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1.
Behav Brain Res ; 465: 114971, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38552743

RESUMO

Within their familiar areas homing pigeons rely on familiar visual landscape features and landmarks for homing. However, the neural basis of visual landmark-based navigation has been so far investigated mainly in relation to the role of the hippocampal formation. The avian visual Wulst is the telencephalic projection field of the thalamofugal pathway that has been suggested to be involved in processing lateral visual inputs that originate from the far visual field. The Wulst is therefore a good candidate for a neural structure participating in the visual control of familiar visual landmark-based navigation. We repeatedly released and tracked Wulst-lesioned and control homing pigeons from three sites about 10-15 km from the loft. Wulst lesions did not impair the ability of the pigeons to orient homeward during the first release from each of the three sites nor to localise the loft within the home area. In addition, Wulst-lesioned pigeons displayed unimpaired route fidelity acquisition to a repeated homing path compared to the intact birds. However, compared to control birds, Wulst-lesioned pigeons displayed persistent oscillatory flight patterns across releases, diminished attention to linear (leading lines) landscape features, such as roads and wood edges, and less direct flight paths within the home area. Differences and similarities between the effects of Wulst and hippocampal lesions suggest that although the visual Wulst does not seem to play a direct role in the memory representation of a landscape-landmark map, it does seem to participate in influencing the perceptual construction of such a map.


Assuntos
Columbidae , Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital , Animais , Orientação , Telencéfalo
2.
Cognition ; 246: 105760, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447359

RESUMO

Human social life requires an understanding of the mental states of one's social partners. Two people who look at the same objects often experience them differently, as a twinkling light or a planet, a 6 or a 9, and a random cat or Cleo, their pet. Indeed, a primary purpose of communication is to share distinctive experiences of objects or events. Here, we test whether toddlers (14-15 months) are sensitive to another agent's distinctive experiences of pictures when determining the goal underlying the agent's actions in a minimally social context. We conducted nine experiments. Across seven of these experiments (n = 206), toddlers viewed either videotaped or live events in which an actor, whose perspective differed from their own, reached (i) for pictures of human faces that were upright or inverted or (ii) for pictures that depicted a rabbit or a duck at different orientations. Then either the actor or the toddler moved to a new location that aligned their perspectives, and the actor alternately reached to each of the two pictures. By comparing toddlers' looking to the latter reaches, we tested whether their goal attributions accorded with the actor's experience of the pictured objects, with their own experience of the pictured objects, or with no consistency. In no experiment did toddlers encode the actor's goal in accord with his experiences of the pictures. In contrast, in a similar experiment that manipulated the visibility of a picture rather than the experience that it elicited, toddlers (n = 32) correctly expected the actor's action to depend on what was visible and occluded to him, rather than to themselves. In a verbal version of the tasks, older children (n = 35) correctly inferred the actor's goal in both cases. These findings provide further evidence for a dissociation between two kinds of mental state reasoning: When toddlers view an actor's object-directed action under minimally social conditions, they take account of the actor's visual access to the object but not the actor's distinctive experience of the object.


Assuntos
Atenção , Resolução de Problemas , Humanos , Masculino , Animais , Coelhos , Criança , Adolescente , Orientação
3.
J Exp Biol ; 227(5)2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38323420

RESUMO

Animals can use different types of information for navigation. Domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) prefer to use local features as a beacon over spatial relational information. However, the role of egocentric navigation strategies is less understood. Here, we tested domestic chicks' egocentric and allocentric orientation abilities in a large circular arena. In experiment 1, we investigated whether domestic chicks possess a side bias during viewpoint-dependent egocentric orientation, revealing facilitation for targets on the chicks' left side. Experiment 2 showed that local features are preferred over viewpoint-dependent egocentric information when the two conflict. Lastly, in experiment 3, we found that in a situation where there is a choice between egocentric and allocentric spatial relational information provided by free-standing objects, chicks preferentially rely on egocentric information. We conclude that chicks orient according to a hierarchy of cues, in which the use of the visual appearance of an object is the dominant strategy, followed by viewpoint-dependent egocentric information and finally by spatial relational information.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Orientação Espacial , Animais , Orientação , Percepção Espacial , Sinais (Psicologia)
4.
Learn Behav ; 52(1): 69-84, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38379118

