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1.
Curr Opin Oncol ; 36(3): 128-135, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573201

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent recommendations on cachexia highlight, in head and neck cancers, the heterogeneity of studies, focusing on weight loss and sequelae including swallowing disorders. The current national guidelines emphasize that, in cases of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (cCRT) involving the oral cavity and oropharynx, prophylactic gastrostomy placement should be carried out systematically. We review why this technique is particularly relevant in this specific location for the feasibility of cCRT. RECENT FINDINGS: A randomized trial is underway on swallowing disorders and the quality of life of patients after prophylactic vs. reactive gastrostomy in advanced oropharyngeal cancer patients treated with CRT. Concurrently, recent literature reviews emphasize the importance of the cumulative dose of chemotherapy for local control and survival. In cases of cCRT involving the oral cavity or the oropharynx, nutritional support could have a beneficial or detrimental impact on chemotherapy. SUMMARY: Specifically for patients treated with cCRT involving the oral cavity and oropharynx, prophylactic gastrostomy would be able to fulfill the three objectives of local control, survival, and quality of life, minimizing complications related to nutritional support. Studies need to be more homogeneous. In clinical practice, nutrition should primarily assist in carrying out cancer treatment when survival is the main goal.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Humanos , Gastrostomia , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/prevenção & controle , Qualidade de Vida , Boca , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Orofaringe
2.
Acta otorrinolaringol. esp ; 75(2): 94-101, Mar-Abr. 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-231381

RESUMO

Introducción: El PIV (pan-immune-inflammation value), un índice que resulta del cociente (neutrófilos×monocitos×plaquetas) / linfocitos, ha sido propuesto como un biomarcador con capacidad pronóstica en diferentes modelos tumorales. El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar la capacidad pronóstica del PIV en pacientes con carcinoma escamoso de cabeza y cuello. Pacientes y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo de 1.187 pacientes con carcinoma escamoso de cabeza y cuello tratados en nuestro centro durante el periodo 2000-2017. Se obtuvo el valor del PIV a partir de un análisis realizado en un intervalo inferior a las 3 semanas previas al inicio del tratamiento. Resultados: El valor del PIV se relacionó de forma significativa con el consumo de tóxicos (p=0,001), la localización del tumor (0,0001), la extensión tumoral (0,0001), y el grado histológico (0,016). Mediante un análisis de partición recursiva se definieron 4 categorías en función del valor del PIV: categoría i: PIV<136,3 (n=118; 9,9%), categoría ii: PIV 136,3-451,1 (n=594, 50,0%); categoría iii: PIV 451,1-1.141,2 (n=357; 30,1%); categoría iv: PIV>1.141,2 (n=118; 9,9%). Se pudo observar una reducción ordenada y significativa de la supervivencia específica a medida que se incrementaba la categoría en el valor del PIV. Esta disminución en la supervivencia se produjo de forma independiente al tipo de tratamiento, la extensión del tumor, o la localización del tumor primario. La categoría en el valor del PIV se relacionó de forma significativa con la supervivencia específica en un estudio multivariable. Conclusiones: El PIV es un biomarcador con capacidad pronóstica en los pacientes con carcinoma escamoso de cabeza y cuello.(AU)


Introduction: The pan-immune-inflammation value (PIV), an index that results from the following ratio: (neutrophils×monocytes×platelets) / lymphocytes, has been proposed as a prognostic biomarker in different tumor models. The aim of this study is to analyze the prognostic capacity of PIV in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Patients and methods: Retrospective study of 1,187 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma treated at our center between 2000-2017. PIV value was obtained from an analysis performed within 3 weeks prior to the start of treatment. Results: PIV value was significantly associated with toxic consumption (0.001), tumor location (0.0001), tumor extension (0.0001), and histological grade (0.016). Four categories were defined based on PIV value using a recursive partitioning analysis: category i: PIV<136.3 (n=118, 9.9%), category ii: PIV 136.3-451.1 (n=594, 50.0%), category iii: PIV 451.1-1,141.2 (n=357, 30.1%), and category iv: PIV>1,141.2 (n=118, 9.9%). A significant and ordered decrease in disease-specific survival was observed as the PIV category increased. This decrease in survival was independent of the type of treatment, tumor extension, or location of the primary tumor. The PIV category was an independent prognostic factor of disease-specific survival in a multivariable study. Conclusions: PIV is a prognostic biomarker in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Prognóstico , Biomarcadores , Contagem de Plaquetas , Linfócitos , Neutrófilos , Monócitos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Otolaringologia , Hipofaringe , Boca , Orofaringe
4.
Med Arch ; 78(1): 68-70, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38481587

