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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4745, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362883

RESUMO

Spatial processing by receptive fields is a core property of the visual system. However, it is unknown how spatial processing in high-level regions contributes to recognition behavior. As face inversion is thought to disrupt typical holistic processing of information in faces, we mapped population receptive fields (pRFs) with upright and inverted faces in the human visual system. Here we show that in face-selective regions, but not primary visual cortex, pRFs and overall visual field coverage are smaller and shifted downward in response to face inversion. From these measurements, we successfully predict the relative behavioral detriment of face inversion at different positions in the visual field. This correspondence between neural measurements and behavior demonstrates how spatial processing in face-selective regions may enable holistic perception. These results not only show that spatial processing in high-level visual regions is dynamically used towards recognition, but also suggest a powerful approach for bridging neural computations by receptive fields to behavior.


Assuntos
Face/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Orientação/fisiologia , Processamento Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto , Comportamento , Encéfalo , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Campos Visuais/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, a growing interest has emerged in the role of attention and hypervigilance in the experience of pain. Shifting attention away from pain seems likely to reduce the perception of pain itself. OBJECTIVES: The present study has been designed to test the following overall hypotheses: (1) disposition to catastrophize, self-efficacy perceived in pain resistance (task self-efficacy), previous experiences concerning the tolerance of physical pain, and degree of impulsiveness are significant predictors of the decision to abandon a painful test such as the cold pressor test (CPT); (2) the manipulation of the attentive focus (internal or external) can influence the level of perceived pain. METHODS: Effects of the manipulation of attentional focus (internal and external) on pain perception and response of trial abandonment were evaluated in a sample of university students (n = 246) subjected to the cold pressor test. RESULTS: A significant effect (p < 0.05) was found through a test-retest comparison on the final level of perceived pain among subjects who had received instruction to externalize the focus of their attention (mixed factorial analysis of variance), but no significance was observed with respect to the decision to abandon the experiment. A general explanatory model of the abandonment behavior demonstrating overall good fit measurements was tested too. CONCLUSION: The abandonment of tests has been shown to be predicted mainly by catastrophic attitude. Attentive impulsiveness showed a further positive effect on catastrophic attitude. Perceived self-efficacy in the tolerance of pain limited learned helplessness, which in turn positively influenced catastrophizing.


Assuntos
Catastrofização , Percepção da Dor , Atenção , Temperatura Baixa , Humanos , Orientação , Dor
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283131

RESUMO

Biomechanical analysis of human movement is based on dynamic measurements of reference points on the subject's body and orientation measurements of body segments. Collected data include positions' measurement, in a three-dimensional space. Signal enhancement by proper filtering is often recommended. Velocity and acceleration signal must be obtained from position/angular measurement records, needing numerical processing effort. In this paper, we propose a comparative filtering method study procedure, based on measurement uncertainty related parameters' set, based upon simulated and experimental signals. The final aim is to propose guidelines to optimize dynamic biomechanical measurement, considering the measurement uncertainty contribution due to the processing method. Performance of the considered methods are examined and compared with an analytical signal, considering both stationary and transient conditions. Finally, four experimental test cases are evaluated at best filtering conditions for measurement uncertainty contributions.