RESUMO

Birds and social insects represent excellent systems for understanding visually guided navigation. Both animal groups use surrounding visual cues for homing and foraging. Ants extract sufficient spatial information from panoramic views, which naturally embed all near and far spatial information, for successful homing. Although egocentric panoramic views allow for parsimonious explanations of navigational behaviors, this potential source of spatial information has been mostly neglected during studies of vertebrates. Here we investigate how distinct landmarks, a beacon, and panoramic views influence the reorientation behavior in pigeons (Columba livia). Pigeons were trained to search for a location characterized by a beacon and several distinct landmarks. Transformation tests manipulated aspects of the landmark configuration, allowing for a dissociation among navigational strategies. Quantitative image and path analyses provided support that the panoramic view was used by the pigeons. Although the results from some individuals support the use of beaconing, overall the pigeons relied predominantly on the panoramic view when spatial cues provided conflicting information regarding the goal location. Reorientation based on vector and bearing information derived from distinct landmarks as well as environmental geometry failed to account fully for the results. Thus, the results of our study support that pigeons can use panoramic views for reorientation in familiar environments. Given that the current model for landmark use by pigeons posits the use of different vectors from an object, a global panorama-matching strategy suggests a fundamental change in the theory of how pigeons use surrounding visual cues for localization.


Assuntos
Columbidae , Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital , Animais , Orientação , Sinais (Psicologia)
5.
Neuroreport ; 35(5): 291-298, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38407865

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Orientation selectivity is an emergent property of visual neurons across species with columnar and noncolumnar organization of the visual cortex. The emergence of orientation selectivity is more established in columnar cortical areas than in noncolumnar ones. Thus, how does orientation selectivity emerge in noncolumnar cortical areas after an adaptation protocol? Adaptation refers to the constant presentation of a nonoptimal stimulus (adapter) to a neuron under observation for a specific time. Previously, it had been shown that adaptation has varying effects on the tuning properties of neurons, such as orientation, spatial frequency, motion and so on. BASIC METHODS: We recorded the mouse primary visual neurons (V1) at different orientations in the control (preadaptation) condition. This was followed by adapting neurons uninterruptedly for 12 min and then recording the same neurons postadaptation. An orientation selectivity index (OSI) for neurons was computed to compare them pre- and post-adaptation. MAIN RESULTS: We show that 12-min adaptation increases the OSI of visual neurons ( n  = 113), that is, sharpens their tuning. Moreover, the OSI postadaptation increases linearly as a function of the OSI preadaptation. CONCLUSION: The increased OSI postadaptation may result from a specific dendritic neural mechanism, potentially facilitating the rapid learning of novel features.


Assuntos
Orientação , Córtex Visual , Animais , Camundongos , Orientação/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Aprendizagem
6.
Am J Occup Ther ; 78(2)2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38416734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke is the third leading cause of permanent disability worldwide. It is associated with difficulties in occupational performance, an area targeted by the Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the evidence available for the effectiveness of the CO-OP in addressing adults' performance of activities of daily living. DATA SOURCES: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or pilot RCTs of the CO-OP written in English and published through December 2021 were retrieved from PubMed, SCOPUS, ScienceDirect, OTseeker, and EBSCO. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA COLLECTION: The studies' participants were adults with stroke, evaluated on occupational performance before and after CO-OP administration. The American Occupational Therapy Association Evidence-Based Practice Project methodology was followed. Quality appraisal was conducted using the Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias 2 tool. RESULTS: Four RCTs and 3 pilot RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Inconsistent results are presented for trained and untrained goals, with the last ones being scarcely investigated. LIMITATIONS: The limited number of studies, combined with the methodological limitations observed, did not allow for definite conclusions to be reached. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The CO-OP is a promising client-centered, occupation-based approach, but future adequately powered studies addressing the potential for generalization are needed. Plain-Language Summary: The Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance is a relatively new treatment method that uses cognitive techniques to guide patients into discovering ways to perform activities of daily living independently. This systematic review presents the available evidence regarding CO-OP's effectiveness when used with adults after stroke. The findings showed that CO-OP has a positive impact in this population, but further research is needed to reach more concrete conclusions. Stroke patients may benefit from CO-OP because it can be a cost-effective, short-duration, task-oriented treatment.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Terapia Ocupacional , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Humanos , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Orientação
7.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 45(3): e26588, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401136