RESUMO

Background: Chordoma is a rare malignant neoplasm that predominantly arises from the axial skeleton, but can also develop in unusual locations. However, there are also rare cases of "NOS" chordoma involving the oropharyx and epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid gland in the same patient. According to contemporary research, chordoma is a rare malignant neoplasm that arises from the embryonic remnants of the notochord. and typically involves the clivus, sacrococcygeal bones or vertebrae. Studies have shown that the incidence of chordoma has been estimated to be one per one million people per year. Chordoma can occur at any age, but most commonly it is diagnosed in the 40-60 year old age group with the male predominance. Objective: The aim of this article was to review the case of a 74-year-old female patient with epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid gland and a case of "NOS" chordoma involving the oropharyx. Methods: Diagnostic methods were used to examine a female patient with two primary malignant tumors: CT neck scan, CT of paranasal sinuses, ultrasound examination, scintigraphy and operative finding. Case presentzation: Due to the anatomy complexity, complete resection of the tumor through a transoral-transpharyngeal approach was not possible. Intraoperative palpation of the mass revealed well defined submucosal lesion 20x43x46mm beginning at the level of the oro- and hypopharynx and extending superiorly to the nasopharynx, and posteriorly into the spinal canal and intervertebral foramen causing near complete occlusion of the oro and hypopharynx. The patient also underwent extracapsular dissection of the parotid tumor. Postoperative palliative radiotherapy was performed. Conclusion: Surgical treatment remains the mainstay of treatment for EMC and radiation is imperative for patients who refuse surgery and for those with advanced or inoperable diseases.


Assuntos
Carcinoma , Cordoma , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cordoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Cordoma/cirurgia , Orofaringe/patologia , Coluna Vertebral/patologia
5.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 79, 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the changes and potential mechanisms of microbiome in different parts of the upper airway in the development of pediatric OSA and observe the impact of surgical intervention on oral microbiome for pediatric OSA. METHODS: Before adeno-tonsillectomy, we collected throat swab samples from different parts of the oropharynx and nasopharynx of 30 OSA patients and 10 non-OSA patients and collected throat swab samples from the oropharynx of the above patients one month after the adeno-tonsillectomy. The 16 S rRNA V3-V4 region was sequenced to identify the microbial communities. The correlation analysis was conducted based on clinical characteristics. RESULTS: There was a significant difference of alpha diversity in different parts of the upper airway of pediatric OSA, but this difference was not found in children with non-OSA. Beta diversity was significantly different between non-OSA and pediatric OSA. At the genus level, the composition of flora in different parts is different between non-OSA and pediatric OSA. The correlation analysis revealed that the relative abundance of Neisseria was significantly correlated with obstructive apnea hypopnea index. Furthermore, the functional prediction revealed that pathways related to cell proliferation and material metabolism were significantly different between non-OSA and pediatric OSA. Besides, the adeno-tonsillectomy has minimal impact on oral microbiota composition in short term. CONCLUSION: The changes in upper airway microbiome are highly associated with pediatric OSA. The relative abundance of some bacteria was significantly different between OSA and non-OSA. These bacteria have the potential to become new diagnostic and early warning biomarkers.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Humanos , Criança , Estudos Prospectivos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/cirurgia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/microbiologia , Nasofaringe , Orofaringe
7.
J Am Anim Hosp Assoc ; 60(2): 68-73, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38394695

RESUMO

A 3 yr old female spayed Labrador retriever was referred for the treatment of a chronic oropharyngeal stick injury. After computed tomography scan evaluation, the cervical area was explored surgically and a right-sided cervical abscess that contained a wooden stick was identified adjacent to the vagosympathetic trunk and carotid artery. The ipsilateral mandibular salivary gland was resected concurrently given its abnormal appearance, and histology confirmed inflammation and necrosis of the gland, which was suspected to be due to direct trauma from the foreign body. The clinical signs initially improved but then recurred, and a follow-up computed tomography scan was suggestive of sialadenosis or sialadenitis in the right parotid, zygomatic, and molar salivary glands. A presumptive diagnosis of sialadenosis was made and a course of phenobarbital was initiated. The clinical signs resolved completely within a few days, and there was no recurrence several months after termination of the phenobarbital treatment. This is the first case report of presumptive sialadenosis in a dog as a suspected complication of an oropharyngeal stick injury. Informed consent was obtained from the owner of the dog and the patient was managed according to contemporary standards of care.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Sialadenite , Cães , Feminino , Animais , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Sialadenite/diagnóstico , Sialadenite/veterinária , Sialadenite/patologia , Orofaringe/lesões , Orofaringe/patologia , Fenobarbital , Glândula Parótida/patologia
8.
Head Face Med ; 20(1): 11, 2024 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365681

