were collected from the employees of Internet companies in Henan Province and Shanghai, China. We distributed 519 pairs of questionnaires, and 369 pairs of valid paired questionnaires were returned. To estimate the proposed relationships in the theoretical framework, we used SPSS and MPLUS. The results show that work-based social media use can increase employees' work engagement, which in turn increases task performance, job dedication and interpersonal facilitation. It also reduces the negative effects of work interruptions on task performance and job dedication. Therefore, we conclude the positive effects of work-based social media use on job performance can be achieved by increasing work engagement and by reducing work interruptions.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Desempenho Profissional , China , Humanos , Organizações , Engajamento no Trabalho
14.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(10): 4769-4782, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730662

RESUMO

Since 2010, the organization of the Brazilian Unified Health System has as its main model the Health Care Networks, based on the Integrated Health Service Networks recommended by the Pan American Health Organization. This study aims to analyze the scientific production on Health Care Networks the integrative literature review method. The research was conducted in databases using the descriptors: Health Care Network and its counterparts in Portuguese and Spanish. A total of 27 articles were selected, including conceptual studies, case reports, implementation analyses and evaluation studies. The analysis of the publications evidenced five cores of meaning: the Health Care Network paradigm; Primary Care as network coordinator; regionalization, networks and regional governance; network care; and challenges for implementation. The results of this review point to two central questions: how to overcome the fragmentation of care, ensuring integrality, composing health care networks from distinct theoretical conceptions? And how can the production of care networks impact inter-federative relations, the financing process, the access to the system and the quality of health care processes?


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Instalações de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Organizações
15.
BMC Med Ethics ; 22(1): 136, 2021 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid data sharing can maximize the utility of data. In epidemics and pandemics like Zika, Ebola, and COVID-19, the case for such practices seems especially urgent and warranted. Yet rapidly sharing data widely has previously generated significant concerns related to equity. The continued lack of understanding and guidance on equitable data sharing raises the following questions: Should data sharing in epidemics and pandemics primarily advance utility, or should it advance equity as well? If so, what norms comprise equitable data sharing in epidemics and pandemics? Do these norms address the equity-related concerns raised by researchers, data providers, and other stakeholders? What tensions must be balanced between equity and other values? METHODS: To explore these questions, we undertook a systematic scoping review of the literature on data sharing in epidemics and pandemics and thematically analyzed identified literature for its discussion of ethical values, norms, concerns, and tensions, with a particular (but not exclusive) emphasis on equity. We wanted to both understand how equity in data sharing is being conceptualized and draw out other important values and norms for data sharing in epidemics and pandemics. RESULTS: We found that values of utility, equity, solidarity, and reciprocity were described, and we report their associated norms, including researcher recognition; rapid, real-time sharing; capacity development; and fair benefits to data generators, data providers, and source countries. The value of utility and its associated norms were discussed substantially more than others. Tensions between utility norms (e.g., rapid, real-time sharing) and equity norms (e.g., researcher recognition, equitable access) were raised. CONCLUSIONS: This study found support for equity being advanced by data sharing in epidemics and pandemics. However, norms for equitable data sharing in epidemics and pandemics require further development, particularly in relation to power sharing and participatory approaches prioritizing inclusion. Addressing structural inequities in the wider global health landscape is also needed to achieve equitable data sharing in epidemics and pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Organizações , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
16.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113695, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649325

RESUMO

The current global economy demands synergies between ecological responsiveness and business models. To analyse this dynamic, this study investigates the relationship between green innovation and corporate financial performance for German HDAX companies from 2008 to 2019 by constructing an green innovation measure. A two-step GMM system and penalised-spline estimation are used to test the linear relationship between green innovation and financial proxies (return on assets, return on invested capital, and the market-to-book ratio). The results indicate a linear positive effect of green innovation on different financial performance measures. This suggests that green innovation drives resource efficiency and enhances corporate reputation, which, in turn, boosts financial performance.