RESUMO

Attention network theory proposes three distinct types of attention-alerting, orienting, and control-that are supported by separate brain networks and modulated by different neurotransmitters, that is, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and dopamine. Here, we explore the extent of cortical, genetic, and molecular dissociation of these three attention systems using multimodal neuroimaging. We evaluated the spatial overlap between fMRI activation maps from the attention network test (ANT) and cortex-wide gene expression data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas. The goal was to identify genes associated with each of the attention networks in order to determine whether specific groups of genes were co-expressed with the corresponding attention networks. Furthermore, we analyzed publicly available PET-maps of neurotransmitter receptors and transporters to investigate their spatial overlap with the attention networks. Our analyses revealed a substantial number of genes (3871 for alerting, 6905 for orienting, 2556 for control) whose cortex-wide expression co-varied with the activation maps, prioritizing several molecular functions such as the regulation of protein biosynthesis, phosphorylation, and receptor binding. Contrary to the hypothesized associations, the ANT activation maps neither aligned with the distribution of norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and dopamine receptor and transporter molecules, nor with transcriptomic profiles that would suggest clearly separable networks. Independence of the attention networks appeared additionally constrained by a high level of spatial dependency between the network maps. Future work may need to reconceptualize the attention networks in terms of their segregation and reevaluate the presumed independence at the neural and neurochemical level.


Assuntos
Acetilcolina , Orientação , Humanos , Orientação/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Norepinefrina
8.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2015): 20232621, 2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38228176

RESUMO

Cooperative transport allows for the transportation of items too large for the capacity of a single individual. Beyond humans, it is regularly employed by ants and social spiders where two or more individuals, with more or less coordinated movements, transport food to a known destination. In contrast to this, pairs of male and female dung beetles successfully transport brood balls to a location unknown to either party at the start of their common journey. We found that, when forced to overcome a series of obstacles in their path, transport efficiency of pairs of beetles was higher than of solo males. To climb tall obstacles with their common ball of dung, the female assisted the leading male in lifting the ball by steadying and pushing it upwards in a 'headstand' position during the climb initiation. Finally, we show that pairs were faster than single beetles in climbing obstacles of different heights. Our results suggest that pairs of Sisyphus beetles cooperate in the transportation of brood balls with coordinated movements, where the male steers and the female primarily assists in lifting the ball. Taken together, this is to our knowledge, the first quantitative study of cooperative food transport without a known goal to aim for.


Assuntos
Formigas , Besouros , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Fezes , Orientação
9.
J Exp Biol ; 227(4)2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38264865

RESUMO

Animals can use two variants of the magnetic compass: the 'polar compass' or the 'inclination compass'. Among vertebrates, the compass type has been identified for salmon, mole rats, birds, turtles and urodeles. However, no experiments have been conducted to determine the compass variant in anurans. To elucidate this, we performed a series of field and laboratory experiments on males of the European common frog during the spawning season. In field experiments in a large circular arena, we identified the direction of the stereotypic migration axis for a total of 581 frogs caught during migration from river to pond or in a breeding pond. We also found that motivation of the frogs varied throughout the day, probably to avoid deadly night freezes, which are common in spring. The laboratory experiments were conducted on a total of 450 frogs in a T-maze placed in a three-axis Merritt coil system. The maze arms were positioned parallel to the natural migration axis inferred on the basis of magnetic field. Both vertical and horizontal components of the magnetic field were altered, and frogs were additionally tested in a vertical magnetic field. We conclude that European common frogs possess an inclination magnetic compass, as for newts, birds and sea turtles, and potentially use it during the spring migration. The vertical magnetic field confuses the frogs, apparently as a result of the inability to choose a direction. Notably, diurnal variation in motivation of the frogs was identical to that in nature, indicating the presence of internal rhythms controlling this process.


Assuntos
Aves , Orientação , Animais , Masculino , Rana temporaria , Motivação , Magnetismo , Campos Magnéticos , Migração Animal
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2507, 2024 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38291049

RESUMO

Sensory input is inherently noisy while the world is inherently predictable. When multiple observations of the same object are available, integration of the available information necessarily increases the reliability of a world estimate. Optimal integration of multiple instances of sensory evidence has already been demonstrated during multisensory perception but could benefit unimodal perception as well. In the present study 330 participants observed a sequence of four orientations and were cued to report one of them. Reports were biased by all simultaneously memorized items that were similar and relevant to the target item, weighted by their reliability (signal-to-noise ratio). Orientations presented before and presented after the target biased report, demonstrating that the bias emerges in memory and not (exclusively) during perception or encoding. Only attended, task-relevant items biased report. We suggest that these results reflect how the visual system integrates information that is sampled from the same object at consecutive timepoints to promote perceptual stability and behavioural effectiveness in a dynamic world. We suggest that similar response biases, such as serial dependence, might be instances of a more general mechanism of working memory averaging. Data is available at https://osf.io/embcf/ .