Assuntos
Aceleração , Movimento , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Orientação
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD010775, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dementia is a progressive syndrome of global cognitive impairment with significant health and social care costs. Global prevalence is projected to increase, particularly in resource-limited settings. Recent policy changes in Western countries to increase detection mandates a careful examination of the diagnostic accuracy of neuropsychological tests for dementia. OBJECTIVES: To determine the accuracy of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) for the detection of dementia. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews, Science Citation Index, PsycINFO and LILACS databases to August 2012. In addition, we searched specialised sources containing diagnostic studies and reviews, including MEDION (Meta-analyses van Diagnostisch Onderzoek), DARE (Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects), HTA (Health Technology Assessment Database), ARIF (Aggressive Research Intelligence Facility) and C-EBLM (International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Committee for Evidence-based Laboratory Medicine) databases. We also searched ALOIS (Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group specialized register of diagnostic and intervention studies). We identified further relevant studies from the PubMed 'related articles' feature and by tracking key studies in Science Citation Index and Scopus. We also searched for relevant grey literature from the Web of Science Core Collection, including Science Citation Index and Conference Proceedings Citation Index (Thomson Reuters Web of Science), PhD theses and contacted researchers with potential relevant data. SELECTION CRITERIA: Cross-sectional designs where all participants were recruited from the same sample were sought; case-control studies were excluded due to high chance of bias. We searched for studies from memory clinics, hospital clinics, primary care and community populations. We excluded studies of early onset dementia, dementia from a secondary cause, or studies where participants were selected on the basis of a specific disease type such as Parkinson's disease or specific settings such as nursing homes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted dementia study prevalence and dichotomised test positive/test negative results with thresholds used to diagnose dementia. This allowed calculation of sensitivity and specificity if not already reported in the study. Study authors were contacted where there was insufficient information to complete the 2x2 tables. We performed quality assessment according to the QUADAS-2 criteria. Methodological variation in selected studies precluded quantitative meta-analysis, therefore results from individual studies were presented with a narrative synthesis. MAIN RESULTS: Seven studies were selected: three in memory clinics, two in hospital clinics, none in primary care and two in population-derived samples. There were 9422 participants in total, but most of studies recruited only small samples, with only one having more than 350 participants. The prevalence of dementia was 22% to 54% in the clinic-based studies, and 5% to 10% in population samples. In the four studies that used the recommended threshold score of 26 or over indicating normal cognition, the MoCA had high sensitivity of 0.94 or more but low specificity of 0.60 or less. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The overall quality and quantity of information is insufficient to make recommendations on the clinical utility of MoCA for detecting dementia in different settings. Further studies that do not recruit participants based on diagnoses already present (case-control design) but apply diagnostic tests and reference standards prospectively are required. Methodological clarity could be improved in subsequent DTA studies of MoCA by reporting findings using recommended guidelines (e.g. STARDdem). Thresholds lower than 26 are likely to be more useful for optimal diagnostic accuracy of MoCA in dementia, but this requires confirmation in further studies.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Demência/diagnóstico , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Demência/epidemiologia , Função Executiva , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Orientação , Padrões de Referência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
5.
J Exp Biol ; 224(11)2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100540

RESUMO

Spatial vision was recently reported in a brittle star, Ophiomastix wendtii, which lacks discrete eyes, but little is known about its visual ecology. Our aim was to better characterize the vision and visual ecology of this unusual visual system. We tested animal orientation relative to vertical bar stimuli at a range of angular widths and contrasts, to identify limits of angular and contrast detection. We also presented dynamic shadow stimuli, either looming towards or passing the animal overhead, to test for potential defensive responses. Finally, we presented animals lacking a single arm with a vertical bar stimulus known to elicit a response in intact animals. We found that O. wendtii orients to large (≥50 deg), high-contrast vertical bar stimuli, consistent with a shelter-seeking role and with photoreceptor acceptance angles estimated from morphology. We calculate poor optical sensitivity for individual photoreceptors, and predict dramatic oversampling for photoreceptor arrays. We also report responses to dark stimuli moving against a bright background - this is the first report of responses to moving stimuli in brittle stars and suggests additional defensive uses for vision in echinoderms. Finally, we found that animals missing a single arm orient less well to static stimuli, which requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Equinodermos , Orientação , Animais , Orientação Espacial , Visão Ocular
6.
J Exp Biol ; 224(13)2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114002

RESUMO

Newts can use spatial variation in the magnetic field (MF) to derive geographic position, but it is unclear how they detect the 'spatial signal', which, over the distances that newts move in a day, is an order of magnitude lower than temporal variation in the MF. Previous work has shown that newts take map readings using their light-dependent magnetic compass to align a magnetite-based 'map detector' relative to the MF. In this study, time of day, location and light exposure (required by the magnetic compass) were varied to determine when newts obtain map information. Newts were displaced from breeding ponds without access to route-based cues to sites where they were held and/or tested under diffuse natural illumination. We found that: (1) newts held overnight at the testing site exhibited accurate homing orientation, but not if transported to the testing site on the day of testing; (2) newts held overnight under diffuse lighting at a 'false testing site' and then tested at a site located in a different direction from their home pond oriented in the home direction from the holding site, not from the site where they were tested; and (3) newts held overnight in total darkness (except for light exposure for specific periods) only exhibited homing orientation the following day if exposed to diffuse illumination during the preceding evening twilight in the ambient MF. These findings demonstrate that, to determine the home direction, newts require access to light and the ambient MF during evening twilight when temporal variation in the MF is minimal.