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the airway volume changes associated with the use of Frankel appliance (FR II) in Class II malocclusion patients using three-dimensional cone beam computed tomography (3D CBCT) imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 31 Class II malocclusion patients (mean age 9.24 ± 1.93 years old, 17 males (54.8%) and 14 females (45.2%)) treated with FR II appliance by the same orthodontist for an average of 9 months ± 20 days. CBCT images were taken before and after treatment and upper airway volume changes were measured using Dolphin 3D software version11.0 (Dolphin Imaging, Chatsworth, CA) and statistically compared. RESULTS: Airway volume of nasal cavity, nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx and the total airway volume significantly increased after the use of FR II appliance. In addition, significant increase was reported in maxillary base, inter-molar, inter-premolar and inter-canine width. Significant increase in soft tissue thickness was only recorded opposite to CV2. CONCLUSION: The use of the FR II appliance in growing subjects with Class II malocclusion led to a significant increase in the upper airway volume in addition to the anticipated dental and skeletal transverse expansion effects.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão Classe II de Angle , Orofaringe , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Estudos Retrospectivos , Nasofaringe , Má Oclusão Classe II de Angle/diagnóstico por imagem , Má Oclusão Classe II de Angle/terapia , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Cefalometria/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos
9.
Curr Opin Microbiol ; 77: 102428, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38277901

RESUMO

The respiratory tract microbiome (RTM) is a microbial ecosystem inhabiting different niches throughout the airway. A critical role for the RTM in dictating lung infection outcomes is underlined by recent efforts to identify community members benefiting respiratory tract health. Obligate anaerobes common in the oropharynx and lung such as Prevotella and Veillonella are associated with improved pneumonia outcomes and activate several immune defense pathways in the lower airway. Colonizers of the nasal cavity, including Corynebacterium and Dolosigranulum, directly impact the growth and virulence of lung pathogens, aligning with robust clinical correlations between their upper airway abundance and reduced respiratory tract infection risk. Here, we highlight recent work identifying respiratory tract bacteria that promote airway health and resilience against disease, with a focus on lung infections and the underlying mechanisms driving RTM-protective benefits.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Pneumonia Bacteriana , Infecções Respiratórias , Humanos , Pulmão/microbiologia , Orofaringe/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia
10.
Nucl Med Commun ; 45(5): 381-388, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38247572

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated the potential of baseline 4'-[methyl- 11 C]-thiothymidine ([ 11 C]4DST) PET for predicting loco-regional control of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed using volumetric parameters, such as SUVmax, proliferative tumor volume (PTV), and total lesion proliferation (TLP), of pretreatment [ 11 C]4DST PET for 91 patients with HNSCC with primary lesions in the oral cavity, hypopharynx, supraglottis, and oropharynx, which included p16-negative patients. PTV and TLP were calculated for primary lesions and metastatic lymph nodes combined. We examined the association among the parameters and relapse-free survival and whether case selection focused on biological characteristics improved the accuracy of prognosis prediction. RESULTS: The area under the curves (AUCs) using PTV and TLP were high for the oropharyngeal/hypopharyngeal/supraglottis groups (0.91 and 0.87, respectively), whereas that of SUVmax was 0.66 ( P  < 0.01). On the other hand, the oral group had lower AUCs for PTV and TLP (0.72 and 0.77, respectively). When all cases were examined, the AUCs using PTV and TLP were 0.84 and 0.83, respectively. CONCLUSION: Baseline [ 11 C]4DST PET/CT volume-based parameters can provide important prognostic information with p16-negative oropharyngeal, hypopharyngeal, and supraglottic cancer patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas , Humanos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Hipofaringe/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Radioisótopos de Carbono , Prognóstico , Orofaringe/patologia , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/patologia
11.
Epidemiol Infect ; 152: e22, 2024 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38234190