Assuntos
Comércio , Organizações , China , Clima
17.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665533

RESUMO

The article considers, on the basis of application of modern information analytical systems, the sequential stages of analysis and evaluation of indices of resource support of medical organizations and technological process of medical care provision. The results of the study permit to discover particular patterns of the course of disease in different gender and age groups,in terms of clinical manifestations and results of instrumental and diagnostic tests. The dependence of results and outcomes of treatment on set and quality of resources of medical organizations is established. The prognostic indices of functioning of medical organization under various alternatives of patients' flows organization as associated with hospitalization level.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , Organizações , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665555

RESUMO

The article analyzes modern approaches to the rating of medical organizations based on national and foreign publications. The study identified groups of indices that are responsible for effectiveness of health care organizations from the point of view of consumers of medical services and state boards of public health management. According analyzed publications, rating values consider effectiveness of particular processes, rather than organization as a whole. This became the basis for scientific search for assessment system that can reflect the performance of medical organization contributing into its sustainable development. In 2012-2018, the Novosibirsk State Medical University carried out the study of potential of sustainable development of health care organizations. On the basis of normative legal analysis, sociological and expert survey of opinions of managers, the key areas of activities that contributed to improving efficiency of medical organizations were identified. The article presents the original approach to comparative assessment of health care organizations that provide various types of care of population based on concept of sustainable development using the T. L. Saati hierarchy analysis methodology. The strategy of sustainable development presumes achievement of long-term goals of medical organization, including not only indices of patient satisfaction with quality of medical care and organization of safe environment for their stay in health care institution, but also optimization of all processes, rational resource support, monitoring and analysis of internal environment of organization for continuous development of functioning, personnel training, implementation of organizational innovations. The medical organizations implementing strategy of sustainable development demonstrated the best results in such areas as resource management, increasing consumer satisfaction with quality and safety of medical care, optimization of processes of increasing number of treated patients. Thus, health care organizations having clear-cut plan of actions and set of management practices to achieve long-term goals acquire ability to improve both medical social indices and population health indices.


Assuntos
Organizações , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Satisfação do Paciente
19.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665559

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to analyze organization of medical care of crews of passenger ships of inner water transport of the Russian Federation and to examine morbidity according to appeal for medical care of the crew during navigation. The analysis of organization of medical care in inner water transport covered the corresponding normative legal base of the late 1980s to present times. The search and analysis of available publications concerning issues of organization and provision of medical care to passenger river transport crews during and out of navigation was carried out. The estimation of morbidity statistics was implemented according data of medical log journal of out-patient reception of members of the crew of river cruise ship during navigation. The normative legal base of provision of medical care to crews of water river transport during navigation and on shore, and training and employment systems of ship physicians requires substantial revision. On average, 1.5 initial visits for medical assistance during navigation is for 1 crew members. The repeated visits accounted for significant proportion (48.0%) of all crew visits. The largest percentage of visits was related to rank-and-file staff (74.0%). In the structure of causes of visiting out-patient medical unit on board the first place is for injuries (22.0%), respiratory diseases follow (18.0%) and diseases of musculoskeletal system are third (11.0%). In the Russian Federation, the system of medical care support of the crews of water passenger transport requires a serious improvement. The structure of morbidity of the crew of a passenger river vessel during navigation (the prevalence of injuries, respiratory diseases, diseases of the musculoskeletal system) is determined by unfavorable factors of professional activity of sailors and dictates the specifics of training of ship physicians. It is necessary to work further the normative legal base regulating medical care of the crew during navigation and on the coast, training and employment of ship medical personnel, and developing and approval of unified quality standards for organizations (institutions) involved into medical support of inner water transport workers.


Assuntos
Ocupações , Navios , Humanos , Organizações , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Água
20.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665560

RESUMO

The level of development of human resources in health care is determined by a number of factors, among which an important place belongs to turnover of medical staff. The turnover, or the process of unscheduled dismissal of staff, negatively affects functioning of the organization in any field, including health care. Although the analysis of staff turnover is widely applied in various fields of activity, relatively few studies are related to problems of assessing causes of this phenomenon in health care. The purpose of the study was to assess the characteristics and causes of turnover of medical staff in state medical organizations of the Irkutsk Oblast. The detailed information about the respondents obtained in the study made it possible to get a concept of intensity and characteristics of turnover of physicians and medical nurses, and to study causes of dismissal of respondents from their previous employment as well as causes that influenced current employment and to assess content and effectiveness of measures of professional adaptation and social support of hired specialists.


Assuntos
Reorganização de Recursos Humanos , Médicos , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Organizações , Recursos Humanos
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