Assuntos
Magnetismo , Salamandridae , Animais , Campos Magnéticos , Orientação , Triturus
7.
Neuropsychologia ; 159: 107920, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166669

RESUMO

A common set of tasks frequently employed in the neuropsychological assessment of patients with visuomotor or perceptual deficits are the card-posting and the perceptual orientation matching tasks. In the posting task, patients have to post a card (or their hand) through a slot of varying orientations while the matching task requires them to indicate the slot's orientation as accurately as possible. Observations that damage to different areas of the brain (dorsal vs. ventral stream) is associated with selective impairment in one of the tasks - but not the other - has led to the suggestion that different cortical pathways process visual orientation information for perception versus action. In three experiments, we show that this conclusion may be premature as posting does not seem to rely on the processing of visual orientation information but is instead performed using obstacle avoidance strategies that require an accurate judgement of egocentric distances between the card's and the slot's edges. Specifically, we found that while matching is susceptible to the oblique effect (i.e., common perceptual orientation bias with higher accuracy for cardinal than oblique orientations), this was not the case for posting, neither in immediate nor in memory-guided conditions. In contrast to matching, posting errors primarily depended on biomechanical demands and reflected a preference for performing efficient and comfortable movements. Thus, we suggest that previous dissociations between perceptual and visuomotor performance in letter posting tasks are better explained by impairments in egocentric and allocentric spatial processing than by independent visual processing systems.


Assuntos
Orientação , Desempenho Psicomotor , Mãos , Humanos , Movimento , Percepção Visual
8.
Behav Processes ; 189: 104437, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089779

RESUMO

Sexually dimorphic performance has been observed across humans and rodents in many spatial tasks. In general, these spatial tasks do not dissociate the use of environmental and self-movement cues. Previous work has demonstrated a role for self-movement cue processing in organizing open field behavior; however, these studies have not directly compared female and male movement characteristics. The current study examined the organization of open field behavior under dark conditions in female and male rats. Significant differences between female and male rats were observed in the location of stopping behavior relative to a cue and the topography exhibited during lateral movements. In contrast, no sex differences were observed on measures used to detect self-movement cue processing deficits. These results provide evidence that female and male rats are similar in their use of self-movement cues to organize open field behavior; however, other factors may be contributing to differences in performance.


Assuntos
Comportamento Exploratório , Comportamento Espacial , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Masculino , Orientação , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans
9.
Elife ; 102021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165079

RESUMO

A functional benefit of attention is to proactively enhance perceptual sensitivity in space and time. Although attentional orienting has traditionally been associated with cortico-thalamic networks, recent evidence has shown that individuals with cerebellar degeneration (CD) show a reduced reaction time benefit from cues that enable temporal anticipation. The present study examined whether the cerebellum contributes to the proactive attentional modulation in time of perceptual sensitivity. We tested CD participants on a non-speeded, challenging perceptual discrimination task, asking if they benefit from temporal cues. Strikingly, the CD group showed no duration-specific perceptual sensitivity benefit when cued by repeated but aperiodic presentation of the target interval. In contrast, they performed similar to controls when cued by a rhythmic stream. This dissociation further specifies the functional domain of the cerebellum and establishes its role in the attentional adjustment of perceptual sensitivity in time in addition to its well-documented role in motor timing.


Assuntos
Atenção , Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Motivação , Orientação , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Idoso , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(5): e1008975, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029310

RESUMO

An interesting problem for the human saccadic eye-movement system is how to deal with the degrees-of-freedom problem: the six extra-ocular muscles provide three rotational degrees of freedom, while only two are needed to point gaze at any direction. Measurements show that 3D eye orientations during head-fixed saccades in far-viewing conditions lie in Listing's plane (LP), in which the eye's cyclotorsion is zero (Listing's law, LL). Moreover, while saccades are executed as single-axis rotations around a stable eye-angular velocity axis, they follow straight trajectories in LP. Another distinctive saccade property is their nonlinear main-sequence dynamics: the affine relationship between saccade size and movement duration, and the saturation of peak velocity with amplitude. To explain all these properties, we developed a computational model, based on a simplified and upscaled robotic prototype of an eye with 3 degrees of freedom, driven by three independent motor commands, coupled to three antagonistic elastic muscle pairs. As the robotic prototype was not intended to faithfully mimic the detailed biomechanics of the human eye, we did not impose specific prior mechanical constraints on the ocular plant that could, by themselves, generate Listing's law and the main-sequence. Instead, our goal was to study how these properties can emerge from the application of optimal control principles to simplified eye models. We performed a numerical linearization of the nonlinear system dynamics around the origin using system identification techniques, and developed open-loop controllers for 3D saccade generation. Applying optimal control to the simulated model, could reproduce both Listing's law and and the main-sequence. We verified the contribution of different terms in the cost optimization functional to realistic 3D saccade behavior, and identified four essential terms: total energy expenditure by the motors, movement duration, gaze accuracy, and the total static force exerted by the muscles during fixation. Our findings suggest that Listing's law, as well as the saccade dynamics and their trajectories, may all emerge from the same common mechanism that aims to optimize speed-accuracy trade-off for saccades, while minimizing the total muscle force during eccentric fixation.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Movimentos Sacádicos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Orientação , Visão Ocular
11.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 522, 2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33953327