RESUMO

Little information exists concerning the spatial relationship between invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) cases and Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis) carriage. The aim of this study was to examine whether there is a relationship between IMD and asymptomatic oropharyngeal carriage of meningococci by spatial analysis to identify the distribution and patterns of cases and carriage in South Australia (SA). Carriage data geocoded to participants' residential addresses and meningococcal case notifications using Postal Area (POA) centroids were used to analyse spatial distribution by disease- and non-disease-associated genogroups, as well as overall from 2017 to 2020. The majority of IMD cases were genogroup B with the overall highest incidence of cases reported in infants, young children, and adolescents. We found no clear spatial association between N. meningitidis carriage and IMD cases. However, analyses using carriage and case genogroups showed differences in the spatial distribution between metropolitan and regional areas. Regional areas had a higher rate of IMD cases and carriage prevalence. While no clear relationship between cases and carriage was evident in the spatial analysis, the higher rates of both carriage and disease in regional areas highlight the need to maintain high vaccine coverage outside of the well-resourced metropolitan area.


Assuntos
Infecções Meningocócicas , Vacinas Meningocócicas , Neisseria meningitidis , Criança , Lactente , Adolescente , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/prevenção & controle , Infecções Meningocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Meningocócicas/prevenção & controle , Neisseria meningitidis/genética , Orofaringe , Análise Espacial
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2132, 2024 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38272937

RESUMO

There are few pertinent studies about the application of laryngeal mask airways (LMAs) in lateral decubitus surgery. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of lateral position and pneumoperitoneum on oropharyngeal leak pressure (OLP) and ventilation efficiency for the LMA SaCoVLM. Patients undergoing elective retroperitoneal laparoscopic urological surgery were randomized 1:1 to the Supreme group or SaCoVLM group. The primary outcome was the OLP with LMA insertion. The secondary outcomes were the first-attempt success rate, insertion time, adjustment times, gastric tube success rate, LMA alignment accuracy, LMA removal time, regurgitation or aspiration, LMA blood staining, and incidence of adverse events 24 h after surgery. We recruited 70 patients to complete the study. Regardless of lateral position and pneumoperitoneum, the OLP was greater in the SaCoVLM group (n = 35) than in the Supreme group (n = 35), with a median difference of 4-7 cmH2O. The first-attempt success rate of the SaCoVLM group was higher than that of the Supreme group (91.4% vs. 77.1%, risk ratio (RR): 1.19; 95% CI 0.96 to 1.46, P = 0.188). Thus, in the lateral position with pneumoperitoneum, although the new video LMA SaCoVLM has a higher OLP than the LMA Supreme, both devices provide sufficient ventilation efficiency.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Máscaras Laríngeas , Humanos , Máscaras Laríngeas/efeitos adversos , Orofaringe , Pneumoperitônio , Pressão
13.
Laryngoscope ; 134(1): 236-239, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37246718

RESUMO

Syphilis is an infectious disease caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. Rates have been rising in the US and globally. Known as the "Great Imitator," syphilis can involve head and neck subsites, and often can masquerade as possible carcinoma of the head and neck. Here, we present three distinct cases of syphilis presenting as suspected head and neck malignancy involving the oropharynx, larynx and oral cavity. All cases were diagnosed on surgical pathologic examination of diseased tissues and treated. It is important for practicing otolaryngologists to understand head and neck manifestations of syphilis to facilitate proper diagnosis and treatment. Laryngoscope, 134:236-239, 2024.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Sífilis , Humanos , Sífilis/complicações , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Treponema pallidum , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Orofaringe/patologia , Pescoço/patologia
14.
Respir Care ; 69(3): 333-338, 2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37935525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) plays an important role in avoiding endotracheal intubation during myasthenic crisis, yet there are few published data concerning long-term home NIV in stable out-patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of NIV in a cohort of subjects with stable MG and to analyze contributing factors that could predict the need of NIV. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study that included subjects diagnosed with MG managed in the respiratory care unit over the previous year. Subjects underwent clinical analysis including demographic, clinical, and functional respiratory data. RESULTS: Of the 50 subjects included, 35 (70%) were positive for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antibodies, and 68% had a diagnosis of generalized MG. Bulbar symptoms developed in 16 (32%), and 10 (20%) subjects needed long-term home NIV. The only variable predicting the need for long-term NIV was MG severity measured with Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA), mainly grades IIB (odds ratio 0.14 [95% CI 0.02-0.85], P = .03) and IIIB (odds ratio 0.02 [95% CI 0.01-0.34], P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: Home NIV was needed in a substantial percentage of medically stable subjects with MG, mainly in those with generalized type and with oropharyngeal and/or respiratory muscle involvement (MGFA grades IIB and IIIB).