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Percepção Visual , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sinais (Psicologia) , Orientação
11.
J Neurosci ; 44(10)2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38286624

RESUMO

Navigating a complex world requires integration of multiple spatial reference frames, including information about one's orientation in both allocentric and egocentric coordinates. Combining these two information sources can provide additional information about one's spatial location. Previous studies have demonstrated that both egocentric and allocentric spatial signals are reflected by the firing of neurons in the rat postrhinal cortex (POR), an area that may serve as a hub for integrating allocentric head direction (HD) cell information with egocentric information from center-bearing and center-distance cells. However, we have also demonstrated that POR HD cells are uniquely influenced by the visual properties and locations of visual landmarks, bringing into question whether the POR HD signal is truly allocentric as opposed to simply being a response to visual stimuli. To investigate this issue, we recorded HD cells from the POR of female rats while bilaterally inactivating the anterior thalamus (ATN), a region critical for expression of the "classic" HD signal in cortical areas. We found that ATN inactivation led to a significant decrease in both firing rate and tuning strength for POR HD cells, as well as a disruption in the encoding of allocentric location by conjunctive HD/egocentric cells. In contrast, POR egocentric cells without HD tuning were largely unaffected in a consistent manner by ATN inactivation. These results indicate that the POR HD signal originates at least partially from projections from the ATN and supports the view that the POR acts as a hub for the integration of egocentric and allocentric spatial representations.


Assuntos
Núcleos Anteriores do Tálamo , Ratos , Feminino , Animais , Orientação/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia
12.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 77(2): 418-432, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37092806

RESUMO

Previous studies have separately found that exogenous orienting decreases multisensory integration (MSI), while endogenous orienting enhances MSI. It is currently unclear, however, why the two orientations have opposite effects on MSI. In the current study, we investigated the interaction between spatial attention and MSI in two experiments based on the cue-target paradigm. Experiment 1 separated exogenous and endogenous orienting to investigate the effect of spatial attention on MSI by varying the predictability of the cue. Experiment 2 further explored the effect of endogenous orienting on MSI. We found that exogenous orienting induced by the directionality of the cue decreased MSI, while endogenous orienting induced by the predictability of the cue enhanced MSI. The role of spatial orienting need and spatial attention bias in the modulation of MSI by exogenous and endogenous orienting was discussed. The present study sheds new light on how spatial attention modulates MSI processes.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Percepção Espacial , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Estimulação Luminosa , Orientação
13.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 66(4): 501-513, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37792283

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the effectiveness of the Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) approach in improving the occupational performance goals of children and young people with executive function deficits after acquired brain injury (ABI) (e.g. etiologies such as stroke, encephalitis, brain tumor, and traumatic brain injury). METHOD: A replicated single-case experimental study using a randomized multiple baseline design across participants and goals was used. Three clusters of four participants (12 participants, nine males and three females, aged 8-16 years) were included. The intervention consisted of 14 individual CO-OP sessions. Each participant chose four goals; three goals were trained during the intervention sessions and a fourth goal served as the control. The Goal Attainment Scale (GAS) was used as a repeated measure to determine goal achievement while the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) was used to identify the perceived goal achievement of children, young people, and their parents. RESULTS: For 26 of the 35 trained goals, the intervention led to statistically significant improvements in the GAS. Perceived occupational performance and satisfaction improved significantly for the trained goals (30 out of 35 goals for the COPM performance and satisfaction of participants; 26 out 31 goals for the COPM performance of parents; 24 out of 31 goals for the COPM satisfaction of parents) and were maintained at the follow-up. Almost all COPM control goal results were significant, but these changes were not supported by the GAS measures or the statistical analysis. INTERPRETATION: The generally positive results of this study provide evidence of the benefits of using the CO-OP approach with this population.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Terapia Ocupacional , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Função Executiva , Objetivos , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Canadá , Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Orientação
14.
J Neurosci ; 44(3)2024 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38050093