RESUMO

The exact anatomical location for an iron particle-based magnetic sense remains enigmatic in vertebrates. For mammals, findings from a cornea anaesthesia experiment in mole rats suggest that it carries the primary sensors for magnetoreception. Yet, this has never been tested in a free-ranging mammal. Here, we investigated whether intact corneal sensation is crucial for navigation in migrating Nathusius' bats, Pipistrellus nathusii, translocated from their migratory corridor. We found that bats treated with corneal anaesthesia in both eyes flew in random directions after translocation and release, contrasting bats with a single eye treated, and the control group, which both oriented in the seasonally appropriate direction. Using a Y-maze test, we confirmed that light detection remained unaffected by topical anaesthesia. Therefore our results suggest the cornea as a possible site of magnetoreception in bats, although other conceivable effects of the anaesthetic are also explored. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the corneal based sense is of bilateral nature but can function in a single eye if necessary.


Assuntos
Migração Animal/fisiologia , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Sensibilidades de Contraste/fisiologia , Córnea/fisiologia , Orientação/fisiologia , Animais
12.
Cortex ; 140: 179-198, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991779

RESUMO

The pre-saccadic attention shift-a rapid increase in visual sensitivity at the target-is an inevitable precursor of saccadic eye movements. Saccade targets are often parts of the objects that are of interest to the active observer. Although the link between saccades and covert attention shifts is well established, it remains unclear if pre-saccadic attention selects the location of the eye movement target or rather the entire object that occupies this location. Indeed, several neurophysiological studies suggest that attentional modulations of neural activity in visual cortex spreads across parts of objects (e.g., elements grouped by Gestalt principles) that contain the target location of a saccade. To understand the nature of pre-saccadic attentional selection, we examined how visual sensitivity, measured in a challenging orientation discrimination task, changes during saccade preparation at locations that are perceptually grouped with the saccade target. In Experiment 1, using grouping by color in a delayed-saccade task, we found no consistent spread of attention to locations that formed a perceptual group with the saccade target. However, performance depended on the side of the stimulus arrangement relative to the saccade target location, an effect we discuss with respect to attentional momentum. In Experiment 2, employing stronger perceptual grouping cues (color and motion) and an immediate-saccade task, we obtained a reliable grouping effect: Attention spread to locations that were perceptually grouped with the saccade target while saccade preparation was underway. We also replicated the side effect observed in Experiment 1. These results provide evidence that the pre-saccadic attention spreads beyond the target location along the saccade direction, and selects scene elements that-based on Gestalt criteria-are likely to belong to the same object as the saccade target.


Assuntos
Movimentos Sacádicos , Percepção Visual , Sinais (Psicologia) , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Orientação
13.
Cognition ; 212: 104709, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838523

RESUMO

Perception depends not only on the current sensory input but also on the preceding history of stimuli. In serial dependence (SD), for example, the orientation of a Gabor patch is mistakenly reported as more similar to previous trials than it actually is. This bias is typically observed for moderate orientation differences (<45°) and extends over a few trials in the past. It is hotly debated whether SD originates at perceptual or post-perceptual, e.g., decisional, stages. Here, we provide evidence for the latter hypothesis. We presented Gabor patches with different spatial frequencies or Gabors intermingled with dot patterns. Even though stimuli were perceptually clearly dissimilar, we found robust SD effects arguing against any perceptual account. These findings suggest a re-evaluation of current models and theoretical accounts of SD.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Percepção Visual , Cognição , Orientação , Orientação Espacial
14.
Cortex ; 139: 12-26, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813067