Assuntos
Miastenia Gravis , Ventilação não Invasiva , Insuficiência Respiratória , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Miastenia Gravis/terapia , Miastenia Gravis/diagnóstico , Intubação Intratraqueal , Orofaringe , Estudos Retrospectivos , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia
15.
Laryngoscope ; 134(2): 981-986, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37672634

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine the potential association between palate shape and unilateral hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HNS) outcomes. METHODS: Preoperative drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) videos were reviewed and scored by 3 blinded reviewers to determine airway narrowing at the hard-soft palate junction (HP), soft palate genu, and inferior velum, as described by Woodson (2014). Scoring was as follows: 1-open airway, 2-narrow, 3-severe narrowing. Overall palate shape (oblique, intermediate, or vertical) was determined based on prior criteria. Successful surgical treatment was defined by the HNS titration polysomnogram as a reduction of ≥50% in the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) to <15 events/h. RESULTS: Of 332 adults, the majority was male (77%) with an average BMI of 29.2 ± 3.6 kg/m2 . Overall success rate was 73%. Success rate was lower in patients with vertical palate shape compared with the other shapes (56% vs. 75%, p = 0.029). HP score 3 compared with scores 2 and 1 was associated with lower success rates (60% vs. 76%, p = 0.028), but genu and velum scores were not associated with outcomes. Patients with both HP score 3 and complete oropharyngeal lateral wall-related obstruction had notably worse outcomes (22% vs. 74%, p = 0.026). HP score 3 (OR 0.45, 95%CI 0.22-0.92) and vertical palate shape (OR 0.33, 95%CI 0.15-0.78) were independently associated with lower odds of surgical response after adjustment for DISE findings, age, gender, and BMI. CONCLUSION: Vertical palate shape and narrowing at the hard-soft palate junction are independently associated with lower HNS surgical success rates. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Laryngoscope, 134:981-986, 2024.


Assuntos
Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/cirurgia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Nervo Hipoglosso , Palato Mole/cirurgia , Orofaringe , Endoscopia , Palato Duro
16.
Laryngoscope ; 134(1): 480-495, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37606313

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Orofacial myofunctional therapy (OMT) is an alternative form of treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), that incorporates various exercises to optimize tongue placement and increase oropharyngeal tone. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine the efficacy of OMT in OSA patients. DATA SOURCES: PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science. REVIEW METHODS: Using PRISMA guidelines, a directed search strategy was performed for randomized control trials (RCTs) published prior to March 24, 2023, featuring 10+ patients with OSA undergoing mono-therapeutic OMT. The primary outcome of interest was apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Secondary outcomes included subjective sleepiness, sleep-related quality-of-life, and snoring frequency. RESULTS: Of the 1244 abstracts that were identified, 7 RCTs involving 310 patients met inclusion criteria. Adult OMT patients had a statistically significant improvement in AHI (MD -10.2; 95% CI, -15.6, -4.8, p < 0.05), subjective sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale; MD -5.66; 95% CI, -6.82, -4.5, p < 0.05), sleep-related quality-of-life (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; MD -3.00; 95% CI, -4.52, -1.49, p < 0.05), and minimum oxygen saturation (MD 2.71; 95% CI, 0.23, 5.18, p < 0.05) when compared with sham OMT or no therapy. Within the single RCT featuring pediatric OMT patients, patients had poor compliance (<50%) and did not show any improvements in AHI, minimum oxygen saturation, or snoring frequency. CONCLUSION: OMT may provide a reasonable alternative for OSA patients who cannot tolerate CPAP or other more established treatment options. OMT benefits appear limited in children due to poor compliance. More studies are required to evaluate compliance and the long-term effects of OMT on OSA outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 1 Laryngoscope, 134:480-495, 2024.