RESUMO

Human visual performance for basic visual dimensions (e.g., contrast sensitivity and acuity) peaks at the fovea and decreases with eccentricity. The eccentricity effect is related to the larger visual cortical surface area corresponding to the fovea, but it is unknown if differential feature tuning contributes to this eccentricity effect. Here, we investigated two system-level computations underlying the eccentricity effect: featural representation (tuning) and internal noise. Observers (both sexes) detected a Gabor embedded in filtered white noise which appeared at the fovea or one of four perifoveal locations. We used psychophysical reverse correlation to estimate the weights assigned by the visual system to a range of orientations and spatial frequencies (SFs) in noisy stimuli, which are conventionally interpreted as perceptual sensitivity to the corresponding features. We found higher sensitivity to task-relevant orientations and SFs at the fovea than that at the perifovea, and no difference in selectivity for either orientation or SF. Concurrently, we measured response consistency using a double-pass method, which allowed us to infer the level of internal noise by implementing a noisy observer model. We found lower internal noise at the fovea than that at the perifovea. Finally, individual variability in contrast sensitivity correlated with sensitivity to and selectivity for task-relevant features as well as with internal noise. Moreover, the behavioral eccentricity effect mainly reflects the foveal advantage in orientation sensitivity compared with other computations. These findings suggest that the eccentricity effect stems from a better representation of task-relevant features and lower internal noise at the fovea than that at the perifovea.


Assuntos
Sensibilidades de Contraste , Córtex Visual , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Orientação/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Fóvea Central/fisiologia , Ruído
15.
Exp Brain Res ; 242(1): 79-97, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37962638

RESUMO

The attention networks test (ANT) is frequently utilized to evaluate executive, alerting, and orienting attentional components. Additionally, it serves as an activation task in neuroimaging studies. This study aimed to examine the relationship between attention networks and brain electrophysiology. The study enrolled 40 right-handed male students (age = 20.8 ± 1.3 years) who underwent the revised attention network test, while their electroencephalogram signals were recorded. The study aimed to explore the effects of attention networks and their efficiencies on brain electrophysiology. The results indicated that the P3 amplitude was modulated by the conflict effect in the central (p-value = 0.014) and parietal (p-value = 0.002) regions. The orienting component significantly influenced P1 and N1 latencies in the parietal and parieto-occipital regions (p-values < 0.006), as well as P1 and N1 amplitude in the parieto-occipital region (p-values = 0.017 and 0.011). The alerting component significantly affected P1 latency and amplitude in the parietal and parieto-occipital regions, respectively (p-value = 0.02). Furthermore, N1 amplitude and the time interval between P1 and N1 were significantly correlated with the efficiency of alerting and orienting networks. In terms of connectivity, the coherence of theta and alpha bands significantly decreased in the incongruent condition compared to the congruent condition. Additionally, the effects of attention networks on event-related spectral perturbation were observed. The study revealed the influence of attention networks on various aspects of brain electrophysiology. Specifically, the alerting score correlated with the amplitude of the N1 component in the double-cue and no-cue conditions in the parieto-occipital region, while the orienting score in the same region correlated with the N1 amplitude in the valid cue condition and the difference in N1 amplitude between the valid cue and double-cue conditions. Overall, empirical evidence suggests that attention networks not only impact the amplitudes of electrophysiological activities but also influence their time course.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Orientação , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Orientação/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Lobo Occipital , Eletrofisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
16.
Behav Res Methods ; 56(1): 406-416, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36690890

RESUMO

Many behavioural phenomena have been replicated using web-based experiments, but evaluation of the agreement between objective measures of web- and lab-based performance is required if scientists and clinicians are to reap the benefits of web-based testing. In this study, we investigated the reliability of a task which assesses early visual cortical function by evaluating the well-known 'oblique effect' (we are better at seeing horizontal and vertical edges than tilted ones) and the levels of agreement between remote, web-based measures and lab-based measures. Sixty-nine young participants (mean age, 21.8 years) performed temporal and spatial versions of a web-based, two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) orientation-identification task. In each case, orientation-identification thresholds (the minimum orientation difference at which a standard orientation could be reliably distinguished from a rotated comparison) were measured for cardinal (horizontal and vertical) and oblique orientations. Reliability was assessed in a subsample of 18 participants who performed the same tasks under laboratory conditions. Robust oblique effects were found, such that thresholds were substantially lower for cardinal orientations compared to obliques, for both web- and lab-based measures of the temporal and spatial 2AFC tasks. Crucially, web- and lab-based orientation-identification thresholds showed high levels of agreement, demonstrating the suitability of web-based testing for assessments of early visual cortical function. Future studies should assess the reliability of similar web-based tasks in clinical populations to evaluate their adoption into clinical settings, either to screen for visual anomalies or to assess changes in performance associated with progression of disease severity.