RESUMO

Goal-directed eye movements (saccades) bring peripheral objects of interest into high-acuity foveal vision. In preparation for the incoming foveal image, the perception of the saccade target may sharpen gradually before the eye movement is executed. Indeed, previous studies suggest that pre-saccadic attention shifts enhance sensitivity to high spatial frequencies (SFs) more than sensitivity to lower SFs. This pattern, however, was observed within a narrow frequency range and may reflect local changes in the shape of a broader underlying sensitivity profile. Depending on the development of the profile's shape, SFs above the previously examined range may profit less from saccade preparation. To assess the impact of saccade preparation on the shape of a broader sensitivity profile, we prompted observers to discriminate the orientation of a sinusoidal grating (the probe) presented briefly at the target of an impending saccade, at 10 dva (degree of visual angle) eccentricity. The probe's SF ranged from 1 to 5.5 cycles per dva (cpd) and was unpredictable on a given trial. We fitted observers' response accuracies across SFs with a log-parabolic, that is, inverted U-shaped function. Long before saccade onset, the profile peaked at .6 cpd and dropped off towards lower and higher SFs with broad bandwidth. During saccade preparation, the peak of the profile increased and shifted towards higher SFs while the bandwidth of the profile decreased. As a consequence of this reshaping process, pre-saccadic enhancement increased with SF up to 2.5 cpd, corroborating previous findings. Sensitivities to higher SFs, however, profited less from saccade preparation. We conclude that the extent of pre-saccadic enhancement to a particular SF is governed by its position on a broader sensitivity profile which reshapes substantially during saccade preparation. The shift of the profile's peak towards higher SFs increases resolution at the saccade target even when the features of relevant visual information are unpredictable.


Assuntos
Atenção , Movimentos Sacádicos , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Orientação , Orientação Espacial , Percepção Visual
15.
Cortex ; 139: 222-239, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882360

RESUMO

When available, people use prior knowledge to predict dimensions of future events such as their location and semantic features. However, few studies have examined how multi-dimensional predictions are implemented, and mechanistic accounts are absent. Using eye tracking, we evaluated whether predictions of target-location and target-category interact during the earliest stages of orientation. We presented stochastic series so that across four conditions, participants could predict either the location of the next target-image, its semantic category, both dimensions, or neither. Participants observed images in absence of any task involving their semantic content. We modeled saccade latencies using ELATER, a rise-to-threshold model that accounts for accumulation rate (AR), variance of AR over trials, and variance of decision baseline. The main findings were: 1) AR scaled with the degree of surprise associated with a target's location; 2) predictability of semantic-category hindered saccade latencies, suggesting a bottleneck in implementing joint predictions; 3) saccades to targets that satisfied semantic expectations were associated with greater AR-variance than saccades to semantically-surprising images, consistent with a richer repertoire of early evaluative processes for semantically-expected images. Predictability of target-category also impacted gaze pre-positioning prior to target presentation. The results indicate a strong interaction between foreknowledge of object location and semantics during stimulus-guided saccades, and suggest statistical regularities in an input stream can also impact anticipatory, non-stimulus-guided processes.


Assuntos
Atenção , Movimentos Sacádicos , Orientação , Orientação Espacial , Semântica
16.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 178: 155-173, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832675

RESUMO

The term visual agnosia is used to refer to recognition disorders that are confined to the visual modality, that are not due to an impairment in sensory functions, and that cannot be explained by other cognitive deficits or by general reduction in intellectual ability. Here, we describe the different types of visual agnosia that have been reported (form agnosia, integrative agnosia, associative agnosia, transformational and orientation agnosia as well as category-specific impairments such as pure alexia and prosopagnosia) and how they relate to the current understanding of visual object recognition. Together with related disorders such as simultanagnosia, texture agnosia, aphantasia, and optic aphasia, these visual perceptual impairments can have severe consequences for those affected. We suggest how in-depth assessment can be carried out to determine the type and the extent of these impairments. In the context of clinical assessment, a step-by-step approach reflecting a posterior to anterior gradient in visual object recognition, from more perceptual to more memory-related processes, is suggested. Individually tailored interventions targeting the identified impairments can be initiated based on the results of the assessment.