Assuntos
Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Ronco , Adulto , Humanos , Criança , Terapia Miofuncional , Sonolência , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Orofaringe
17.
Laryngoscope ; 134(1): 305-314, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37503765

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the sustained effects of oropharyngeal capsaicin stimulation on the regulation of swallowing, we recorded the swallowing-related nerve activities during continuous infusion of capsaicin solution into the oropharynx. METHODS: In 33 in situ perfused brainstem preparation of rats, we recorded the activities of the vagus, hypoglossal, and phrenic nerves during fictive swallowing. The interburst intervals (IBIs) of the swallowing-related nerves during sequential pharyngeal swallowing (sPSW) elicited by electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) during concurrent capsaicin stimulation of 10, 1, and 0.1 µM (n = 28) were compared with those during oropharyngeal infusion of saline (control) (n = 5). RESULTS: The IBIs during SLN-induced sPSW were reduced at 5 min after initiation of continuous infusion of 10 and 1 µM capsaicin solution. The IBIs showed significant decreases to -25.8 ± 6.9%, -25.9 ± 5.3, -18.3 ± 3.7, and -12.0 ± 1.6 at 30 min following 1 µM capsaicin stimulation at SLN stimulus conditions at 5 Hz of 1.2 times threshold, 10 Hz of 40 µA, 5 Hz of 60 µA, and 10 Hz of 60 µA, respectively. Continuous capsaicin stimulation of 0.1 µM solution did not show significant sustained effects. CONCLUSION: Pharmacological stimulation of capsaicin could provide time-dependent effects on the likelihood of swallowing, particularly subserving sustained facilitation of swallowing reflex with appropriate concentration of capsaicin. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA Laryngoscope, 134:305-314, 2024.


Assuntos
Capsaicina , Deglutição , Ratos , Animais , Deglutição/fisiologia , Capsaicina/farmacologia , Nervo Vago/fisiologia , Nervos Laríngeos/fisiologia , Estimulação Elétrica , Orofaringe
20.
JAMA Pediatr ; 178(2): 117-124, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38079168

RESUMO

Importance: Preterm newborns at risk of respiratory distress syndrome are supported with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Many newborns worsen despite CPAP and are intubated for surfactant administration, an effective therapy for treatment of respiratory distress syndrome. Endotracheal intubation is associated with adverse effects. Pharyngeal administration of surfactant to preterm animals and humans has been reported as an alternative. Objective: To assess whether giving prophylactic oropharyngeal surfactant to preterm newborns at birth would reduce the rate of intubation for respiratory failure. Design, Setting, and Participants: This unblinded, parallel-group randomized clinical trial (Prophylactic Oropharyngeal Surfactant for Preterm Infants [POPART]) was conducted from December 17, 2017, to September 11, 2020, at 9 tertiary neonatal intensive care units in 6 European countries. Newborns born before 29 weeks of gestation without severe congenital anomalies, for whom intensive care was planned, were eligible for inclusion. The data were analyzed from July 27, 2022, to June 20, 2023. Intervention: Newborns were randomly assigned to receive oropharyngeal surfactant at birth in addition to CPAP or CPAP alone. Randomization was stratified by center and gestational age (GA). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was intubation in the delivery room for bradycardia and/or apnea or in the neonatal intensive care unit for prespecified respiratory failure criteria within 120 hours of birth. Caregivers were not masked to group assignment. Results: Among 251 participants (mean [SD] GA, 26 [1.5] weeks) who were well matched at study entry, 126 (69 [54.8%] male) with a mean (SD) birth weight of 858 (261) grams were assigned to the oropharyngeal surfactant group, and 125 (63 [50.4%] male) with a mean (SD) birth weight of 829 (253) grams were assigned to the control group. The proportion of newborns intubated within 120 hours was not different between the groups (80 [63.5%) in the oropharyngeal surfactant group and 81 [64.8%] in the control group; relative risk, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.81-1.18]). More newborns assigned to the oropharyngeal surfactant group were diagnosed with and treated for pneumothorax (21 [16.6%] vs 8 [6.4%]; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: This randomized clinical trial found that administration of prophylactic oropharyngeal surfactant to newborns born before 29 weeks' GA did not reduce the rate of intubation in the first 120 hours of life. These findings suggest that administration of surfactant into the oropharynx immediately after birth in addition to CPAP should not be routinely used. Trial Registration: EudraCT: 2016-004198-41.


Assuntos
Surfactantes Pulmonares , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido , Insuficiência Respiratória , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Tensoativos , Peso ao Nascer , Surfactantes Pulmonares/uso terapêutico , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/prevenção & controle , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Respiratória/tratamento farmacológico , Orofaringe
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