Assuntos
Internet , Orientação , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Psychol Res ; 88(2): 509-522, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37819501

RESUMO

The orientation of sketch maps of remote but familiar city squares produced from memory has been shown to depend on the distance and airline direction from the production site to the remembered square (position-dependent recall, Röhrich et al. in PLoS One 9(11): e112793, 2014). Here, we present a virtual reality version of the original experiment and additionally study the role of body orientation. Three main points can be made: First, "immersive sketching" is a novel and useful paradigm in which subjects sketch maps live on paper while being immersed in virtual reality. Second, the original effect of position-dependent recall was confirmed, indicating that the sense of being present at a particular location, even if generated in a virtual environment, suffices to bias the imagery of distant places. Finally, the orientation of the produced sketch maps depended also on the body orientation of the subjects. At each production site, body orientation was controlled by varying the position of the live feed in the virtual environment, such that subjects had to turn towards the prescribed direction. Position-dependent recall is strongest if subjects are aligned with the airline direction to the target and virtually goes away if they turn in the opposite direction. We conclude that the representation of out-of-sight target places depends on both the current airline direction to the target and the body orientation.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental , Orientação , Humanos
18.
J Atten Disord ; 28(4): 469-479, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38069477

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The role of cardiovascular risk factors in the occurrence and progression of cognitive impairment is relevant in aging studies. In this condition, attention is one of the processes less studied, but preliminary evidence suggests an association between cardiometabolic alterations and attentional decline. Attention is not a unitary process but a set of independent systems (Alerting, Orienting, Executive), which can interact in certain conditions to ensure maximum behavioral efficiency. METHODS: We investigated attentive networks and their interactions in patients with Takostubo syndrome (TTS). In all, 20 participants with TTS and 20 individuals without cardiovascular pathologies performed an Attention-Network Task for Interaction, which assesses attentional networks and their interactions. RESULTS: Patients with TTS showed an atypical orienting effect when compared to the control group. Moreover, only the control group exhibited an interaction between orienting and alerting. CONCLUSION: These findings establish the relevance of brain-heart interaction in identifying attentional impairment as a prodrome of progressively severe cognitive impairment in TTS.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Orientação , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Atenção , Função Executiva
19.
Cereb Cortex ; 34(1)2024 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38100330

RESUMO

There is disagreement regarding the major components of the brain network supporting spatial cognition. To address this issue, we applied a lesion mapping approach to the clinical phenomenon of topographical disorientation. Topographical disorientation is the inability to maintain accurate knowledge about the physical environment and use it for navigation. A review of published topographical disorientation cases identified 65 different lesion sites. Our lesion mapping analysis yielded a topographical disorientation brain map encompassing the classic regions of the navigation network: medial parietal, medial temporal, and temporo-parietal cortices. We also identified a ventromedial region of the prefrontal cortex, which has been absent from prior descriptions of this network. Moreover, we revealed that the regions mapped are correlated with the Default Mode Network sub-network C. Taken together, this study provides causal evidence for the distribution of the spatial cognitive system, demarking the major components and identifying novel regions.


Assuntos
Orientação Espacial , Orientação , Humanos , Encéfalo/patologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Confusão/etiologia , Confusão/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
20.
Proc Biol Sci ; 290(2013): 20232499, 2023 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38113940

RESUMO

Currently, it is generally assumed that migratory birds are oriented in the appropriate migratory direction under UV, blue and green light (short-wavelength) and are unable to use their magnetic compass in total darkness and under yellow and red light (long-wavelength). However, it has also been suggested that the magnetic compass has two sensitivity peaks: in the short and long wavelengths, but with different intensities. In this project, we aimed to study the orientation of long-distance migrants, pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca), under different narrowband light conditions during autumn and spring migrations. The birds were tested in the natural magnetic field (NMF) and a changed magnetic field (CMF) rotated counterclockwise by 120° under dim green (autumn) and yellow (spring and autumn) light, which are on the 'threshold' between the short-wavelength and long-wavelength light. We showed that pied flycatchers (i) were completely disoriented under green light both in the NMF and CMF but (ii) showed the migratory direction in the NMF and the appropriate response to CMF under yellow light. Our data contradict the results of previous experiments under narrowband green and yellow light and raise doubts about the existence of only short-wavelength magnetoreception. The parameters of natural light change dramatically in spectral composition and intensity after local sunset, and the avian magnetic compass should be adapted to function properly under such constantly changing light conditions.


Assuntos
Orientação , Aves Canoras , Animais , Orientação/fisiologia , Migração Animal/fisiologia , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Magnetismo , Estações do Ano
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