Assuntos
Agnosia , Transtornos Cognitivos , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Orientação , Percepção Visual
17.
Neural Netw ; 141: 199-210, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915445

RESUMO

Internal representation of the space is a fundamental and crucial function of the animal's brain. Grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex are thought to provide an environment-invariant metric system for the navigation of the animal. Most experimental and theoretical studies have focused on the horizontal planar codes of grid cell, while how this metric coordinate system is configured in the actual three-dimensional space remains unclear. Evidence has implied the spatial cognition may not be fully volumetric. We proposed an oscillatory interference model with a novel gravity and body plane modulation to simulate grid cell activity in complex space for rodents. The animal can perceive the rotation of its body plane along the local surface by sensing the gravity, causing the modulation to the dendritic oscillations. The results not only reproduce the firing patterns of the grid cell recorded from known experiments, but also predict the grid codes in novel environments. It further demonstrates that the gravity signal is indispensable for the animal's navigation, and supports the hypothesis that the periodic firing of the grid cell is intrinsically not a volumetric code in three-dimensional space. This will provide new insights to understand the spatial representation of the actual world in the brain.


Assuntos
Gravitação , Células de Grade , Modelos Neurológicos , Animais , Córtex Entorrinal/citologia , Córtex Entorrinal/fisiologia , Orientação , Ratos , Rotação , Percepção Espacial , Navegação Espacial
18.
Laterality ; 26(6): 706-724, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906579

RESUMO

Healthy individuals typically show a leftward attentional bias in the allocation of spatial attention along the horizontal plane, a phenomenon known as pseudoneglect, which relies on a right hemispheric dominance for visuospatial processing. Also, healthy individuals tend to overestimate the upper hemispace when orienting attention along the vertical plane, a phenomenon that may depend on asymmetric ventral and dorsal visual streams activation. Previous research has demonstrated that when attentional resources are reduced due to increased cognitive load, pseudoneglect is attenuated (or even reversed), due to decreased right-hemispheric activations. Critically, whether and how the reduction of attentional resources under load modulates vertical spatial asymmetries has not been addressed before. We asked participants to perform a line bisection task both with and without the addition of a concurrent auditory working memory task with lines oriented either horizontally or vertically. Results showed that increasing cognitive load reduced the typical leftward/upward bias with no difference between orientations. Our data suggest that the degree of cognitive load affects spatial attention not only in the horizontal but also in the vertical plane. Lastly, the similar effect of load on horizontal and vertical judgements suggests these biases may be related to only partially independent mechanisms.


Assuntos
Lateralidade Funcional , Percepção Espacial , Atenção , Cognição , Humanos , Orientação
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(8)2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921202

RESUMO

Vision loss has dramatic repercussions on the quality of life of affected people, particularly with respect to their orientation and mobility. Many devices are available to help blind people to navigate in their environment. The EyeCane is a recently developed electronic travel aid (ETA) that is inexpensive and easy to use, allowing for the detection of obstacles lying ahead within a 2 m range. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential of the EyeCane as a primary aid for spatial navigation. Three groups of participants were recruited: early blind, late blind, and sighted. They were first trained with the EyeCane and then tested in a life-size obstacle course with four obstacles types: cube, door, post, and step. Subjects were requested to cross the corridor while detecting, identifying, and avoiding the obstacles. Each participant had to perform 12 runs with 12 different obstacles configurations. All participants were able to learn quickly to use the EyeCane and successfully complete all trials. Amongst the various obstacles, the step appeared to prove the hardest to detect and resulted in more collisions. Although the EyeCane was effective for detecting obstacles lying ahead, its downward sensor did not reliably detect those on the ground, rendering downward obstacles more hazardous for navigation.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual , Cegueira , Humanos , Orientação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(8)2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924650

RESUMO

In this work, four sensor fusion algorithms for inertial measurement unit data to determine the orientation of a device are assessed regarding their usability in a hardware restricted environment such as body-worn sensor nodes. The assessment is done for both the functional and the extra-functional properties in the context of human operated devices. The four algorithms are implemented in three data formats: 32-bit floating-point, 32-bit fixed-point and 16-bit fixed-point and compared regarding code size, computational effort, and fusion quality. Code size and computational effort are evaluated on an ARM Cortex M0+. For the assessment of the functional properties, the sensor fusion output is compared to a camera generated reference and analyzed in an extensive statistical analysis to determine how data format, algorithm, and human interaction influence the quality of the sensor fusion. Our experiments show that using fixed-point arithmetic can significantly decrease the computational complexity while still maintaining a high fusion quality and all four algorithms are applicable for applications with human interaction.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Orientação , Humanos , Orientação Espacial
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